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  • 1.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 2.
    Andreas, Bendroth
    Östra Småland.
    Legrand, Catherine (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algblomningens positiva sidor lyftes fram2017In: Östra Småland, no 31 Aug, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3. Anonym, .
    Alger sprids med vinden2016In: Barometern, no 11 Juli, p. 12-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Carbon isotope signature variability among cultured microalgae: Influence of species, nutrients and growth2009In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 372, no 1-2, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have investigated whether the carbon isotopic signature differs between different groups and species of marine phytoplankton depending on growth phase, nutrient conditions and salinity. The 15 investigated algal species, representing the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Haptophyceae classes were grown in batch monocultures and analysed for delta(13)C in both exponential and stationary phase. For all the cultured species, delta(13)C signatures ranged from -23.5 parts per thousand (Imantonia sp.) to - 12.3 parts per thousand (Nodulania spumigena) in the exponential phase and from - 18.8 parts per thousand (Amphidinium carterae) to - 8.0 parts per thousand (Anabaena lemmermannii) in the stationary phase. Three species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Rhodomonas sp.. Heterocapsa triquetra) were also grown under nutrient sufficient and nitrogen or phosphorus deficient conditions. Nitrogen limitation resulted in a more negative delta(13)C signature, whereas no effect could be observed during phosphorus limitation compared to nutrient sufficient conditions. Growth of Prymnesium parvum in two different salinities resulted in a more negative delta(13)C signature in the 26 parts per thousand-media compared to growth in 7 parts per thousand-media. Our results show that the carbon isotopic signature of phytoplankton may be affected by salinity, differ among different phytoplankton species, between exponential and stationary phase, as well as between nutrient treatments.

  • 5.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Germany.
    Israelsson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Baltar, Federico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish Meteorological & Hydrological Institute.
    Martínez-García, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Vigo, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    High Frequency Multi-Year Variability in Baltic Sea Microbial Plankton Stocks and Activities2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 3296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine bacterioplankton are essential in global nutrient cycling and organic matter turnover. Time-series analyses, often at monthly sampling frequencies, have established the paramount role of abiotic and biotic variables in structuring bacterioplankton communities and productivities. However, fine-scale seasonal microbial activities, and underlying biological principles, are not fully understood. We report results from four consecutive years of high-frequency time-series sampling in the Baltic Proper. Pronounced temporal dynamics in most investigated microbial variables were observed, including bacterial heterotrophic production, plankton biomass, extracellular enzyme activities, substrate uptake rate constants of glucose, pyruvate, acetate, amino acids, and leucine, as well as nutrient limitation bioassays. Spring blooms consisting of diatoms and dinoflagellates were followed by elevated bacterial heterotrophic production and abundances. During summer, bacterial productivity estimates increased even further, coinciding with an initial cyanobacterial bloom in early July. However, bacterial abundances only increased following a second cyanobacterial bloom, peaking in August. Uptake rate constants for the different measured carbon compounds varied seasonally and inter-annually and were highly correlated to bacterial productivity estimates, temperature, and cyanobacterial abundances. Further, we detected nutrient limitation in response to environmental conditions in a multitude of microbial variables, such as elevated productivities in nutrient bioassays, changes in enzymatic activities, or substrate preferences. Variations among biotic variables often occurred on time scales of days to a few weeks, yet often spanning several sampling occasions. Such dynamics might not have been captured by sampling at monthly intervals, as compared to more predictable transitions in abiotic variables such as temperature or nutrient concentrations. Our study indicates that high resolution analyses of microbial biomass and productivity parameters can help out in the development of biogeochemical and food web models disentangling the microbial black box.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Eliane
    IEAPM, Arraial do Cabo, Brazil .
    Carvalho, Wanderson F
    IEAPM, Arraial do Cabo, Brazil .
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bacterial and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in tropical marine waters, and a coastal lake in Brazil2012In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 418-419, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassay experiments were performed two times (with 2 years in between) in order to investigate if nitrogen(N, ammonium), phosphorus (P, phosphate) and carbon (C, glucose) additions would stimulate the growth ofbacteria and phytoplankton differently in three different tropical aquatic environments. The water and theirindigenous microbial communities were taken from a freshwater coastal lake (Cabiunas), a coastal (Anjos),and an offshore marine station (Sonar) in the Atlantic outside Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Ammonium,phosphate and glucose were added alone or in combination to triplicate bottles. In the lake, P seemedto be the primary limiting factor during the first experiment, since both bacterial production and phytoplanktongrowth was stimulated by the P addition. Two years later, however, addition of P inhibited phytoplanktongrowth. During both years, C was closely co-limiting for bacteria since CP additions increased the responseconsiderably. For both the coastal and offshore seawater stations, phytoplankton growth was clearly stimulatedby N addition in both years and the bacteria responded either to the P, N or C additions (alone or incombination). To conclude, the results from these tropical aquatic systems show that it is possible that phytoplanktonand bacteria may compete for a common resource (P) in lakes, but can be limited by different inorganicnutrients in marine waters as well as lakes, suggesting that phytoplankton and bacteria do notnecessarily compete for the same growth limiting nutrient in these environments.

