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  • 1.
    Albaugh, Timothy J
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Stape, José Luiz
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Linder, Sune
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Do biological expansion factors adequately estimate stand-scale aboveground component biomass for Norway spruce?2009Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 258, nr 12, s. 2628-2637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed site specific component (stem, branch, and foliage) biomass functions for two sites in Sweden (64° and 57° North latitude) where four treatments (control, irrigated, fertilized, irrigated plus fertilized) were applied in the existing Norway spruce stands (Picea abies L. Karst.) for 17 years. We tested for site effects in the component biomass equations and compared site specific biomass estimates to those generated using published functions ( Lehtonen et al., 2004 and Wirth et al., 2004). Site effects were significant for all components and indicated it would be unlikely to generate equations that well estimate biomass across the Norway spruce range as implicitly indicated in our efforts to generate species biomass expansion factors. We rejected our hypothesis that the published functions would well estimate component biomass for control plots. The published functions did not compare well with site specific component biomass estimates for the other treatments; both published functions well estimated stem mass up to stem mass of 25 Mg ha−1, beyond which stem mass was overestimated, and both functions over and under estimated foliage and branch mass. Nor did the published functions compare well with each other, with stem, foliage and branch mass estimate differences of 12, 55, −8% and 11, 77, and 59% for the southern and northern sites, respectively, when averaged over all treatments and years. Adding limiting resources through fertilization increased stem, foliage and branch mass 57, 11, 18% and 120, 37, and 69% at the southern and northern sites, respectively, which would increase carbon sequestration and available stemwood and bioenergy materials. We recommend that more effort is spent in process-based modeling to better predict mass at a given site and ultimately provide better estimates of carbon sequestration and bioenergy material production changes.

  • 2.
    Almeida, Juan Pablo
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rosenstock, Nicholas P.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Forsmark, Benjamin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Wallander, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ectomycorrhizal community composition and function in a spruce forest transitioning between nitrogen and phosphorus limitation2019Inngår i: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 40, s. 20-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen is the main limiting nutrient in boreal ecosystems, but studies in southwest Sweden suggest that certain forests approach phosphorus (P) limitation driven by nitrogen (N) deposition. We added N, P or N + P to a Norway spruce forest in this region, to push the system to N or P limitation. Tree growth and needle nutrient concentrations indicated that the trees are P limited. EMF biomass was reduced only by N + P additions. Soil EMF communities responded more strongly to P than to N. Addition of apatite to ingrowth meshbags altered EMF community composition and enhanced the abundance of Imleria badia in the control and N plots, but not when P was added. The ecological significance of this species is discussed. Effects on tree growth, needle chemistry, and EMF communities indicate a dynamic interaction between EMF fungi and the nutrient status of trees and soils. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Bahr, Adam
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ellström, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Wallander, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and ectomycorrhizal nitrogen retention capacity in a Norway spruce forest fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus2015Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 390, nr 1-2, s. 323-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To estimate the production of external ectomycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) in Norway spruce forests with varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels, and to relate this to the N retention capacity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and N leaching.

    Methods

    Seasonal changes in EMF production (in ingrowth mesh bags) and soil water N (in suction lysimeters) were analyzed after fertilization with N or N combined with P. The EMF N retention capacity was estimated by the addition of isotopically labeled N to the mesh bags.

    Results

    No relationship was found between the seasonal variation in EMF growth and N leakage from the soil. However, in the mesh bags, the total assimilation of 15N by EMF was almost halved by N fertilization, while twice as much 15N leached through.

    Conclusions

    We found a high specific N assimilation capacity per unit weight of EMF mycelia. This was unaffected by N fertilization, but the total assimilation of N by EMF was drastically reduced due to reduced production of EMM. However, N-retaining processes other than N assimilation by EMF must be taken into account to explain the losses of N after fertilization.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Skogsbruk2015Inngår i: Klimatsäkrat Skåne / [ed] Hall, M, Lund, E & Rummukainen, M, Lund, Sweden: Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds Universitet , 2015, s. 111-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Blennow, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Erika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effekter av ett förändrat klimat på skogen och implikationer för skogsbruket: Bilaga B 19, Arbetsrapport 342007Inngår i: Sverige inför klimatförändringarna: hot och möjligheter, Fritzes, 2007, s. 1-71Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att klimatet kan komma att förändras påverkar svenskt skogsbruk. Skogen har i sig en direkt inverkan på klimatet samtidigt som skogsbruket kan behöva anpassas till de nya förhållandena. Ett osäkert klimat sätter brukandet av skogen i ett nytt läge som vi inte har någon tidigare erfarenhet av. Scenarier för framtida klimatutveckling är behäftade med stor osäkerhet och de förväntade effekterna på skogen blir således ännu mer osäkra. Trots detta kan man ändå förutsäga några sannolika huvuddrag i effekterna på den svenska skogen vid ett framtida ändrat klimat. En ökad potential för biomassaproduktion kan förväntas, liksom ökade möjligheter att använda nya arter i skogsbruket. Samtidigt ökar sannolikt risken för vissa typer av skador.

