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  • 1.
    Axelsson Olsson, Diana
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Increase in Acid Tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni through Coincubation with Amoebae2010Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 76, nr 13, s. 4194-4200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni is a recognized and common gastrointestinal pathogen in most parts of the world. Human infections are often food borne, and the bacterium is frequent among poultry and other food animals. However, much less is known about the epidemiology of C. jejuni in the environment and what mechanisms the bacterium depends on to tolerate low pH. The sensitive nature of C. jejuni stands in contrast to the fact that it is difficult to eradicate from poultry production, and even more contradictory is the fact that the bacterium is able to survive the acidic passage through the human stomach. Here we expand the knowledge on C. jejuni acid tolerance by looking at protozoa as a potential epidemiological pathway of infection. Our results showed that when C. jejuni cells were coincubated with Acanthamoeba polyphaga in acidified phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or tap water, the bacteria could tolerate pHs far below those in their normal range, even surviving at pH 4 for 20 h and at pH 2 for 5 h. Interestingly, moderately acidic conditions (pH 4 and 5) were shown to trigger C. jejuni motility as well as to increase adhesion/internalization of bacteria into A. polyphaga. Taken together, the results suggest that protozoa may act as protective hosts against harsh conditions and might be a potential risk factor for C. jejuni infections. These findings may be important for our understanding of C. jejuni passage through the gastrointestinal tract and for hygiene practices used in poultry settings.

  • 2. Glibert, PA
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    and, 55 co-authors
    Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks2008Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 1049-1056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.

  • 3.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Factors influencing allelopathy and toxicity in Prymnesium parvum2010Inngår i: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 46, s. 108-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some microalgae are able to kill or inhibit nutrient-competing microalgae, a process called allelopathy. Inhibiting or killing competitors enable these species to monopolize limiting resources, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Prymnesium parvum is known to produce such allelopathic compounds, substances that seem identical to the ichthyotoxins identified from this species. Biotic and abiotic environmental factors influence not only growth rates but also toxin/allelopathic compounds production by P. parvum cells. Toxin production, as well as allelopathy, including grazer deterrence, increases dramatically in light, temperature, or nutrient stressed P. parvum cells. Correspondingly, toxicity and allelopathy may decrease, or cease completely, if cells are grown with high amounts of N and P in balanced proportions. However, even under nutrient (N and P) sufficient conditions, P. parvum is able to produce toxins/allelopathic compounds, with negative effects on other phytoplankton species or grazers, if cells densities of P. parvum are high relative to other species. This negative effect might shift the plankton community to more toxin resistant species. Filtrates from nutrient-deficient P. parvum cultures have almost the same strong negative effect on grazers and other phytoplankton species as when Prymnesium cells are grown together with the target organisms. Eutrophication, the increased input of N and P to aquatic ecosystems, besides increasing nutrient concentrations, is usually provoking unbalanced N:P condition for the optimal growth of phytoplankton, deviating from the Redfield ratio, i.e., the phytoplankton cellular nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, N:P = 16:1 (by atoms) or 7.2:1 (by weight). Eutrophication thus both enhances P. parvum growth and increases production of toxins and allelopathic compounds. Supplying N-deficient or P-deficient P. parvum cells with the deficient nutrient reduces toxicity to less than half within 24 h after additions. As P. parvum is mixotrophic, uptake of dissolved or particulate organic N (DON or PON) can also reduce toxicity and allelopathy in the same manner as addition of inorganic N to N-starved cells. In conclusion, P. parvum, by increasing its toxicity and allelopathic ability under poor environmental conditions, outcompetes the co-occurring phytoplankton species.

  • 4.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fistarol, Giovana
    The role of allelopathy for harmful algae bloom formation2008Inngår i: Algal Toxins: Nature, Occurrence, Effect and Detection. / [ed] Evangelista V, Barsanti L, Frassanito AM, Passarelli V, Gualtieri P, The Netherlands: Springer , 2008, s. 159-178Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Granéli, Edna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Weberg, Martin
    Salomon, Paulo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Harmful algal blooms of allelopathic species: the role of eutrophication2008Inngår i: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, s. 94-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Jansson, Sven
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gisselson, Lasse
    Salomon, Paulo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Granéli, Edna
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Evidence for multiple species within the endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii as based on 18S rRNA gene-sequence analysis2000Inngår i: Parasitology research, Vol. 86, s. 929-933Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Effects from log-yard stormwater runoff on the microalgae Scenedesmus subspicatus: Intra-storm magnitude and variability2011Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 185, nr 2-3, s. 732-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the effects posed by stormwater runoff from an industrial log-yard on the microalgae Scenedesmus subspicatus. The effects of stormwater runoff sampled during two rain events were determined by exposing S. subspicatus cells to different concentrations (% v:v) of each sample. The effects were measured as the percentage change in growth rates in relation to a control culture after exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96h. The runoff from the first rain event had no negative effects to S.subspicatus, posing in most cases growth stimulation, whereas the runoff from the second rain event inhibited algae growth. Differences in runoff physico-chemical characteristics combined with the hydrological factors of each rain event explained these opposite effects. The hypothesis of toxic first flush phenomenon was confirmed in the second rain event on the basis of normalized inhibitory effects and runoff volume. It was found that 42, 51 and 50% of the inhibitory effects during exposures of 24, 48 and 72h are associated with the initial 4% of the total discharged volume. The fact that negative effects were observed in the two runoff events analyzed here, raises concern about the potential environmental threats posed by runoff originated from wood-based industrial areas during the entire hydrological year.