  • 7.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Majaneva, Sanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Seasonal variation and species-specific concentrations of the essential vitamin B₁ (thiamin) in zooplankton and seston2019In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 166, no 6, p. 1-13, article id 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is mainly produced by bacteria and phytoplankton and then transferred to zooplankton and higher trophic levels but knowledge on the dynamics of these processes in aquatic ecosystems is lacking. Hence, the seasonal variation in thiamin content was assessed in field samples of copepods and in pico-, nano- and micro-plankton of two size classes (0.7–3 µm and > 3 µm) collected monthly in the Baltic Sea during 3 years and in the Skagerrak during 1 year. Copepods exhibited species-specific concentrations of thiamin and Acartia sp. had the highest carbon-specific thiamin content, at both locations. Even members of the same genus, but from different systems contained different levels of thiamin, with higher thiamin content per specimen in copepods from the Skagerrak compared to congeners from the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, our results show that the small plankton (0.7–3 µm) had a higher carbon-specific thiamin content compared to the large (> 3 µm). Additionally, there was a large seasonal variation and thiamin content was highly correlated comparing the two size fractions. Finally, there was an overall positive correlation between thiamin content in copepods and plankton. However, for periods of high thiamin content in the two size fractions, this correlation was negative. This suggests a decoupling between thiamin availability in pico-, nano- and micro-plankton and zooplankton in the Baltic Sea. Knowledge about concentrations of this essential micronutrient in the aquatic food web is limited and this study constitutes a foundation for further understanding the dynamics of thiamin in aquatic environments.

  • 8.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Species-specific content of thiamin (vitamin B1) in phytoplankton and the transfer to copepodsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thiamin (vitamin B1) content in phytoplankton and zooplankton in the presence of filamentous cyanobacteria2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2423-2435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Top predators in several aquatic food webs regularly display elevated reproductive failure, caused by thiamin(vitamin B1)deficiency. The reasons for these low-thiamin levels are not understood and information about the transfer of thiamin from the producers (bacteria and phytoplankton) to higher trophic levels is limited. One main concern is whether cyanobacterial blooms could negatively affect thiamin transfer in aquatic systems. Laboratory experiments with Baltic Sea plankton communities and single phytoplankton species were used to study the effect of filamentous cyanobacteria on the transfer of thiamin from phytoplankton to zooplankton. Experiments showed that the thiamin content in copepods was reduced when exposed to elevated levels of cyanobacteria, although filamentous cyanobacteria had higher levels of thiamin than any other analyzed phytoplankton species. Filamentous cyanobacteria also had a negative effect on copepod egg production despite high concentrations of non-cyanobacterial food. Phytoplankton species composition affected overall thiamin concentration with relatively more thiamin available for transfer when the relative abundance of Dinophyceae was higher. Finally, phytoplankton thiamin levels were lower when copepods were abundant, indicating that grazers affect thiamin levels in phytoplankton community, likely by selective feeding. Overall, high levels of thiamin in phytoplankton communities are not reflected in the copepod community. We conclude that presence of filamentous cyanobacteria during summer potentially reduces the transfer of thiamin to higher trophic levels by negatively affecting phytoplankton and copepod thiamin content as well as copepod reproduction, thereby lowering the absolute capacity of the food web to transfer thiamin through copepods to higher trophic levels.

