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  • 1. Andersen, Otto
    et al.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Simonsen, Morten
    Walnum, Hans Jakob
    Peeters, Paul
    Neiberger, Cordula
    CO2-emissions from the transport of China’s exported goods.2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 5790-5798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in many European countries are declining, and the European Union (EU) believes it is on track in achieving emission reductions as agreed upon in the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's more ambitious post-Kyoto climate policy. However, a number of recent publications indicate that emission reductions may also have been achieved because production has been shifted to other countries, and in particular China. If a consumption perspective is applied, emissions in industrialized countries are substantially higher, and may not have declined at all. Significantly, emissions from transports are omitted in consumption-based calculations. As all trade involves transport, mostly by cargo ship, but also by air, transports add considerably to overall emissions growth incurred in production shifts. Consequently, this article studies the role of transports in creating emissions of CO2, based on the example of exports from China. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for global emission reductions and post-Kyoto negotiations.

  • 2.
    Choi, Andy S.
    et al.
    National Institute of Ecology, South Korea ; University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Queensland, Australia.
    Ritchie, Brent W.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Flying with climate liability?: economic valuation of voluntary carbon offsets using forced choices2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 62, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how key aspects of voluntary climate action influence economic values of aviation carbon offsets using an Australian case study, where voluntary carbon offset programs for the aviation sector were active under a carbon tax between July 01, 2012 and July 17, 2014. An online survey was administered during the period using choice experiments. This rare and short-lived Australian experience is useful to gain insights into how individuals respond to the new public policy in terms of the perceived economic value of voluntary offsets for air travel. According to the estimation results, supporters of the mandatory tax policy held a welfare value of voluntary carbon offsets for their domestic flights that is three times larger than non-supporters (i.e., $AU27.83 vs. $AU9.40). It is $AU12.27 on average per ton of carbon offsets per person for domestic flights and $AU0.92 for international long-haul flights. The findings endorse that individuals seem to attach personal responsibility for carbon emissions (i.e. climate liability or carbon conscience) to frequent domestic flights, but not so much to intercontinental flights. Furthermore, reported flight frequencies by respondents did not place any significant impact on economic values of voluntary carbon offsets in both domestic and international frameworks. A coupled approach between forced choices and certainty responses was adapted, where no-choice options were retrieved, potentially improving choice experiments. Results suggest that airlines should consider simplifying their carbon offset programs to fixed levels (e.g. £3, £10, and £20 as in the case of British Airways), regardless of geographical boundaries, while governments should promote both mandatory and voluntary climate measures in tandem.

  • 3. C.M, Hall
    et al.
    D, Scott
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Tourism, Development and Climate Change2009In: Disaster Prevention in Tourism: Climate Justice and Tourism / [ed] D'Mello, C., Minninger, S. and McKeown, J., Chiang Mai: Ecumenical Coalition On Tourism and German Church Development Service (EED) , 2009, p. 136-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Cohen, Scott A
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    A darker side of hypermobility2015In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1660-1679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the formulation of the mobilities paradigm, research has shown that movement is increasingly at the heart of our social identities. This paper argues that mobility, and indeed, hypermobility, constitutes to a growing extent who we are, whilst societal perspectives on mobility increasingly dictate how we need to move in time and space in order to accrue network capital. In this critical review, deeply embedded mechanisms of the social glamorization of mobility are uncovered, and juxtaposed with what we call a ‘darker side’ of hypermobility, including the physiological, psychological, emotional and social costs of mobility for individuals and societies. The paper concludes that whilst aspects of glamorization in regard to mobility are omnipresent in our lives, there exists an ominous silence with regard to its darker side.

  • 5.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Hanna, Paul
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lund University.
    The dark side of business travel: a media comments analysis2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, no part B, p. 406-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The publication of 'A darker side of hypermobility' (Cohen and Gössling, 2015), which reviewed the personal and social consequences of frequent travel, led to considerable media coverage and sparking of the public imagination, particularly with regards to the impacts of business travel. It featured in more than 85 news outlets across 17 countries, engendering over 150,000 social media shares and 433 media comments from readers, with the latter a source of insight into how the public reacts online when faced with an overview of the negative sides of frequent business travel. The present paper is theoretically framed by the role of discourse in social change and utilises discursive analysis as a method to evaluate this body of media comments. Our analysis finds two key identities are performed through public responses to the explicit health and social warnings concerned with frequent business travel: the 'flourishing hypermobile' and the 'floundering hypermobile'. The former either deny the health implications of frequent business travel, or present strategies to actively overcome them, while the latter seek solace in the public dissemination of the health warnings: they highlight their passivity in the construction of their identity as hypermobile and its associated health implications. The findings reveal a segment of business travellers who wish to reduce travel, but perceive this as beyond their locus of control. Business travel reductions are thus unlikely to happen through the agency of individual travellers, but rather by changes in the structural factors that influence human resource and corporate travel management policies. 