  • 8.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Deapartment of Marine Biology , Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ).
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Toxicity on the Microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus: Wastewater Generated during washing procedures in a Wood-floor industry2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV. Department of Marine Biology , Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus2012Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, nr 21, s. 2439-2446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies.

  • 10.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Riemann, Lasse
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Baltar, Federico
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Romero-Oliva, Claudia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Consequences of increased temperature and acidification on bacterioplankton community composition during a mesocosm spring bloom in the Baltic Sea2013Inngår i: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 252-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the paramount importance of bacteria for biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients, little is known about the potential effects of climate change on these key organisms. The consequences of the projected climate change on bacterioplankton community dynamics were investigated in a Baltic Sea spring phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment by increasing temperature with 3°C and decreasing pH by approximately 0.4 units via CO2 addition in a factorial design. Temperature was the major driver of differences in community composition during the experiment, as shown by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Several bacterial phylotypes belonging to Betaproteobacteria were predominant at 3°C but were replaced by members of the Bacteriodetes in the 6°C mesocosms. Acidification alone had a limited impact on phylogenetic composition, but when combined with increased temperature, resulted in the proliferation of specific microbial phylotypes. Our results suggest that although temperature is an important driver in structuring bacterioplankton composition, evaluation of the combined effects of temperature and acidification is necessary to fully understand consequences of climate change for marine bacterioplankton, their implications for future spring bloom dynamics, and their role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 11.
    Minnhagen, Susanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Kim, Miran
    Salomon, Paulo
    Yih, Wonho
    Granéli, Edna
    Park, Myung
    Active uptake of kleptoplastids by Dinophysis caudata from its ciliate prey Myrionceta rubraManuskript (preprint) (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We verified an active uptake of kleptoplastids in the toxic and bloom forming dinoflagellates genus Dinophysis from its preferred prey, the ciliate Myrionecta rubra, using a quantitative real-time PCR technique. During a 65 days starvation/feeding experiment with Dinophysis caudata, changes in plastid 16S rRNA, plastid autofluorescence and plastid/nuclear DNA ratio through the cell-cycle was followed with quantitative real-time PCR and flow-cytometry. During starvation, the cultures initially showed a rapid growth and an 3.5-fold increase of cells ml-1, when at the same time, plastid DNA cell-1 showed a 3.5-fold decrease, and phycoerythrin fluorescence cell-1 a 3.6-fold decrease. The decrease in plastid DNA cell-1day-1 closely followed culture growth rate (r = 0.91, Pearson correlation), indicating that existing plastids were diluted within the growing population, and that no new plastids were synthesised by the cells. When starved cells were re-fed by the ciliate M. rubra on day 43-51 of the experiment, plastid DNA cell-1 increased 7-fold up to 14 000 16S DNA copies per cell, thereby directly revealing the kleptoplastic behaviour. The implication is that not only availability of the prey M. rubra itself, but also the supply of suitable kleptoplastids might be an important controlling factor for Dinophysis spp. bloom formation and decline.

  • 12.
    Minnhagen, Susanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Kim, Miran
    Chonnam National University, Republic of Korea.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Yih, Wonho
    Kunsan National University, Republic of Korea.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Park, Myung Gil
    Chonnam National University, Republic of Korea.
    Active uptake of kleptoplastids by Dinophysis caudata from its ciliate prey Myrionecta rubra2011Inngår i: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 99-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We verified an active uptake of kleptoplastids in the toxic and bloom-forming dinoflagellatesof the genus Dinophysis from its preferred prey, the ciliate Myrionecta rubra, using a quantitativereal-time PCR technique. During a 65 d starvation/feeding experiment with Dinophysis caudata,changes in plastid 16S rRNA, plastid autofluorescence and plastid/nuclear DNA ratio throughthe cell cycle were followed with quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. During starvation,the cultures initially showed a rapid growth and a 3.5-fold increase of number of cells ml–1, while atthe same time, plastid DNA cell–1 showed a 3.5-fold decrease, and a 3.6-fold decrease in phycoerythrinfluorescence cell–1. The decrease in plastid DNA cell–1 d–1 closely followed culture growth rate(Pearson correlation, r = 0.91), indicating that existing plastids were diluted within the growing populationand that no new plastids were synthesised by the cells. When starved cells were re-fed by theciliate M. rubra on Days 43 to 51 of the experiment, plastid DNA cell–1 increased 7-fold up to 14 00016S DNA copies per cell, thereby directly revealing the kleptoplastic behaviour. The implication isthat not only availability of the prey M. rubra itself, but also the supply of suitable kleptoplastidsmight be an important controlling factor for Dinophysis spp. bloom formation and decline.