  • 10.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Esplund, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Ekenäs, Finland.
    Minimizing economical losses with the help of “real-time” algal surveillance2012In: Eco-Tech 2012 Proceedings, 2012, p. 550-555Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacterial blooms covering almost the entire Baltic Sea is a yearly feature during July-August. For the tourism industry at Öland island, SE Sweden, the economical losses during the summer 2005 amounted to 17-23 million euros. Remote sensing satellite images show that all the Öland beaches are covered with decomposing algae. In reality, these blooms rarely reach the western side of the island. To more accurately inform the public on the quality of the water for swimming, with the help of volunteers, a daily real-time surveillance of the algal densities on the beaches was performed. The volunteers (from 15 years old to pensioners) were trained at the Linnaeus University, from simple laboratory techniques, to more complicated ones such as identification and enumeration of the toxic cyanobacteria species. By latest 9.00 a.m., the public had access to information on the algal situation on 17 beaches. We could show that: 1) although remote sensing images showed Öland being surrounded by the blooms, our surveillance showed no algal accumulations on the beaches 2) that the real-time warning system boosted public confidence in the local water quality and during the first “Miss Algae”-summer 2006, the economical losses by the tourism industry turned in profits, the gain amounting to 17 million euros, 3) this kind of real-time surveillance is economical feasible due to low-costs involved, but also, the project has a great social value for the volunteers who mostly were pensioners. The volunteers who participated in “Miss Algae” had a good knowledge about the area they monitored (as their houses are located nearby) and could disseminate knowledge to the public in these areas. This kind of project also render a lot of interest regional, national and international, and can be used in advertising campaigns to increase tourism in the areas affected by algal blooms.

  • 11.
    Heuschele, Jan
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Ceballos, Sara
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark;Spanish Inst Oceanog, Spain.
    Borg, Christian Marc Andersen
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjaerke, Oda
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Isari, Stamatina
    CSIC, Spain;Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece.
    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel
    Georgia Inst Technol, USA;Univ Maine, USA.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Umeå university.
    Souissi, Anissa
    University of Lille Nord de France, France.
    Souissi, Sami
    University of Lille Nord de France, France.
    Titelman, Josefin
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Non-consumptive effects of predator presence on copepod reproduction: insights from a mesocosm experiment2014In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 161, no 7, p. 1653-1666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction in planktonic animals depends on numerous biotic and abiotic factors. One of them is predation pressure, which can have both directconsumptive effects on population density and sex ratio, and non-consumptive effects, for example on mating and migration behaviour. In copepods, predatorvulnerability depends on their sex, motility pattern and mating behaviour. Therefore, copepods can be affected at multiple stages during the mating process. We investigated the reproductive dynamics of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis in the presence and absence of its predator the mysid Neomysis integer in a mesocosm experiment. We found that the proportion of ovigerous females decreased in the presence of predators. This shift was not caused by differential predation as the absolute number of females was unaffected by mysid presence. Presence of predators reduced the ratio of males to non-ovigerous females, but not by predation of males. Our combined results suggest that the shift from ovigerous to non-ovigerous females under the presence of predators was caused by either actively delayed egg production or by shedding of egg sacs. Nauplii production was initially suppressed in the predation treatment, but increased towards the end of the experiment. The proportion of fertilized females was similar in both treatments, but constantly fell behind model predictions using a random mating model. Our results highlight the importance of non-consumptive effects of predators on copepod reproduction and hence on population dynamics.