  • 6.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James E. S.University of Otago, New Zealand.Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden.Peeters, PaulNHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Understanding and Governing Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Psychological and Behavioural Approaches.2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing contribution to climate change, tourist and traveller behaviour is currently not acknowledged as an important sector within the development of climate policy. Whilst tourists may be increasingly aware of potential impacts on climate change there is evidence that most are unwilling to modify their actual behaviours. Influencing individual behaviour in tourism and informing effective governance is therefore an essential part of climate change mitigation.

    This significant volume is the first to explore the psychological and social factors that may contribute to and inhibit sustainable change in the context of tourist and traveller behaviour. It draws on a range of disciplines to offer a critical review of the psychological understandings and behavioural aspects of climate change and tourism mobilities, in addition to governance and policies based upon psychological, behavioural and social mechanisms. It therefore provides a more informed understanding of how technology, infrastructure and cost distribution can be developed in order to reach stronger mitigation goals whilst ensuring that resistance from consumers for socio-psychological reasons are minimized.

    Written by leading academics from a range of disciplinary backgrounds and regions this ground breaking volume is essential reading for all those interested in the effective governance of tourism’s contribution to climate change now and in the future.

  • 7.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James E.S.
    University of Otago, New Zealand ; Norwegian School of Hotel Management, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden.
    Why tourism mobility behaviours must change2014In: Understanding and governing sustainable tourism mobility: psychological and behavioural approaches / [ed] Scott A. Cohen, James E.S. Higham, Paul Peeters and Stefan Gössling, London: Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Peeters, Paul
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Eijgelaar, Eke
    NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Finding effective pathways to sustainable mobility: bridging the science-policy gap2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 3 Special issue, p. 317-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview paper examines three areas crucial to understanding why, despite clear scientific evidence for the growing environmental impacts of tourism transport, there is large-scale inertia in structural transitions and a lack of political will to enact meaningful sustainable mobility policies. These include the importance of addressing socio-technical factors, barriers posed by “technology myths” and the need to overcome “transport taboos” in policy-making. The paper seeks pathways to sustainable mobility by bridging the science–policy gap between academic research and researchers, and policy-makers and practitioners. It introduces key papers presented at the Freiburg 2014 workshop, covering the case for researcher engagement using advocacy and participatory approaches, the role of universities in creating their own social mobility policies, the power of social mechanisms encouraging long-haul travel, issues in consumer responsibility development, industry self-regulation and the operation of realpolitik decision-making and implementation inside formal and informal destination-based mobility partnerships. Overall, the paper argues that governments and the tourism and transport industries must take a more cautious approach to the technological optimism that fosters policy inertia, and that policy-makers must take a more open approach to implementing sustainable transport policies. A research agenda for desirable transport futures is suggested.

  • 9.
    Dubois, Ghislain
    et al.
    TEC, France.
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    CIRED, France.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Weather preferences of French tourists: lessons for climate change impact assessment2016In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 339-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has complex relationships with weather and climate, and there is consensus that tourism could be substantially affected by climatic change. While considerable research has been presented on how climatic change is likely to affect destinations and tourism stakeholders in the future, there remains limited understanding of the weather preferences of tourists. This is a research priority if the implications of climatic change for the temporal and geographic patterns of tourism demand are to be assessed with more relevance. This paper presents the results of a survey (n = 1643 respondents) of the weather preferences of French tourists. Results show the ranking of weather and climate as a factor of destination choice and satisfaction. They also indicate the high tolerance of tourists to heat and even to heat waves, whereas rainy conditions appear to be clearly repulsive. The weight of precipitation in indices like the Tourism Comfort Index should therefore be upgraded. The findings are also compared with studies in other countries. Slight differences in similar surveys can lead to a discrepancy in the appreciation of excessive heat and associated thresholds by 2-3 degrees C, which might limit the possibility to base climate change impact assessment on such fragile data.