    Att väga eventuella fördelar i form av ökad produktion och ökade möjligheter i trädslagsval mot ökade risker för skador är viktigt för att ge samhället ett helhetsperspektiv och för att en större grupp ska ha möjlighet att ta till sig frågan. Det är också viktigt att i största möjliga mån kvantifiera eller ge ramarna i ekonomiska termer för hur det förändrade klimatet kan tänkas påverka skogsbruket. Vidare kan det vara styrande för prioritering av fortsatta forskningsarbeten och riskbedömning och för att prioritera åtgärder. Därför har vi försökt utifrån befintlig kunskap idag, konstruera en Tabell över den ekonomiska betydelsen och forskningsbarheten för olika risk/ämnesområden (se Tabell 17 sidan 39). De kanske största effekterna av ett förändrat klimat på ekonomin inom skogsbruket skulle vara om vi lyckas utnyttja den ökade produktionspotentialen. Det förutsätter att vi kan bemästra de negativa effekterna i första hand av en ökad risk för vindfällning, skadeangrepp från insekter och svampar. Mot bakgrund av skogsbrukets stora betydelse som naturresurs och industriell bas, så finner vi att det är viktigt att vi står rustade inför en framtid med såväl ökade hot som nya möjligheter.

    I denna skrift försöker vi beskriva och analysera tänkbara effekter av ett förändrat klimat på skogen och bedömt deras implikationer för produktionsskogsbruket. Andra aspekter än produktionsaspekter på skogsbruket har inte behandlats. Analysen sker i fyra steg. Vi inleder med att, så långt nuvarande kunskapsläge tillåter, kvantifiera effekterna på den skogliga primärproduktionen – tillväxten i skogen. I ett andra steg omsätts dessa effekter till effekter på produktionsekonomin i ett bestånd. Därefter analyseras tänkbara effekter på risken för stormfällning i skogen. I ett sista steg breddas diskussionen till en något mera spekulativ bild av tänkbara effekter på skogsbrukets ekonomi.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Johansson, U
    Nilsson, U
    Sallnäs, O
    Är anpassning av skogsskötseln nödvändigt i dagsläget för att minska skogsskador i ett förändrat klimat? Del 1 – analyser på bestådsnivå2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Johansson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Lund University.
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Lundström, Anders
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Är anpassning av skogsskötseln nödvändigt i dagsläget för att minska skogsskador i ett förändrat klimat?: Del 2 –analyser på regional nivå2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Long-term responses of Scots pine and Norway spruce stands in Sweden to repeated fertilization and thinning2014Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 320, s. 118-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent investigations have shown that annual wood production in Sweden can be increased by 30 million m3 per year in a long-term perspective (>50 years) by using new forest management methods such as new tree species or seedling materials. However, to meet the increased demands during the next 20 years, Sweden will have to rely on silvicultural methods available today. Growth in boreal and cold temperate forest is with only few exceptions limited by nutrients availability, primarily nitrogen, and one way to satisfy the increased demands in a short-term perspective is nitrogen fertilization. A set of thinning and fertilization experiments were started in the 1960’s in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands over the whole of Sweden representing different soil, moisture and vegetation types. We used data from these experiments to examine the long-term effects of repeated fertilization in thinned stands on growth, stand development, and yield. The 34 Scots pine sites and 13 Norway spruce sites included in our analyses had at least four treatment plots (no thinning, repeated light thinnings, repeated light thinnings with repeated N fertilization, and repeated light thinnings with repeated N + P fertilization). In northern Sweden, 100 kg N ha−1 and 150 kg N ha−1 were applied at each fertilization event for Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, respectively. In southern Sweden, 150 kg ha−1 N was applied in Scots pine stands and 200 kg ha−1 N in Norway spruce stands. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 100 kg ha−1. Several sites also included non-thinned fertilized plots. Pine stands but not spruce stands were responsive (up to 25% more growth depending of the attribute assessed) to repeated fertilization. Surprisingly, the non-thinned pine stands showed strong continuing response to fertilization throughout the 30+ year observation period resulting in higher cumulative volume response than the thinned stands. In thinned stands incremental volume response to fertilization continued but slowly diminished with time indicating that fertilization and thinning effects were less than additive. However, thinning and fertilization effects were additive for diameter growth. Fertilization accelerated stand development with significant shifts in diameter distributions to larger and potentially more valuable trees. Conclusively, repeated nitrogen fertilization is a silvicultural practice that will result in significant and sustained increases in Scots pine production.