  • 12.
    Israelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Baltar, Federico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Martinez-Garcia, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Universidade de Vigo, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Seasonal dynamics of Baltic Sea plankton activities: heterotrophic bacterial function under different biological and environmental conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jerney, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland;Leibniz Inst Ostseeforsch Warnemunde, Germany.
    Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 4443-4451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic “seed banks” of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A. ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high temperature, low salinity, and high temperature in combination with low salinity. We found that the final germination success of A. ostenfeldii resting cysts was unaffected by temperature and salinity in the range tested. A high germination success of more than 80% in all treatments indicates that strains are not selected by temperature and salinity during germination, but selection becomes more important shortly after germination, in the vegetative stage of the life cycle. Moreover, strains were not adapted to germination conditions. Instead, highly plastic responses occurred after transplantation and significantly higher growth rates were observed at higher temperature. High variability of strain-specific responses has probably masked the overall effect of the treatments, highlighting the importance of testing the effect of environmental factors on many strains. It is likely that A. ostenfeldii populations can persist in the future, because suitable strains, which are able to germinate and grow well at potential future climate conditions, are part of the highly diverse cyst population. OPEN RESEARCH BADGES: This article has earned an Open Data Badge for making publicly available the digitally-shareable data necessary to reproduce the reported results. The data is available at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.c8c83nr. © 2019 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 14.
    Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Interannual variability of phyto-bacterioplankton biomass and production in coastal and offshore waters of the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no supplement 3, p. S427-S438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial part of the pelagic food web is seldom characterized in models despite its major contribution to biogeochemical cycles. In the Baltic Sea, spatial and temporal high frequency sampling over three years revealed changes in heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton coupling (biomass and production) related to hydrographic properties of the ecosystem. Phyto- and bacterioplankton were bottom-up driven in both coastal and offshore areas. Cold winter temperature was essential for phytoplankton to conform to the successional sequence in temperate waters. In terms of annual carbon production, the loss of the spring bloom (diatoms and dinoflagellates) after mild winters tended not to be compensated for by other taxa, not even summer cyanobacteria. These results improve our ability to project Baltic Sea ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental changes.

  • 15.
    Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalgers potential inom biofiltering av industriell rökgas och processvatten2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND – industry and ecology together working to reduce the impact of climate change and eutrophication2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND: Industry and Ecology Together2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algoland kick-off: alger och musslor- klimat och övergödningssänkor med stor potential2016In: Presented at the Algoland Kick-off Conference 2016, Kalmar, Sweden, September 9, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND återvinner näring och CO2 från industriutsläpp för att producera en värdefull produkt, mikroalger2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Biologi och Miljövetenskap2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mikroalgers potential inom biofiltering av industriell rökgas och processvatten2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Östersjön - ett hav av möjligheter2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    Influence of Prey and Nutritional Status on the Rate of Nitrogen Uptake by Prymnesium parvum (haptophyte)2010In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 46, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Glibert, Patricia M
    University of Maryland, Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge, USA.
    Nitrogen uptake kinetics of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyte)2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 12, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uptake rates of different nitrogen (N) forms (NO3-, urea, and the amino acids glycine and glutamicacid) by N-deficient, laboratory-grown cells of the mixotrophic haptophyte, Prymnesium parvum, weremeasured and the preference by the cells for the different forms determined. Cellular N uptake rates(rcell, fmol N cell-1 h-1) were measured using 15N-labeled N substrates. P. parvum showed highpreference for the tested amino acids, in particular glutamic acid, over urea and NO3 under the culturenutrient conditions. However, extrapolating these rates to Baltic Seawater summer conditions, P. parvumwould be expected to show higher uptake rates of NO3- and the amino acids relative to urea because ofthe difference in average concentrations of these substrates. A high uptake rate of glutamic acid at lowsubstrate concentrations suggests that this substrate is likely used through extracellular enzymes.Nitrate, urea and glycine, on the other hand, showed a non-saturating uptake over the tested substrateconcentration (1–40 mM-N for NO3- and urea, 0.5–10 mM-N for glycine), indicating slower membranetransportrates for these substrates