  • 10. Dubois, Ghislain
    et al.
    Peeters, Paul
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The future tourism mobility of the world population: Emission growth versus climate policy.2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1031-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of global passenger transport is linked to tourism. The sector is therefore of interest in studying global mobility trends and transport-related emissions. In 2005, tourism was responsible for around 5% of all CO2 emissions, of which 75% were caused by passenger transport. Given the rapid growth in tourism, with 1.6 billion international tourist arrivals predicted by 2020 (up from 903 million in 2007), it is clear that the sector will contribute to rapidly growing emission levels, and increasingly interfere with global climate policy. This is especially true under climate stabilisation and “avoiding dangerous climate change” objectives, implying global emission reductions in the order of −50% to −80% by 2050, compared to 2000. Based on three backcasting scenarios, and using techniques integrating quantitative and qualitative elements, this paper discusses the options for emission reductions in the tourism sector and the consequences of mitigation for global tourism-related mobility by 2050. It ends with a discussion of the policy implications of the results.

  • 11.
    Freytag, Tim
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    Mössner, Samuel
    University of Freiburg.
    Living the green city: Freiburg’s Solarsiedlung between narratives and practices of urban sustainable development2014In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 644-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar settlement (Solarsiedlung) in Freiburg, Germany, has been widely hailed as an eco-city or green city neighbourhood and a blueprint for sustainable urban development. However, as there is a noticeable lack of critical analysis of what constitutes Solarsiedlung as an “eco-city”, this paper studies narratives and practices of sustainable urban development. First, we look at Solarsiedlung as a best-practice model – a narrative that was produced and perpetuated by architects, urban planners, investors and academics celebrating this neighbourhood as a technologically leapfrogging, economically sound and socially integrated project. Second, we explore the everyday practices and lived experience of the residents in Solarsiedlung. Bringing together these two perspectives, we contribute to a more comprehensive understanding and critical reading of the interplay between the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development as seen from different viewpoints. Findings indicate that Solarsiedlung as a best-practice model is embedded in growth-oriented neoliberal strategies that are in conflict with the everyday practices and lived experience of the residents. Our findings put into question the widely assumed transferability of best-practice models in sustainable urban development.

  • 12.
    Garrod, Brian
    et al.
    University of Wales, UK.
    Gössling, StefanLund University.
    New frontiers in marine tourism: diving experiences, management and sustainability2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diving tourism has seen such growth in the past decade that the World Tourism Organization suggests it will soon become as important as ski tourism. According to a WTO estimate, there are now 5-7 million active certified divers in the world. Despite its development as a mass tourism activity, its dynamic growth and great economic importance, particularly for island destinations in the tropics, surprisingly few scientific publications address this form of special-interest tourism. In the light of this, “New Frontiers in Marine Tourism” is the first attempt to describe and analyse this tourism sector comprehensively.The first part of the book is devoted to an overview of the dive sector, addressing different types of diving locations and their particular characteristics, the geographical distribution of dive locations, the origins of dive tourists, as well as the growth and economic significance of diving tourism in destinations worldwide. In its second section, the book outlines different motivations and typologies of diving tourists, their learning behaviour, knowledge of marine environments, and their interaction with flora and fauna. The third section focuses on diver satisfaction, attitudes and preferences, diver education and interpretation, compliance with regulations by divers and tour operators, environmental impacts, and aspects of risk and health, thus highlighting a variety of pressing topics related to the management of diving tourism. 

  • 13.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Department of Service Management, Lund University.
    Advancing a Clinical Transport Psychology2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 19, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that mental disorders are a dimension so far largely overlooked in studies of transport behaviour and mobility consumption, even though they may to a considerable degree affect how we understand, value, and use different transport modes. Mental disorders include anxiety-, mood-, substance abuse-, and personality disorders, each of which affects only up to a few per cent of the population in industrialised countries. On an aggregated basis, however, mental illnesses influence large parts of the population. Based on an exploratory research approach, this article discusses how mental disorders affect, and are affected by, mobility consumption, also identifying social, political and/or institutional mechanisms that contribute to or validate mental disorders. It is argued that without a better understanding of these interrelationships, mobility consumption and -growth cannot be fully understood. Results are consequently of relevance for transport planning, the prevention of accidents, as well as the design of interventions to develop more sustainable transport systems.