  • 9.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Kjartansson, Bjarki
    Karlsson, Matts
    Impact of climate change on the productivity of Silver birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in Sweden with economic implications for timber production2010Inngår i: Ecological Bulletins, ISSN 0346-6868, Vol. 53, nr 16, s. 185-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Berlin, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala Science Park.
    The effect of fertilization on genetic parameters in Picea abies clones in central Sweden and consequences for breeding and deployment2012Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 270, s. 239-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of repeated fertilizer application on the genetic parameters of Norway spruce. Genetic and environmental variances of growth and phenological traits were estimated to find differences between fertilized and control treatments in broad sense heritability and accuracy of estimated genotypic value. Furthermore, genotype × environment interactions (GxE) between the two treatments were investigated. Two Norway spruce clonal field trials in central Sweden were subjected to both treatments and were measured at various points in time up to a field age of 15 years, to monitor the effects of fertilization. For growth traits, trees in the fertilized treatment exhibited lower environmental variance than those in the non-fertilized treatment; consequently, fertilization yielded higher heritability and greater accuracy of estimated genotypic value. Furthermore, the GxE increased as the effects of fertilization became more pronounced; the genetic correlation between treatments dropped to around 0.5 in the last measured growth period. For phenological traits, no GxE but a slight increase in heritability of prolepsis on the leader shoot was found. The results from this study show that, for the conditions encountered in central Sweden, Norway spruce clones should be tested and selected under the conditions in which they are to be deployed. If repeated fertilizer application is to be adopted under operational conditions, substantial losses in genetic gain for growth can be expected when using current selected clones due to the induced GxE. While the fertilized treatment yielded a higher heritability and accuracy of estimated genotypic value for growth traits than did the control, the Swedish Norway spruce breeding program will not benefit from fertilizing genetic field trials because the increased accuracy of estimated genotypic value is nullified by the GxE.

  • 11.
    Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Olofsson, Erika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Potential climate change impacts on the probability of wind damage in a south Swedish forest2010Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 99, nr 1-2, s. 261-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimated how the possible changes in wind climate and state of the forest due to climate change may affect the probability of exceeding critical wind speeds expected to cause wind damage within a forest management unit located in Southern Sweden. The topography of the management unit was relatively gentle and the forests were dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We incorporated a model relating the site index (SI) to the site productivity into the forest projection model FTM. Using estimated changes in the net primary production (NPP) due to climate change and assuming a relative change in NPP equal to a relative change in the site productivity, we simulated possible future states of the forest under gradual adjustment of SI in response to climate change. We estimated changes in NPP by combining the boreal-adapted BIOMASS model with four regional climate change scenarios calculated using the RCAO model for the period 2071–2100 and two control period scenarios for the period 1961–1990. The modified WINDA model was used to calculate the probability of wind damage for individual forest stands in simulated future states of the forest. The climate change scenarios used represent non-extreme projections on a 100-year time scale in terms of global mean warming. A 15–40% increase in NPP was estimated to result from climate change until the period 2071–2100. Increasing sensitivity of the forest to wind was indicated when the management rules of today were applied. A greater proportion of the calculated change in probability of wind damage was due to changes in wind climate than to changes in the sensitivity of the forest to wind. While regional climate scenarios based on the HadAM3H general circulation model (GCM) indicated no change (SRES A2 emission scenario) or a slightly reduced (SRES B2 emission scenario) probability of wind damage, scenarios based on the ECHAM4/OPYC3 GCM indicated increased probability of wind damage. The assessment should, however, be reviewed as the simulation of forest growth under climate change as well as climate change scenarios are refined.

  • 12.
    Cintas, Olivia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    The potential role of forest management in Swedish scenarios towards climate neutrality by mid century2017Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 383, nr Special Issue, s. 73-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish climate policy targets net zero greenhouse gases (GHG) by mid-century, with road transport independent of fossil fuels by 2030, requiring far-reaching changes in the way energy is used. Forest management is expected to support carbon sequestration and provide biomass for various uses, including energy. In this paper, we combine two energy scenarios with four forest scenarios and quantify GHG balances associated with energy-use for heat, electricity, and road transport, and with forest management and production, use, and end-of-life management of various forest products, including products for export. The aggregated GHG balances are evaluated in relation to the 2-degree target and an allocated Swedish CO2 budget. The production of biofuels in the agriculture sector is considered but not analyzed in detail.

    The results suggest that Swedish forestry can make an important contribution by supplying forest fuels and other products while maintaining or enhancing carbon storage in vegetation, soils, and forest products. The GHG neutrality goal is not met in any of the scenarios without factoring in carbon sequestration. Measures to enhance forest productivity can increase output of forest products (including biofuels for export) and also enhance carbon sequestration. The Swedish forest sector can let Sweden reach net negative emissions, and avoid “using up” its allocated CO2 budget, thereby increasing the associated emissions space for the rest of the world.

  • 13.
    Edenius, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Can repeated fertilizer applications to young Norway spruce enhance avian diversity in intensively managed forests?2011Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 521-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated fertilization of forests to increase biomass production is an environmentally controversial proposal, the effects of which we assessed on breeding birds in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies), in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden. Our results show that fertilized stands had 38% more species and 21% more individuals than unfertilized stands. Compared with stands under traditional management, the further intensification of forestry by repeated applications of fertilizers thus seemed to enhance species richness and abundance of forest birds. We cannot conclude at this stage whether the response in the bird community was caused by changes in food resources or increased structural complexity in the forest canopy due to the skid roads used for the application of the fertilizers. Future studies should focus on structural and compositional effects of fertilization processes during the entire rotation period and at assessing its effects in a landscape context.