  • 25.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Effect of tertiary sewage effluent additions on Prymnesium parvum cell toxicity and stable isotope ratios2009In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the ability of the ichthyotoxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum to use sewage-originated nutrients applying stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope techniques. P. parvum was cultured under N and phosphorus (P) sufficient and deficient conditions in either sewage effluent-based medium or in a nitrate- and phosphate-based control. Cell densities and toxicities were monitored and stable carbon N isotopes signatures (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of P. parvum and the sewage effluent analysed. Nitrogen and P sufficient cultures achieved the highest biomass followed by P and N deficient cultures, regardless of sewage effluent additions. The P deficient cultures with sewage effluent had higher toxicity, estimated as haemolytic activity (9.4 +/- 0 x 10(-5) mg Saponin equiv. cell(-1)) compared to the P deficient control and to all N deficient and NP sufficient cultures. Nutrient deficient conditions had no effect on the cell delta(15)N, but a decreasing effect on delta(13)C in the inorganic N deficient treatment. Growth in sewage-based media was followed by a substantial increase in the cell delta(15)N (10.4-16.1 parts per thousand) compared to the control treatments (2.4-4.9 parts per thousand), showing that P. parvum is capable of direct use of sewage-originated N, inorganic as well as organic. Uptake of terrestrial derived C in the sewage treatments was confirmed by a decrease in cell delta(13)C, implying that P. parvum is able to utilize organic nutrients in sewage effluent.

  • 26.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Jerney, J.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Le Tortorec, A.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Savela, H.
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Svahn, E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Suikkanen, S.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Kremp, A.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Nitrogen Supply Mechanisms in Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii - the Key to Bloom Expansion in Coastal Baltic Waters?2017In: Phycologia, ISSN 0031-8884, E-ISSN 2330-2968, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Briggen Tre Kronor: Algoland2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    ALGOLAND – Recovery: avfall används för att producera en värdefull produkt - algbiomassa2018In: Presented at the Algoland 2030 Workshop, Kalmar, Sweden, April 24, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Majaneva, Sanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway;Norwegian University of Science and technology, Norway.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Margonski, Piotr
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Poland.
    Majaneva, Markus
    NTNU University Museum, Norway.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rubene, Gunta
    Animal Health and Environment BIOR, Latvia.
    Wasmund, Norbert
    Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Deficiency syndromes in top predators associated with large-scale changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Frick, Brage
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Baltic Sea microalgae transform cement flue gas into valuable biomass2015In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 11, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show high feasibility of using cement industrial flue gas as CO2 source for microalgal cultivation. The toxicity of cement flue gas (12-15% CO2) on algal biomass production and composition (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) was tested using monocultures (Tetraselmis sp., green algae, Skeletonema marinoi, diatom) and natural brackish communities. The performance of a natural microalgal community dominated by spring diatoms was compared to a highly productive diatom monoculture S. marinoi fed with flue gas or air-CO2 mixture. Flue gas was not toxic to any of the microalgae tested. Instead we show high quality of microalgal biomass (lipids 20-30% DW, proteins 20-28% DW, carbohydrates 15-30% DW) and high production when cultivated with flue gas addition compared to CO2-air. Brackish Baltic Sea microalgal communities performed equally or better in terms of biomass quality and production than documented monocultures of diatom and green algae, often used in algal research and development. Hence, we conclude that microalgae should be included in biological solutions to transform waste into renewable resources in coastal waters. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 31.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Production stability and biomass quality in microalgal cultivation: contribution of community dynamics2019In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 330-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospect of using constructed communities of microalgae in algal cultivation wasconfirmed in this study. Three constructed communities of diatoms (Diatom), greenalgae (Green) and cyanobacteria (Cyano), were each mixed with a natural communityof microalgae as baseline. The communities were cultivated in batch and semicontinuousmode and fed CO2 or cement flue gas (12-15 % CO2). Diatom had thehighest growth rate but Green had the highest yield. Dynamic changes in thecommunity composition occurred from start through batch to semi-steady state. Greenalgae were the most competitive group during the experiment. Euglenoids wererecruited from scarce species in the natural community and became a large part of thebiomass in semi-steady state in all communities. High temporal and yield stabilitywas demonstrated in all communities during semi-steady state. Biochemicalcomposition (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) was similar for the threecommunities with lipids ranging 14-26 % of dry weight (DW), proteins (15-28 %DW) and carbohydrates (9-23 % DW). Filamentous cyanobacteria were outcompetedearly in the experiment. However, their minute presence in Cyano associated withhigher lipid and lower carbohydrates compared to Diatom and Green, suggesting theimportance of chemical interactions among microorganisms. Our results indicate thatculture functions (stability, biomass quality) were maintained while dynamic changesoccurred in community composition. We propose that a multi-species communityapproach can aid sustainability in microalgal cultivation, through complementary useof resources and higher culture stability. Local environmental conditions,complementary microalgal traits, and interactions among functional groups (algae,bacteria) should be considered in community design where natural succession andcrop rotation will likely provide stability for commercial-scale algal cultivation.