  • 14.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Air transport and climate change2018In: The Routledge Companion to air transport management / [ed] Nigel Halpern & Anne Graham, London: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 402-416Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Carbon management2015In: The Routledge handbook of tourism and sustainability / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall & Daniel Scott, London: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 221-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Carbon Management in Tourism: Mitigating the Impacts on Climate Change2011Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carbon neutral destinations a conceptual analysis: a conceptual analysis2009In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a critical review of the concept of “carbon neutrality” for tourism destinations within the framework of the UNWTO's Davos Declaration, a document ascribing responsibilities to various actors in the tourism industry to engage in greenhouse gas emission reductions. The paper assesses the planning frameworks of countries engaging with the concept, discusses the measures that can be taken to achieve “carbon neutrality”, along with an evaluation of some of the theoretical and practical implications. An increasing number of destinations now plan to become “carbon neutral”, often as a response strategy to pressure on the tourism industry to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. They aim to mitigate their contribution to global warming, and to develop their tourism industries by enhancing their image as being environmentally pristine and sustainable.

  • 18.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Case study: Climate change and tourism development2013In: The Ethics of Tourism: Critical and applied perspectives / [ed] Lovelock, Brent and Lovelock, Kirsten M., London: Routledge, 2013, p. 258-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Climate Policy and Tourism.2012In: Handbook of Tourism and the Environment. / [ed] Holden, A. and Fennell, D., London: Routledge , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    ICT and transport behavior: a conceptual review2018In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have considerable importance for transport systems, as they provide access to travel information, planning tools, opportunities to share transport modes, to work at-a-distance, compare transport mode cost, make payment, improve safety and health, and to communicate travel patterns. Over the past decade, there has been massive growth in the availability of transportation ICT, in particular, smartphone applications. There is considerable evidence that ICTs have profoundly changed the ways in which transport systems are perceived and used, and mobilities performed, with far-reaching implications for transport mode choices and transport demand. Against this background, the paper seeks to conceptualize ICT with relevance for transport systems, and to discuss the implications for the environmental sustainability of the transport sector. Findings suggest that while some ICT innovations foster and support sustainable transport choices, others raise new and significant barriers to more sustainable transport futures.

  • 21.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Low-carbon and post-carbon travel and destinations2015In: The Routledge handbook of tourism and sustainability / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall & Daniel Scott, London: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 472-480Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Sogndal, Norway.
    National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, p. 433-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO2. By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed 'official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Dept Serv Management & Serv Studies, S-25108 Helsingborg, Sweden.
    New performance indicators for water management in tourism2015In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 46, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is increasingly recognized as a significant water-consuming sector on local, regional and global scales. As a consequence, the efficient use of water resources is now considered a key sustainability challenge for the tourism industry. To date, most research has focused on direct (on site) water consumption, with tourism water management based almost exclusively on direct water use benchmarks. This paper argues that such an approach overlooks the complexity of 'local' and 'global' water use, with local water use affecting sustainable water use in the destination and global water use representing the sustainability of water embodied in goods produced elsewhere, including fuels and food. Focussing on tourism accommodation as the locus of tourism water consumption, conventional water indicators are reviewed and discussed, and knowledge gaps identified. New data accounting for food consumption are then presented for a case study of resort hotels in Rhodes, Greece. The results are used to develop a novel set of performance indicators suitable for resort hotels and other accommodation, considering water availability, planning and operation, as well as complexities of direct vis-a-vis indirect water consumption. The findings suggest a significant potential for water and related cost savings, indicating that holistic water management should be an operational imperative. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Planning sustainable transport2014In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1268-1269Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Police Perspectives on Road Safety and Transport Politics in Germany2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1771Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a key concern of transport governance. In the European Union, a Road Safety Programme was adopted in 2011, with the objective to reduce road deaths in Europe by 50% in the period from 2011 to 2020. Evidence suggests, however, that this goal will not be met. Against this background, this paper investigates police perspectives on traffic laws, traffic behaviour, and transport policy. Police officers working with road safety are in a unique position to evaluate and judge the efficiency of road safety policies, as they record traffic offences, fine, investigate, and witness in court. Geographically, focus is on transport policy in Germany, a country with a dense road network, high levels of car ownership, and a large number of car manufacturers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were carried out with police officers in a wide variety of positions within the traffic police in Freiburg. Thematic analysis is used to analyse content and to identify aspects that represent major areas of concern. Officers affirm that traffic laws question traffic safety, for instance with regard to speed and speed limits, or elderly drivers. Specific recommendations for changes in transport policies are made, and results are discussed in the context of their implications for road safety and the European Union's Road Safety Programme.

  • 26.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable transportation in the national parks2015In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1120-1121Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    The psychology of the car: automobile admiration, attachment, and addiction2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Psychology of the Car explores automotive cultures through the lens of psychology with the goal of achieving a low-carbon transport future.