  • 14.
    Edenius, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Effects of repeated fertilization of young Norway spruce on foliar phenolics and arthropods: implications for insectivorous birds’ food resources2012Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 277, s. 38-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated fertilization of young forests is a promising concept to increase the production of wood fiber, but the consequences of intense fertilization regimes on forest birds and their food resources, mediated through changes in the foliar chemistry are inadequately known. We assessed the effects of repeated fertilization in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies) on foliar phenolics and arthropods in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden in relation to the abundance of arboreal feeding birds breeding in the same stands. We anticipated leaf-sucking arthropods (viz. Hemiptera (aphids)) to react more strongly to changes in foliar phenolics than other invertebrate groups. Overall, we found small effects of fertilization on abundance and composition of different groups of foliar arthropods. However, the abundance of Hemiptera was much higher in early spring in fertilized stands than in unfertilized stands, whereas mites (Anactinotrichida and Actinotrichida) were more abundant in late spring in the fertilized stands. On the contrary, springtails (Collembola) were more abundant in unfertilized stands than in fertilized stands the late spring. The concentrations of two of the most abundant phenolics (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) as well as the sum concentration of HPLC-phenolics, were consistently lower in the fertilized stands. Positive effects on arthropod abundance mediated trough changes in the foliar chemistry following fertilization could help to explain why resident Goldcrest (Regulus regulus), which feeds on folivorous arthropods (i.e. aphids) during winter, was found to be more common in the fertilized stands ( Edenius et al., 2011). Our results suggest that in intensively managed forest areas repeated fertilization of young spruce has the potential to enhance the suitability of these stands as winter feeding habitat for coniferous foliage-gleaning insectivorous birds compared to unfertilized stands in the same developmental stage. However, intensification of forest management further impedes habitat quality for more specialized species and generally reduces the diversity of forest birds by simplifying structure and composition of forest stands and shortening the rotation period. Therefore, careful planning of spatial arrangement of treatment units with different management, retention of natural forest and/or structures and legacies such as dead wood and deciduous trees are necessary to promote avian diversity in intensified forest management schemes.

  • 15.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Drossler, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmström, Emma
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, s. S124-S139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 16.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Kaplan, Jed
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Wramneby, Anna
    Lund University.
    Causes of Regional Change: Land Cover2015Inngår i: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] The BACC II Author team, Springer, 2015, s. 453-477Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response over the last two centuries is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects and to the biogeochemical versus biogeophysical effects. Palaeoecological studies show that the major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the Baltic Sea basin occurred between 6000 and 3000/2500 cal year BP. The only modelling study of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in north-western Europe suggests that deforestation between 6000 and 200 cal year BP may have caused significant change in winter and summer temperature. There is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback. Several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes.

  • 17. Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fertilization in Boreal and Temperate Forests and the Potential for Biomass Production2013Inngår i: Forest BioEnergy Production: Management, Carbon sequestration and Adaptation, Springer, 2013, s. 95-109Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest fertilization is one of the most efficient methods in forest management to increase the short-term production of biomass. In this context, this chapter provides a brief background of the physiological response of trees to fertilization and increased nutrient availability. Furthermore, we shall describe different fertilization regimes and demonstrate the potentials of fertilization in enhancing biomass production, which will be performed by presenting relevant literature and some unpublished results. This chapter will also elaborate on some ideas for developing fertilization in operational forestry.

  • 18.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Brunet, Jorg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition2017Inngår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 185, nr 2, s. 317-326Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, the combined effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity was larger than when applied solely. No effects on species richness of any of these two nutrients were observed when applied separately, while applied in combination, they increased species richness and changed species composition, mainly by promoting more mesotrophic species. All these effects, however, occurred only for the vascular plants and not for bryophytes. The tree layer in a forest has a profound impact on the productivity and diversity of the ground vegetation by competing for both light and nutrients. This was confirmed in our study where a combination of nitrogen and high tree basal area reduced cover of the ground vegetation compared to all the other treatments where basal area was lower after stand thinning. During the past decades, nitrogen deposition may have further increased this competition from the trees for phosphorus and gradually reduced ground vegetation diversity. Phosphorus limitation induced by nitrogen deposition may, thus, contribute to ongoing changes in forest ground vegetation.

  • 19.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nitrogen-retention capacity in a fertilized forest after clear-cutting: the effect of forest-floor vegetation2015Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 130-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest fertilization with nitrogen (N) has several benefits to society such as increased wood production and carbon sequestration. There are, however, concerns about N leakage, particularly following clear-cutting. The forest-floor vegetation may increase the N retention of forest ecosystems; however, very few studies have quantified the amount of vegetation required. We studied the relationship between vegetation cover and risk of N leakage, estimated by the amounts of ammonium-N and nitrate-N retained on ion-exchange capsules in the soil, during 4 years following the clear-cutting and harvesting of logging residues in a previously fertilized forest in southern Sweden. Previous fertilization increased the amount of nitrate-N captured on the capsules, whereas the amount of ammonium-N decreased. The vascular vegetation cover increased from almost zero to approximately 25% independent of fertilization. The amount of ammonium-N and nitrate-N retained on the capsules was already reduced by 50%-75% at 20% vegetation cover, and by 30%-40% cover, it approached zero, independent of the number of years since clear-cutting. The vegetation may impede tree-seedling establishment, implying a trade-off between seedling growth and N-retention capacity. However, our results indicate that maximum N retention may be achieved at a relatively low vegetation cover, which could be accomplished with less intrusive scarification methods than currently used.