  • 13.
    Pérez Blanco, Eva
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hagström, Johannes
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Detection of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) using specific RNA probes: Variability of RNA content with environmental conditions2013Inngår i: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 24, s. 80-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo, which forms toxic blooms, causes major economical losses to the fish industry because of the fish kills involved. It is therefore important to be able to detect not only H. akashiwo but other toxic phytoplankton species as well, rapidly and accurately to reduce losses by fish kills. With this purpose, DNA sequences from H. akashiwo 18S and 28S rRNA gene regions were studied in silico to design species-specific probes to be used in a microarray format. Three strains of H. akashiwo (AC 265, AC 266 and GUMACC 120) were grown at optimal conditions and transferred into new environmental conditions changing either the light intensity, salinity, temperature or nutrient concentrations, to check if any of these environmental conditions induced changes in the cellular RNA concentration. The aim of this experiment was the calibration of several species-specific probes for the quantification of H. akashiwo. Differences on RNA content were not significant (p < 0.05) in any of the treatments, therefore the calibration curves were validated. The designed probes are reliable for the detection and quantification of H. akashiwo cells in natural waters. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Romero-Oliva, Claudia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Effects of increased temperature and acidification on the development of Baltic Sea spring plankton communities.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The response of natural Baltic Sea spring plankton communities topredicted higher temperature and increased seawater acidification was studied in an indoor-mesocosm experiment. Plankton communities collected in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea (Kalmar Sound) were incubated for 20 days in the following conditions of: normal pH and temperature (pH=7.52, 3°C; control condition); lower pH (pH=7.14,3°C); high temperature (pH=7.52, 6°C) and lower pH-high temperature,(pH=7.14, 6 °C). Results showed that phytoplankton biomass (expressed as chlorophyll a), growth rates, plankton cell densities and community composition were significantly influenced by higher temperature, lower pH and to a greater extent subjected to both factors in combination. At higher temperature, phytoplankton biomass, particulate organic carbon(POC) and growth rates in addition to copepod densities were significantly enhanced. Highest bacteriae and heterotrophic nanoflagellates densities were observed in the higher temperature and lower pH treatment. Furthermore, the highest total phytoplankton and plankton communities diversity were found in this treatment as well. Increase in temperature and acidification accelerated the spring bloom by ca. 1 day °C-1. The phytoplankton community shifted from a dominance of Skeletonema costatum, in favor of haptophytes and dinoflagellates; and from dominance of the ciliate Myrionecta rubra in favor of tintiniids and oligotrichids. Our results suggest that the concomitant increased temperature and acidification of the Baltic Sea will increase the spring bloom biomass, and induce an early appearance of phytoplankton species typical of summer, thus decreasing the dominance of diatoms during the spring bloom. Decreased ciliates and copepod abundances will probably lead to sinking of higher amount phytoplankton biomass to deep water layers, expanding the area of oxygen depletion. If that is the case, the extra-incorporated carbon will not be channeled up the food chain.

  • 15.
    Salomon, Paulo
    Kalmar University, Natural Sciences.
    Importance of Pathogens on the Ecology of Marine Phytoplankton Populations2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Salomon, Paulo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Granéli, Edna
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Neves, MHCB
    Rodriguez, EG
    Infection by Amoebophrya spp. parasitoids of dinoflagellates in a tropical marine coastal area2009Inngår i: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 143-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infection of marine dinoflagellates by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya spp. plays an important role in population dynamics and carbon flow in marine food webs. It has been extensively reported that Amoebophrya parasitoids occur in temperate coastal areas of the northern hemisphere; however, little is known about their distribution and importance in tropical areas and southern oceans. We used an rRNA-based, fluorescent in situ hybridization assay to detect Amoebophrya spp. infections during the decline of a late-summer dinoflagellate population dominated by Ceratium falcatiforme in a tropical coastal area of the southern Atlantic Ocean subjected to recurrent upwelling-downwelling cycles. Conditions during our survey were typical of downwelling when oligotrophic waters dominate the area. C. falcatiforme was the most infected host, with a prevalence averaging 2% over the study area at the beginning of sampling. At a fixed sampling station monitored over 4 wk, Amoebophrya prevalence escalated from 1 to 7% over a 6 d period, concomitant to a 94% decrease in host cell numbers. Infection by Amoebophrya was estimated to have killed ca. 11% of the host cell population within this period; thus, parasitism was not the main factor behind the C. falcatiforme population decline. Estimates based on biovolume calculations indicate that ca. 6.5% of the carbon in the decaying C. falcatiforme population was transformed into parasitoid dinospores, which became available to tintinnid ciliates that were abundant during our survey. Such a trophic link might be relevant in tropical oligotrophic waters when the system is characterized by a microbial food web structure.

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