    Worldwide there are now more than one billion cars, and their number grows continuously. Yet there is growing evidence that humanity needs to reach ‘peak cars’ as increased air pollution, noise, accidents, and climate change support a decline in car usage. While many governments agree, the car remains attractive, and endeavors to change transport systems have faced fierce resistance. Based on insights from a wide range of transport behaviors, The Psychology of the Carshows the “why” of automotive cultures, providing new perspectives essential for understanding its attractiveness and for defining a more desirable transport future.

    The Psychology of the Car illustrates the growth of global car use over time and its effect on urban transport systems and the global environment. It looks at the adoption of the car into lifestyles, the “mobilities turn,” and how the car impacts collective and personal identities. The book examines car drivers themselves; their personalities, preferences, and personality disorders relevant to driving. The book looks at the role power, control, dominance, speed, and gender play, as well as the interrelationship between personal freedom and law enforcement. The book explores risk-taking behaviors as accidental death is a central element of car driving. The book addresses how interventions can be successful as well as which interventions are unlikely to work, and concludes with how a more sustainable transport future can be created based on emerging transport trends.

    • Features deep analyses of individual and collective psychologies of car affection, moving beyond sociology-based interpretations of automobile culture
    • Illustrates concepts using popular culture examples that expose ideas about automobility
    • Shows how fewer, smaller and more environmentally friendly cars, as well as low-carbon transport modes, are more socially attractive
  • 28.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lund University.
    Tourism and development in tropical islands: political ecology perspectives2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'This is a welcome addition to the literature on island tourism. It is the first sustained cross-national attempt to apply the political ecology perspective across a global sample of inter-tropical coastal settings. This conceptual framework focuses on the interaction between various tourism stakeholders - national and international, public and private - to explain the process of environmental change in island resort areas. the volume contains an unusual diversity of case studies, rich and informative in their own right. It will provide valuable reading for both tourism academics and professionals and spawn further research along the same lines.' - Jerome L. McElroy, Saint Mary's College, Indiana, US

    'This book provides fascinating and readable accounts of the interplay between tourism development, politics and local environments from the new perspective of political ecology. Thus, it adds institutional depth to studies of tourism development and deserves to be read widely.' - Clem Tisdell, the University of Queensland, Australia

    Tropical islands are fragile, vulnerable environments and yet they are coming under increasing strain due to coastal developments and global environmental change. As a result of their remote location, small size and limited natural resource endowments, tourism has become an important economic activity, leading to emerging conflicts between the interests of developers, tourists and residents.

  • 29.
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development. Macroeconomic Models and Empirical Methods (Brau, R., Lanza, A. and Usai, S. [eds] 2008)2009In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 206-207Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Tourism, information technologies and sustainability: an exploratory review2017In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1024-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to the fundamental changes in the global tourism system related to the emergence of information technologies (IT), and, specifically, the rise of social media. Opportunities to search travel-related information, to reserve and book, evaluate and judge; to receive travel advice and to communicate one's mobility patterns have all profoundly changed the practices of performing tourism, with concomitant repercussions for the management and marketing of businesses and destinations. This paper provides a discussion of the implications of these changes for the sustainability of the global tourism system. Based on an exploratory research design, key changes in the tourism system are identified and discussed with regard to their environmental, socio-cultural and psychological, as well as economic significance. The paper concludes that IT affects the tourism system in numerous and complex ways, with mixed outcomes for sustainability: while most changes would currently appear to be ambivalent – and some outright negative – there is considerable potential for IT to support more sustainable tourism. Yet, this would require considerable changes in the tourism system on global, national and individual business' levels, and require tourism academics to probe many new issues.

  • 31.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Tourism, tourist learning and sustainability: an exploratory discussion of complexities, problems and opportunities2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 292-306Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is often a central element of tourism. Tourists can learn actively, i.e. with a specific purpose, as well as passively through the comparison of values, norms and customs. It has been argued that travel supports active learning that has positive outcomes for sustainability, for instance, in the context of conservation. Yet, the complexity of active and passive learning processes and their outcomes for environmental sustainability and sustainable lifestyles remain insufficiently understood. Against this background, the paper discusses selected learning outcomes for transportation (air travel), accommodation (hotels) and activities (theme park visits). Findings suggest that desirable learning (defined as pro-sustainable development learning) in tourism may be very limited, while in particular, passive learning processes which redefine social norms frequently have outcomes that are largely detrimental to sustainable lifestyles. They include forms of moral licensing, the diffusion of responsibilities as well as the attenuation of the negative consequences of travel. Given the economic, social and cultural importance of tourism vis-a-vis its global implications for environmental sustainability, learning outcomes in tourism deserve to be studied in greater detail, while strategies need to be devised to enhance sustainable learning effects.