  • 20.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Changes in the abundance of keystone forest floor species in response to changes of forest structure2013Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 296-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Question

    Does the abundance of keystone forest floor species change in response to changes in the forest structure?

    Location

    Sweden

    Methods

    We used data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory to investigate changes in the abundance of three common species, as well as the total abundance of all understorey vascular plants (the field layer) in forests in the boreal and temperate parts of Sweden. GLMs and GAMs were used to relate species abundance and temporal changes in abundances to forest structure and forest structural change.

    Results

    Productivity, measured as the site index, was the most important determinant of individual species' abundance. The volume of Picea abies, the density of tree stems and forest age were among the most important forest structural variables. We found that the dwarf shrubVaccinium myrtillus, the narrow-leaved grasses (mainly Avenella flexuosa) and the total field layer cover decreased in boreal Sweden from 1994 through 2010 and that these changes coincided with an increase in forest density and with a reduction in forest age.

    Conclusions

    Changes in Swedish forests to higher tree layer density and younger age appear to contribute significantly to current changes in forest floor vegetation. The use of more intensive thinning practices to reduce the total density of the forest and to increase the proportion of broad-leaved tree species and Pinus sylvestris would favour the forest floor species in this study. Moreover, increasing forest age (i.e. the length of rotation periods) might favour V. myrtillus in particular, for which the time since disturbance is important for the recovery of pre-disturbance abundance. However, increased thinning intensity and forest age will reduce the potential for wood production, implying a trade-off between production of wood and maintenance of well-developed forest floor vegetation.

  • 21.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Decreased variation of forest understory vegetation is an effect of fertilisation in young stands of Picea abies2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, nr S11, s. 46-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels to mitigate climate change has caused increased interest in enhancing forest biomass production through fertilisation. We investigated the effects of different fertilisation frequencies on the diversity of understory vegetation in young stands of Picea abies on five sites distributed in regions in the middle and south of Sweden. The treatments included fertilisation conducted annually, every second year or every third year, as well as an unfertilised control. A lower number of vascular plant species was observed on fertilised plots than on control plots, whereas the number of bryophyte species remained unchanged. Fertilised plots also showed a lower variance in species composition and a lower Shannon’s diversity index than unfertilised plots. Fertilised plots were more similar to each other than unfertilised plots were to each other over the geographical range. The two most intensive fertilisation treatments had similar effects on the vegetation, whereas the effects of fertilisation conducted every third year were not as substantial. However, the treatment in which fertilisation occurred every third year implies a lower stem-wood production, and there is little knowledge of the longterm differences between the treatments. We conclude that fertilisation of young stands will lead to long-term changes in understory vegetation at the stand scale, whereas the effects at the landscape level are still largely unknown.

  • 22.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; European Forest Inst EFINORD.
    Ingerslev, Morten
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fertilization in northern forests - biological, economic and environmental constraints and possibilities2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 301-311Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest.

  • 23.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grip, Harald
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Linder, Sune
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lövdahl, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of clear-cutting and slash removal on soil water chemistry and forest-floor vegetation in a nutrient optimised Norway spruce stand2013Inngår i: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 47, nr 2, artikkel-id 933Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fertilisation with nutrient optimisation has in Sweden resulted in large increases in volume growth in young stands of Norway spruce. There are, however, environmental concerns about repeated fertilisation and one is the risk of nutrient leakage to ground water resources and aquatic ecosystems after clear-cutting of such forests. The present study followed soil-water chemistry in optimised fertilised stands after clear-cutting, as well as effects of harvest of slash on nutrient leakage. Parts of a 30-year-old stand of Norway spruce, which had been subject to a nutrient optimisation experiment for 17 years, were clear-cut. A split-plot design with whole-tree harvesting as the subplot treatment was applied. Lysimeters were installed and soil-water sampled at nine occasions during the following four years. No significant effects of fertilisation on nitrate leaching were found, while harvest of slash affected the concentration of Ca, DOC, DON, K, Mg, ammonium and nitrate, as well as pH in the soil solution. While no effects of fertilisation could be seen on the soil water concentration of N, the results indicate an interaction between fertilisation and harvest of slash on the concentration of nitrate in the soil solution. The results indicate that forest-floor vegetation plays an important role in the retention of N after clear-cutting of fertilised forests.

  • 24.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Compositional changes of forest-floor vegetation in young stands of Norway spruce as an effect of repeated fertilisation2010Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 259, nr 12, s. 2418-2425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry practices that aim to increase biomass production may mitigate climate change through increased carbon sequestration and the potential of substituting fossil fuels with renewable biofuels. Fertilising young stands of Norway spruce in Sweden have shown to increase tree growth by more than 200%. Fertilisation, however, also has other effects on forest ecosystems. Here, we studied the response of the species composition of forest-floor vegetation to three different frequencies of fertilisation in young stands of Norway spruce. Fertiliser was applied every year, every second year or every third year. The total amount of N ranged from 425 kg ha−1 to 625 kg ha−1, in combination with P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Zi, B and Cu. The largest effects of the fertilisation were found among bryophytes and lichens, which lost substantial cover. Unexpectedly, Deschampsia flexuosa, commonly known to be favoured by fertilisation, was negatively affected. Species that increased in frequency were Oxalis acetosellaBrachythecium sp. andPlagiothecium sp. Decreased availability of light, as an indirect effect of fertilisation through increased tree canopy cover, was found to be the most important factor behind the change in species composition of vascular plants. The total cover of bryophytes, however, did not show any significant response to the changes in canopy cover, indicating that the effects seen in this group may be a result of more direct effects of the fertiliser. Few significant differences were found between the two most intensive fertilisation frequencies, although fertilisation every third year was often distinguished from both the control and the other fertilised treatments. Even though the effects at the stand level were substantial, the effects on biodiversity and function of ecosystems on a landscape or regional level need further investigation.