  • 32.
    Paul, Carsten
    et al.
    Department for Bioorganic Analytics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
    Reunamo, Anna
    Department of Biology, Division of Genetics and Physiology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Umeå University, 91020 Hörnefors, Sweden / Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergkvist, Johanna
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mausz, Michaela A.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Richter, Hannes
    Wängberg, Sten-Åke
    Leskinen, Piia
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    Pohnert, Georg
    Diatom derived polyunsaturated aldehydes do not structure the planktonic microbial community in a mesocosm study2012In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 10, p. 775-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several marine and freshwater diatoms produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) in wound-activated processes. These metabolites are also released by intact diatom cells during algal blooms. Due to their activity in laboratory experiments, PUA are considered as potential mediators of diatom-bacteria interactions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUA mediate such processes in a close-to-field mesocosm experiment. Natural plankton communities enriched with Skeletonema marinoi strains that differ in their PUA production, a plankton control, and a plankton control supplemented with PUA at natural and elevated concentrations were observed. We monitored bacterial and viral abundance as well as bacterial community composition and did not observe any influence of PUA on these parameters even at elevated concentrations. We rather detected an alternation of the bacterial diversity over time and differences between the two S. marinoi strains, indicating unique dynamic bacterial communities in these algal blooms. These results suggest that factors other than PUA are of significance for interactions between diatoms and bacteria. 

  • 33.
    Savela, Henna
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Harju, Kirsi
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Spoof, Lisa
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Meriluoto, Jussi
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Vehniainen, Markus
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environm Inst, Finland.
    Quantity of the dinoflagellate sxtA4 gene and cell density correlates with paralytic shellfish toxin production in Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms2016In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 52, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many marine dinofiagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinofiagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp. and Gymnodinium catenatum was designed. The focus was on Alexandrium ostenfeldii, a species which recurrently forms dense toxic blooms in areas within the Baltic Sea. A consistent, positive correlation between the presence of sxtA4 and PST biosynthesis was observed, and the species was found to maintain PST production with an average of 6 genomic copies of sxtA4. In August 2014, A. ostenfeldii populations were studied for cell densities, PST production, as well as sxtA4 and species-specific LSU copy numbers in Foglo, Aland, Finland, where an exceptionally dense bloom, consisting of 6.3 x 10(6) cells L-1, was observed. Cell concentrations, and copy numbers of both of the target genes were positively correlated with total STX, GTX2, and GTX3 concentrations in the environment, the cell density predicting toxin concentrations with the best accuracy (Spearman's p = 0.93, p < 0.01). The results indicated that all A. ostenfeldii cells in the blooms harbored the genetic capability of PST production, making the detection of sxtA4 a good indicator of toxicity. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34. Sjoqvist, C.
    et al.
    Kremp, A.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Umeå Marine Sci Ctr.
    Bamstedt, U.
    Egardt, J.
    Gross, S.
    Jonsson, M.
    Larsson, H.
    Pohnert, G.
    Richter, H.
    Selander, E.
    Godhe, A.
    Effects of Grazer Presence on Genetic Structure of a Phenotypically Diverse Diatom Population2014In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of predator-prey systems in both aquatic and terrestrial environments have shown that grazers structure the intraspecific diversity of prey species, given that the prey populations are phenotypically variable. Populations of phytoplankton have traditionally considered comprising only low intraspecific variation, hence selective grazing as a potentially structuring factor of both genetic and phenotypic diversity has not been comprehensively studied. In this study, we compared strain specific growth rates, production of polyunsaturated aldehydes, and chain length of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi in both grazer and non-grazer conditions by conducting monoclonal experiments. Additionally, a mesocosm experiment was performed with multiclonal experimental S. marinoi populations exposed to grazers at different levels of copepod concentration to test effects of grazer presence on diatom diversity in close to natural conditions. Our results show that distinct genotypes of a geographically restricted population exhibit variable phenotypic traits relevant to grazing interactions such as chain length and growth rates. Grazer presence affected clonal richness and evenness of multiclonal Skeletonema populations in the mesocosms, likely in conjunction with intrinsic interactions among the diatom strains. Only the production of polyunsaturated aldehydes was not affected by grazer presence. Our findings suggest that grazing can be an important factor structuring diatom population diversity in the sea and emphasize the importance of considering clonal differences when characterizing species and their role in nature.