  • 32.
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Trends in Tourism in the Western Indian Ocean2009In: Coastal Tourism Development: Planning and Management Issues / [ed] Dowling, R. and Pforr, C., Channel View Publications , 2009, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    Urban transport justice2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities in the world seek to establish more sustainable urban transport systems with a view to reduce accidents, congestion, air and noise pollution, and to improve social interactions, liveability and amenity values. Against this background, this paper frames urban transportation as an issue of justice: contemporary transport systems are characterized by injustice, as they tend to favour and prioritize motorized transport, accepting that considerable environmental and social burdens are put on more sustainable forms of transportation, other traffic participants and society as a whole. To conceptualize 'urban transport justice', the paper discusses three dimensions where injustices are apparent: Exposure to traffic risks and pollutants; distribution of space; and valuation of transport time. It is argued that public and political recognition of urban transport injustices provides significant argument for changes in urban planning, transport infrastructure development and traffic management. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..

  • 34.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Urban transport transitions: Copenhagen, City of Cyclists2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility growth poses considerable challenges to city planners around the world, as it entails problems of congestion, air pollution, and accidents. Many cities have thus sought to increase the share of sustainable transport, and specifically travel by bicycle. However, it appears that measures to foster cycling are often implemented on an ad hoc basis, lacking strategic focus and a more profound understanding of bicycle cultures. New insights can be gained from Copenhagen, Denmark, a selfdeclared City of Cyclists that has made considerable progress towards increasing the share of travel by bicycle, with the political goal to become the "world's best city for bicycling". In this article, the success, reproducibility and limitations of the Copenhagen bicycle strategy are discussed in an urban transport transitions framework, based on a content- and discourse analysis of the city's official documents to assess the respective role of market-based, command-and-control, and soft policy measures in encouraging bicycling. Results suggest that soft policies, integrated with command-and-control measures, and the consideration of bicyclist expectations and concerns with regard to perceptions of safety, speed and comfort have been key in achieving high bicycle trip shares. Integrating these in comprehensive planning frameworks appears to be an approach that is more likely to foster bicycle cultures that can result in urban transport transitions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Abegg, Bruno
    University of Innsbruck, Austria ; AlpS GmbH, Austria.
    Steiger, Robert
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    “It was raining all the time!”: Ex post tourist weather perceptions2016In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of weather for tourism is now widely recognized. However, no research has so far addressed weather events from retrospective viewpoints, and, in particular, the role of “extreme” events in longer-term holiday memories. To better understand the character of ex post weather experiences and their importance in destination image perceptions and future travel planning behavior, this exploratory study addressed a sample of 50 tourists from three globally important source markets: Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results indicate that weather events do not dominate long-term memories of tourist experiences. Yet, weather events are important in shaping destination image, with “rain” being the single most important weather variable negatively influencing perceptions. Results also suggest that weather events perceived as extreme can involve considerable emotions. The study of ex post traveler memories consequently makes a valuable contribution to the understanding of the complexity of “extreme weather” events for tourist demand responses.

  • 36.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Department of Service Management, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Buckley, Ralf
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Carbon labels in tourism: persuasive communication?2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 111, no Part B, p. 358-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecolabels are widespread tools for policy and marketing in many industry sectors. Carbon labels focussing on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions are one specialised category of ecolabel in use by tourism corporations. All ecolabels, including carbon labels, rely on persuasive communication: i.e., providing technical information to individuals in ways that induce them to change relevant behaviours. This requires that individuals understand that information, appreciate its significance, trust its reliability, and know how to act more sustainably. Here, these four criteria are applied to a set of tourism carbon label schemes, to assess whether the information provided by existing labels is comprehensive. Secondly, results are presented from a survey of environmentally aware tourists and their perspectives of two different types of carbon labels. Results indicate that tourism carbon label schemes suffer significant shortcomings both from the theoretical perspective of communications analysis and from the practical perspective of tourist understanding and action. Results indicate that even if tourists care about their climate change impacts, carbon labels are currently ineffective because of deficiencies in communications. Since such deficiencies can be overcome, there are opportunities for carbon labels to become more widely and successfully used.