  • 25. Johansson, Karin
    et al.
    Langvall, Ola
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Optimization of environmental factors affecting initial growth of Norway spruce seedlings2012Inngår i: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 27-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to create a near optimal environment for seedling establishment and growth, without the restrain of water and nutrients but under climate conditions typical for the region. This to give us valuable knowledge about the growth potential of different seedling types in the field. The experimental site was situated in southern Sweden. Six treatment combinations were applied including two site treatments; 1) soil inversion, i.e. the control treatment, and 2) soil inversion, drip irrigation and fertilization combined with plastic cover mulch, i.e. the optimization treatment, and three seedling types of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), (a) a 2-year-old Plug+1 seedling, (b) a 1.5-year-old containerized seedling and (c) a 10-week-old mini seedling. Effects on seedling nutrient status and growth were studied during the first three years after planting. Height, diameter and biomass of the seedlings grown in the optimized environment were significantly greater than for seedlings grown in the control. The Plug+1 seedlings grown in the optimization treatment had, after three years, reached a height of 124 cm, while the containerized seedlings were 104 cm and the mini seedlings 45 cm. In practical plantations, this height is usually gained after 5–10 years depending on planting conditions. Biomass partitioning did not differ between optimization treatments, but between seedling types. The mini seedlings allocated less biomass to the roots and more biomass to needles and stem in comparison with the two other seedling types. Mini seedlings also broke bud earlier. Throughout the experimental period, seedling nutrient status for all treatment combinations was followed and a balanced nutrient supply of macro- and micronutrients was given in the optimization treatment. Nutrient concentrations were constantly higher in seedlings grown in the optimization treatment, but the difference decreased over time. Results from this study shows that, by improving site conditions associated with fast establishment, growth check can be avoided.

  • 26.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Mats
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Axelsson, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ring, Eva
    Uppsala Science Park.
    Agren, Anneli
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adaptation to Climate Change in Swedish Forestry2016Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikkel-id 28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change in forestry has become a growing concern, in part due to the impact of storms and other events that have raised the awareness of such risks amongst forest owners. Sweden is one of Europe's most densely-forested countries, with this sector playing a major role economically. However adaptation has, to a large extent, been limited to the provision of recommendations to forest managers, most of which have only been partially implemented. This paper summarizes research with direct implications for adaptation to climate change within the forestry sector in Sweden. The focus is based in particular on providing examples of adaptations that illustrate the specific Swedish orientation to adaptation, in line with its relatively intensive forest management system. The paper thus illustrates a specific Swedish orientation to adaptation through active management, which can be contrasted with approaches to adaptation in other forestry systems, in particular those with limited management or management based on maintaining natural forests in particular.

  • 27.
    Klapwijk, M. J.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boberg, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Bishop, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ellison, D.
    Ellison Consulting, Switzerland.
    Felton, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lidskog, R.
    Örebro University.
    Lundmark, T.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. C. H.
    Umeå University.
    Sonesson, J.
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Nordin, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordström, E-M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stenlid, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Marald, E.
    Umeå University.
    Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action2018Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, s. 238-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the different factors related to the socio-ecological system. To examine the level of dispersion and to obtain a holistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forest related carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

  • 28.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hofer, Peter
    GEO Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Taverna, Ruedi
    GEO Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Werner, Frank
    Werner Environment & Development, Switzerland.
    Potential roles of Swedish forestry in the context of climate change mitigation2014Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 557-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  • 29.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr supplement 2, s. S203-S213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous-cover forestry (CCF) has been recognized for the production of multiple ecosystem services, and is seen as an alternative to clear-cut forestry (CF). Despite the increasing interest, it is still not well described how CCF would affect the carbon balance and the resulting climate benefit from the forest in relation to CF. This study compares carbon balances of CF and CCF, applied as two alternative land-use strategies for a heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand. We use a set of models to analyze the long-term effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and carbon stock changes. The results show that biomass growth and yield is more important than the choice of silvicultural system per se. When comparing CF and CCF assuming similar growth, extraction and product use, only minor differences in long-term climate benefit were found between the two principally different silvicultural systems.