  • 35.
    Sundbäck, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dissolved organic nitrogen: an important source of nitrogen for the microphytobenthos insandy sediment2011In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test the hypothesis that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is important for sustaining microphytobenthic (MPB) primary production during nitrogen-limited conditions, the uptake of 15N-labelled urea, the amino acids glycine (GLY) and glutamic acid (GLU), and nitrate and ammonium were measured under simulated in-situ light and temperature conditions. Microphytobenthic primary production and chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also measured. MPB was dominated by diatoms attached to sand grains, cyanobacteria making up ~30% of the biomass. Activities of the hydrolytic ectoenzymes leucin aminopeptidase (AMA), alkaline phosphatase (APA), and β-glucosidase (GLA) in filter-fractionated sediment showed that the microbenthic community was strongly N deficient, with the bacterial fraction (<1 µm) also phosphorus limited. DON uptake (urea + glutamic acid + glycine) accounted for ~ 50–65% of the uptake of 15N-labeled substrates, with higher proportion of DON uptake at low substrate concentrations (≤2 µM). Except for nitrate, the kinetics fitted a linear model. Calculated relative preference index (RPI) based on porewater concentrations, suggested that the order of preference of the microbenthic community was NH4+ > urea > GLU > NO3- > GLY. Using a prokaryotic inhibitor (chloramphenicol) and theoretical calculations of algal uptake based on C/Chl a ratios, it was estimated that “algal” nitrogen uptake accounted for ~ 55-90% of DON uptake. Uptake rates were, however, estimated to cover only 26% –50% of the N-demand of MPB, suggesting that porewater N concentrations were not sufficient to meet the microalgal demand in early summer and that MPB in sandy sediments of micro-tidal waters may often be severely N-limited.

  • 36.
    Sörenson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland;Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemunde, Germany.
    Kruget, Karen
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consistency in microbiomes in cultures of Alexandrium species isolated from brackish and marine waters2019In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 425-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and bacteria interactions have a significant role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Associations can range from mutualistic to parasitic, shaping biogeochemical cycles and having a direct influence on phytoplankton growth. How variations in phenotype and sampling location, affect the phytoplankton microbiome is largely unknown. A high‐resolution characterization of the bacterial community in cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium was performed on strains isolated from different geographical locations and at varying anthropogenic impact levels. Microbiomes of Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and were consistent over phenotypic and genotypic Alexandrium strain variation, resulting in identification of an A. ostenfeldii core microbiome. Comparisons with in situ bacterial communities showed that taxa found in this A. ostenfeldii core were specifically associated to dinoflagellate dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Microbiomes of Alexandrium tamarense and minutum, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, differed from those of A. ostenfeldii in bacterial diversity and composition but displayed high consistency, and a core set of bacterial taxa was identified. This indicates that Alexandrium isolates with diverse phenotypes host predictable, species‐specific, core microbiomes reflecting the abiotic conditions from which they were isolated. These findings enable in‐depth studies of potential interactions occurring between Alexandrium and specific bacterial taxa.

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