  • 37.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Ceron, J.-P
    Dubois, G
    Hall, C. M.
    Hypermobile travellers2009In: Climate Change and Aviation: issues, challenges and solutions / [ed] Gössling, S. and Upham, P, London ; Sterling, VA: Earthscan , 2009, p. 131-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Dept Serv Management & Serv Studies,Sweden ; Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Choi, Andy S.
    Univ Queensland, Australia ; Natl Inst Ecol, South Korea.
    Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles2015In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 113, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cities of the world, bicycle infrastructure projects are implemented to foster more sustainable transportation systems. However, such projects have often raised questions regarding their public funding, as they entail considerable costs. This paper reviews cost-benefit analysis (CBA) frameworks as these are presently used to assess bicycle infrastructure projects. Specific focus is on the CBA framework developed in Copenhagen, Denmark, a self-declared "city of cyclists". In this framework, costs and benefits of car and bicycle, the two major urban transport modes, have been assessed and are compared across accidents, climate change, health, and travel time. The analysis reveals that each km travelled by car or bike incurs a cost to society, though the cost of car driving is more than six times higher (Euro 0.50/km) than cycling (Euro 0.08/km). Moreover, while the cost of car driving is likely to increase in the future, the cost of cycling appears to be declining. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Copenhagen CBA framework to advance sustainable transport planning and to motivate and justify urban restructuring. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, N-6851 Sogndal, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Why sustainable transport policies will fail: EU climate policy in the light of transport taboos2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 39, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread consensus that current climate policy for passenger transportation is insufficient to achieve significant emission reductions in line with global climate stabilization goals. This article consequently has a starting point in the notion of 'path dependency' (Schwanen et al., 2011) and an observed 'implementation gap' (Banister and Hickman, 2013), suggesting that significant mitigation policies for transport do not emerge in the European Union because of various interlinked 'transport taboos', i.e. barriers to the design, acceptance and implementation of such transport policies that remain unaddressed as they constitute political risk. The paper argues that without addressing transport taboos, such as highly unequal individual contributions to transport volumes and emissions, social inequality of planned market-based measures, the role of lobbyism, and the various social and psychological functions of mobility, it will remain difficult to achieve significant emission reductions in passenger transport. Yet, transport taboos remain largely ignored among EU policy makers because their discussion would violate 'order', i.e. harm specific interests within neoliberal governance structures and the societal foundations and structures of transport systems built on these. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott Allen
    Univ Surrey, UK.
    Hares, Andrew
    Buckinghamshire New Univ, UK.
    Inside the black box: EU policy officers' perspectives on transport and climate change mitigation2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 57, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is a significant and growing contributor to climate change. To stay within 'safe' global warming guardrails requires substantial cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. This represents a global political consensus, but there is evidence that current legislation in the transport sector is not significant enough to achieve medium- and longer-term reduction goals. In focusing on the European Union, this paper investigates the perspectives of twelve policy officers in three Directorates-General (MOVE, CLIMA, ENV) of the European Commission with regard to their understanding of mitigation goals and timelines, responsibilities for policy development and implementation, and perceived efficiencies of these policies to achieve climate objectives in the transport sector. Results indicate diverging and common views on climate policy goals and political responsibilities, as well as barriers to policy-making, including lack of political leadership on climate change mitigation, resistance from member states, the favoring of economic growth over cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, pressure from industry and lobby groups, preferential treatment of aero- and automobility over more sustainable transport modes, policy implementation delays, insufficient forecasting and monitoring tools, and an overreliance on technologies to contribute to emission reductions. In offering a view inside the 'black box' of transport policy-making, the paper reveals fundamental institutional (structural) and individual (agency-based) barriers that will have to be overcome if significant emission cuts in the transport sector are to be achieved. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Cohen, Scott
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Peeters, Paul
    Breda University, The Netherlands.
    Eijgelaar, Eke
    Breda University, The Netherlands.
    Desirable transport futures2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, no Part: B, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview article for the special issue on 'Desirable Transport Futures' sets out with a brief introduction of the current development of the global transport system, suggesting that it remains unclear whether transport systems are heading towards desirable change. This desirability is defined as a reduction in the system's negative externalities, including accidents, congestion, pollutants and/or noise, while retaining its functionality. There is evidence that transport externalities continue to grow with an increasingly mobile and growing global population. Against this background, the article discusses what may constitute more desirable transport futures, as well as the barriers that have to be overcome to move towards such futures. The article concludes that transport governance will be essential to far-reaching change, and that greater focus has to be placed on individual and societal socio-psychological perspectives shaping mobility consumption. Nine papers contained in this special issue provide in-depth analyses of transport systems, as well as insight into how these may be changed in more systemic ways. A concluding research agenda is offered that outlines a number of innovative approaches researchers may pursue as part of further efforts to engender desirable transport futures.