  • 30.
    Narayanan, Subramanian
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Simulation of Net Primary Production (NPP) of Picea abies in southern Sweden-A comparison between two process based forest growth models2011Inngår i: Proceedings of COST FP0603, Spring School: Modelling Forest Ecosystem - Concept, Data and Application, Kaprun, Austria: Institute of Silviculture, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter Jordan Str. 82, A-1190 Wien , 2011, s. 109-116Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 437-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient removal has been one of the key issues since the harvesting of logging residues started in Sweden. This study examined the actual removal of nutrients by measuring the amounts of biomass removed (from a forest products perspective) combined with their respective nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, K and Mg), from a clear-felled area when using the dried-stacked and fresh-stacked methods. The most important finding is that the two methods were very similar regarding nutrients remaining at the clear-felled area. Of the nutrients remaining there, most were found to be well distributed between the harvester heaps. Both methods fulfilled the requirements of the Swedish Forest Agency. A sensitivity analysis showed that even if the dried-stacked method left more needles, or the fresh-stacked method extracted more logging residues, there would only be a small impact on the levels of nutrients removed. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the amount of logging residues remaining between the harvester heaps seems to be much more important for nutrients left behind, regardless of extraction method. With this in mind, it is highly probable that improvements to the extraction of logging residues, without increasing nutrient removal, can be made.

  • 32.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Korosuo, Anu
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Havlik, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Frank, Stefan
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Fricko, Oliver
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Impacts of global climate change mitigation scenarios on forests and harvesting in Sweden2016Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 46, nr 12, s. 1427-1438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Under climate change, the importance of biomass resources is likely to increase and new approaches are needed to analyze future material and energy use of biomass globally and locally. Using Sweden as an example, we present an approach that combines global and national land-use and forest models to analyze impacts of climate change mitigation ambitions on forest management and harvesting in a specific country. National forest impact analyses in Sweden have traditionally focused on supply potential with little reference to international market developments. In this study, we use the global greenhouse gas concentration scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change to estimate global biomass demand and assess potential implications on harvesting and biodiversity in Sweden. The results show that the short-term demand for wood is close to the full harvesting potential in Sweden in all scenarios. Under high bioenergy demand, harvest levels are projected to stay high over a longer time and particularly impact the harvest levels of pulpwood. The area of old forest in the managed landscape may decrease. This study highlights the importance of global scenarios when discussing national-level analysis and pinpoints trade-offs that policy making in Sweden may need to tackle in the near future.

  • 33.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University.
    Böttcher, Hannes
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Future forests scenarios: Analysing impacts of Swedish forest policy on ecosystem services, land use and the European market2012Inngår i: Worlds within reach, from science to policy, IIASA 40th Anniversary Conference, Austria, 24-26 October, 2012, Vienna and Laxenburg, Austria, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Modelling forest management in Sweden: trade-offs between carbon benefit and biodiversity conservation.2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University.
    Forest biomass production and their potential use to mitigate climate change2012Inngår i: Tackling climate change: the contribution of forest scientific knowledge, Tours, France: INRA Editions, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest products can be utilized to contribute tackling climate change. An integrated model-based system analysis approach is applied to estimate forest biomass production and substitution effects of climate change and forest management goals. We estimate net primary production with the use of process based model BIOMASS incorporating climate change effects according to IPCC SRES B2 scenario. BIOMASS considers the processes of radiation absorption, photosynthesis, phenology, allocation of photosynthesis among plant organs, litter-fall, and the stand water balance. The resulting output of net primary production from BIOMASS is input into the empirical model HUGIN to calculate tree growth functions in five scenarios representing different forest management goals. These growth functions determine the total growth and the potential harvestable forest biomass. The harvested products in terms of whole tree biomass and stem wood biomass are then assumed to substitute construction materials and fossil fuels, and the substitution effect is calculated in terms of net CO2 emission reduction. We use the Q-model to estimate soil carbon changes in the forest because of litter fall and soil decomposition processes in different scenarios. The results show that the climate change effect and intensive forestry practice can increase forest production and product harvest by up to 75% and 69% respectively compared to the production in the year 2010. If the harvested biomass is used to substitute fossil fuel and building construction materials a total net carbon emission reduction up to 249 Tg carbon is possible. The carbon stock in standing biomass, forest soils, and wood products all increases. The carbon stock changes are less significant than compared to the substitution benefits. This study can conclude that the climate change effect and improved forest management practices may increase forest biomass significantly, thus will give increased opportunity to reduce carbon emission significantly to contribute to the climate change mitigation.

  • 36.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest management scenarios and their effects on ecosystem services: modelling results from Sweden.2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37. Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Drössler, Lars
    Nordin, Annika
    Nilsson, Urban
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Comparison of biomass production and total carbon balance of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2012Inngår i: IUFRO Conference, Division 5, Forest Products. 8 - 13 July. Estoril Congress Centre, Lisbon, Portugal, Estoril Conference Center, Lisbon, Portugal: IUFRO , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Forest biomass residues and their use to mitigate climate change in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin, Germany, June 6-10, 2011, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Bergh, Johan
    SLU, Alnarp.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lundström, Anders
    Hyvonen, Ritta
    Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 106-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jamtland and Vasternorrland

  • 40.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Forest biomass production potential and its implications for total carbon balance2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mid Sweden University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Climate change mitigation through increased biomass production and substitution: A case study in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we perform an integrated analysis to calculate the potential increases in forest biomass production and substitution as an effect of climate change and intensive management. We use the BIOMASS model to simulate change in Net Primary Production due to climate change. Then we estimate the development of forest biomass growth and harvest by using the HUGIN model, the change in soil carbon stock by the use of the Q-model, and the biomass substitution benefits by the use of an energy and material substitution model. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C could increase annual whole tree forest biomass production by 32% and harvest by 29% over the next 100 years. Intensive forest management including climate effect could increase whole tree biomass production by 58% and harvest by 47%. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 89 Tg C and 182 Tg C over 100 years is possible due to climate change effect only and due to climate change plus intensive forestry, respectively. The carbon stock in standing biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase, but the carbon stock changes are less significant than the substitution benefits.

  • 42. Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Sathre, Roger
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest production and utilization in north-central Sweden2010Inngår i: XXIII IUFRO World Congress, 23-28 August (Abstract proceeding), Seoul, South Korea, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 4340-4355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate change mitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel.

  • 44.
    Rabasa, Sonia G
    et al.
    Spain.
    Granda, Elena
    Spain.
    Benavides, Raquel
    Spain.
    Kunstler, Georges
    France.
    Espelta, Josep M
    Spain.
    Ogaya, Romá
    Spain.
    Peñuelas, Josep
    Spain.
    Scherer‐Lorenzen, Michael
    Germany.
    Gil, Wojciech
    Poland.
    Grodzki, Wojciech
    Poland.
    Ambrozy, Slawomir
    Poland.
    Bergh, Johan
    SLU, Umeå.
    Hódar, José A.
    Spain.
    Zamora, Regino
    Spain.
    Valladares, Fernando
    Spain.
    Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming2013Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 2490-2499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Granstrom, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Uppsala.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr Supplement 2, s. S109-S123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  • 46.
    Routa, Johanna
    et al.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland.
    Kellomäki, Seppo
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Strandman, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Pulkkinen, Pertti
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Läyliäinen, Finland.
    Peltola, Heli
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    The timber and energy biomass potential of intensively managed cloned Norway spruce stands2013Inngår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 43-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used ecosystem model simulations to study the timber and energy biomass potential offered by intensively managed cloned Norway spruce stands. More specifically, we analysed how the use of cloned trees compared with non-cloned trees, together with thinning, nitrogen (N) fertilisation and rotation length (from 60 to 100 years), affects the annual mean production of timber (i.e., saw logs, pulpwood) and energy biomass (i.e., stumps and harvesting residuals in the final felling) and its economic profitability [annual mean of net present value (NPV) with a 2% interest rate]. Furthermore, we employed a life cycle analysis/emission calculation tool to assess the total net CO2emissions per unit of energy (kg CO2 MW h−1) produced based on energy biomass. We found that both the annual mean production of timber and the NPV increased substantially, regardless of the management regime, if cloned trees with an annual growth increase of up to 30% compared with non-cloned trees were used in regeneration. In general, the use of a short rotation with N fertilisation clearly increased the annual mean of the NPV. Consequently, the use of cloned trees also clearly increased the annual mean production of energy biomass and decreased the total net CO2 emissions per unit of energy produced based on energy biomass. However, the total annual net CO2emissions were the lowest if a long rotation was used with N fertilisation. To conclude, the use of cloned trees together with intensive management could potentially be highly beneficial for the cost-efficient and sustainable production of timber and energy biomass in an integrated way.

  • 47. Rytter, L
    et al.
    Andreassen, K
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ekö, P.-M.
    Kilpeläinen, A
    Lazdina, D
    Muiste, P
    Nord-Larsen, T
    Land areas and biomass production for current and future use in the Nordic and Baltic countries2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Rytter, Lars
    et al.
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Sweden.
    Andreassen, Kjell
    The Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Eko, Per-Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gronholm, Tiia
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Kilpelainen, Antti
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Lazdina, Dagnija
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute, Latvia.
    Muiste, Peeter
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Nord-Larsen, Thomas
    Copenhagen University, Denmark.
    Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries: Land Areas and Biomass Amounts2015Inngår i: Baltic Forestry, ISSN 1392-1355, E-ISSN 2029-9230, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 375-390Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review compiles information on the current state of the forests and analyses the potential of forest fuels for energy purposes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia. In these countries the forest area is 61 mill. ha, corresponding to 52% of the land areas, which is high in a European perspective where 38% of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75-92% of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate the forests in Finland, Norway and Sweden, while a more even distribution of conifers and deciduous species is found in Denmark, Estonia and Latvia. The total growing stock is around 7,400 mill. m(3) and the annual increment is estimated to about 275 mill. m(3) yr(-1) Annual growth currently exceeds annual harvest, leading to the conclusion that some of the difference may be used for energy purposes in the near future. The current potential for forest fuel resources was estimated to 230-410 TWh yr(-1) (830-1,480 PJ yr(-1)) for the countries included and forest fuels will thus be of utmost importance for the future energy supply in the area. A changing climate with larger standing volumes may affect the future growth positively and increase the potential harvest levels. Estimates from Finland, Sweden and Norway show an average growth increase of over 30% by the end of the century and substantially higher for specific regions. Wood is extensively used for energy purposes and the forests hold a large potential for increasing the production of renewable energy. The potential may be further increased in the future with increased fertilization, extended breeding for enhanced biomass production, larger cultivation areas and changes of tree species and management systems.

  • 49.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization2010Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 572-581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  • 50.
    Subramanian, Narayanan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change2016Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic) may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations) under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.), could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

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