  • 42.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Fichert, Frank
    Worms Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Forsyth, Peter
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Subsidies in Aviation2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1295Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector's importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  • 43.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Freytag, T
    Die Globalisierung des Tourismus in Europa aus der Perspektive des Klimawandels2012In: Geographische Rundschau, ISSN 0016-7460, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Garrod, B
    Tourism, Climate Change and Carbon Management: three Case Studies2011In: Contemporary Cases in Tourism / [ed] Brian Garrod, Alan Fyall, Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers , 2011, p. 99-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Garrod, Brian
    Aall, Carlo
    Hille, John
    Peeters, Paul
    Food management in tourism. Reducing tourism’s carbon ‘foodprint’.2011In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 534-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food production and consumption have a range of sustainability implications, including their contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). As some foodstuffs entail higher GHG emissions than others, managing their use in tourism-related contexts could make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. This article reviews the carbon intensity of selected foods and discusses how foodservice providers could adapt their practices. It shows that even though foodmanagement could substantially reduce the GHG emissions of foodservice providers, its application is currently hampered by the complexity of food production chains and a lack of dependable data on the GHG intensity of foodstuffs. Nevertheless, it is possible to make a number of recommendations in respect of how foodservice providers can better purchase, prepare and present foods. Further research is now needed to refine and extend our understanding of the contribution that foodmanagement can make to reducingtourismscarbonfoodprint’.

  • 46.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway.
    Hall, C. M
    Ekström, F
    Brudvik Engeset, A
    Aall, C
    Transition management: a tool for implementing sustainable tourism scenarios?2012In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 899-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is academic, political and industry consensus that tourism should achieve greater sustainability, a process requiring stakeholder involvement on various levels. It is less clear how significant actor numbers can be mobilized to pro-actively work towards sustainability goals, achieving significant systemic change. This paper explores the transition management literature to provide a theoretical framework for stakeholder involvement and policy implementation processes in sustainable tourism. A selection of sustainable tourism initiatives by global tourism and transport organizations are reviewed and discussed with regard to the mechanisms and approaches used to involve stakeholders, and their success or otherwise in achieving change. This is compared to the results of a national tourism sustainability initiative by the Norwegian government initiated in 2010. The initiative brought together 62 leading stakeholders from all tourism interests, except airlines, for a series of six intensive discussion and goal setting sessions. Evaluation shows that stakeholder awareness and knowledge appear to have improved substantially, and potential government policy initiatives legitimized – though few tangible results can yet be seen. Overall results suggest that transition management provides a valuable theoretical framework to understand change processes, while the dialetics of stakeholder involvement and policy implementation are an essential precondition for successful governance.

  • 47.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Conclusions: Food tourism and regional development - new localism or globalism?2016In: Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2016, p. 287-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Developing regional food systems: a case study of restaurant-customer relationships in Sweden2016In: Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2016, p. 76-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hall, C. MichaelUniversity of Otago, New Zealand.
    Tourism and global environmental change: ecological, social, economic and political interrelationships2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This fascinating book is the first comprehensive analysis of the economic, social and political interrelationships between tourism and global environmental change: one of the most significant issues facing humankind today. Its contributors argue that the impacts of these changes are potentially extremely serious both for the tourism industry, and for the communities dependent upon it.

    Integrating knowledge from the social and physical sciences, this significant book explores they key issues surrounding global environmental change, as well as government and industry willingness to meet the challenges posed by it. Divided into four main sections, it investigates:

    • the tourism and global environmental change relationship in specific environments
    • global issues related to environmental change
    • differing perceptions of global environmental change held by tourists and the tourist industry.

    Comprehensive in scope, topical and integrative, this key text is essential reading for students, scholars and researchers in all aspects of tourism, geography and environmental studies.

  • 50.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Andersson, Ann-Christin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The manager's dilemma: a conceptualization of online review manipulation strategies2018In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 484-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online evaluations are one of the most important innovations in tourism in recent years, often combining a review/rating (business-specific evaluation) and a ranking (inter-business comparison). As online reputation determines economic success, tourism managers may be tempted to manipulate online content. This paper presents the results from a qualitative study involving 20 hotel managers in southern Sweden, and their perspectives on manipulation. Results confirm that there exists a wide range of review manipulation strategies, many of which are difficult to control. Even though only few managers appear to systematically manipulate, online evaluations represent a significant challenge for businesses, as they introduce direct competition and foster consumer judgement cultures. It is postulated that managers will increasingly find themselves in a Prisoner's dilemma, representing a situation where engaging in manipulation is the most rational choice in an increasingly competitive market situation.

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