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  • 1.
    Larsson Ringqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. franska.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Subjektivt och intersubjektivt lärande: Perspektiv från forskning om språktillägnande2006In: Association Suedoise De Linguistique Appliquee (ASLA), ISSN 1100-5629, p. 141-154Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Automatiserade kunskapsprocesser: en utmaning för läroplansteorin?2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Automatized, experiential and reflected learning: knowledge formation as process and product.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Avlutande essä: När det stora livet inte knackar på2018In: Att leda lärande: En vänbok till Per Gerrevall / [ed] Krantz, Joakim & Sundberg, Daniel, Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2018, p. 259-271Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Bibliotekspedagogik – en ny nisch inom pedagogiken?2007In: Infotrend, ISSN 1653-0225, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 7-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Don’t Get Me Wrong: Using ”Own Experience” and ”Proven Experience” in Assignments and Student Texts2014In: International Journal of Business and Social Science, ISSN 2219-1933, E-ISSN 2219-6021, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the ambiguity of the two related expressions “own experience” and “proven experience” by examples taken from home assignments and student texts.  First, the “own experience” expression is exemplified in the sense of “acquaintance with” without being necessarily combined with theoretical knowing. With inspiration taken from the theory of knowledge the question of what it may mean when people express their own experience is discussed. Secondly, the concept is related to notions like intelligence, life wisdom and maturity, which are supposedly associated with skill, ability and, possibly, routine. The interpretation suggests understanding the concept as a form of scientific attitude. Thirdly, “proven experience” will be dealt with. This expression is perceived as practice and training, supposedly leading to know-how, expertise and practical knowledge. This section includes references to working life research. The conclusion discusses, with minor digressions on language and memory research, whether it is at all reasonable to use concepts like “own experience” and “proven experience”. 

  • 7.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Drift of Meaning: University Tutors' Understanding of Examination Papers2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research. Network: 22. Research in Higher Education, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' understanding of feedback is of great interest whenever good education is underway. Effective feedback presupposes that students understand the task on which feedback is given. If they do not understand the question it is, of course, difficult to understand the aspects that generated the wrong answers they gave to the question.

    But what about the tutors formulating the task? Do they always understand it as intended and in the same way? Could it even be that a task is interpreted differently by the same tutor? And if so, feedback on what?

    The purpose of this study is to examine how university tutors understand tasks issued to students. Does interpretation differ if the tutors themselves try to solve the task, discuss the solution and how it could be interpreted with other tutors, as well as trying to formulate better versions of the task?

    Previous work has showed that tutors interpret tasks in a somewhat different manner and thereby give feedback on a somewhat different task, in spite of having the same text as point of departure (Crisp, 2007; Glover and Brown, 2006; Nicol, 2010). Handley and Williams (2011) discuss tacit knowledge regarding assessment criteria. It is therefore important that the tutors interpret the criteria in a consistent manner so students receive almost the same assessment of the quality of their work. However tutors are mostly unable to express these qualities and thereby only a sense of shared understanding is possible.

    The meaning of words such as “analyse” and “discuss” are of special interest, as they signal key skills in higher education. Sadler (2010) argues that one precondition for students to convert feedback into actions of improvement is a working knowledge of higher cognitive skills involving such capacities as evaluation, critical thinking, creativity and analysis.

    Lea and Street (1998) argue that when developing academic literacy, there must be an awareness that the meaning of the concept differs between institutions, staff and students. Tutors thus differ in what constitutes valid knowledge depending on context. Ivanič et al (2000) found that tutors' responses included micro-messages which are discipline-specific, for example as to what may be considered a sufficient justification or an acceptable explanation. Chanock (2000) states that disparity in the interpretation of key concepts has its roots in different traditions across disciplines

    In recent research, the power of dialogue is often in focus. The problem of misunderstanding of feedback could thus be solved by tutors and students engaging  in dialogue. Higgins, Hartley and Skelton (2002) recommend, when commenting on how to prevent conflicting advice based on different meanings across disciplines, more discussion between tutors and students regarding tutors' expectations. Handley and Williams (2011) argue that tutors, representing different disciplines, by discussing examples, will realise that they hold contrasting, multiple interpretations of the meaning of “quality”.

    In this study, focus is on how tutors themselves interpret a task over a span of time. More specifically, does interpretation differ if the tutors try to solve the task, discuss the solution and how it could be interpreted with other tutors, as well as trying to formulate better versions of the task?

    Method

    Five university teachers and one senior lecturer representing three departments, one humanistic and two social science, took part in a development work. The aim was to improve the scientific competence of teachers working in teacher education. Three tasks used in teacher education, and also formulated by at least one of the participators, were presented and elaborated within the group. The tasks were short, two-three sentences, to allow for an in-depth examination of their meaning. A typical arrangement was that a) each of the teachers tried to solve the task, b) solutions were assessed by other teachers, c) problems in solving the task and making the assessment were discussed within the entire group focussed on different interpretations, d) each teacher tried to formulate a less ambiguous version, and e) final discussion of advantages and disadvantages of the new versions.

    The development work continued for eight sessions, totally twelve hours. All session were, after permission was gained from the participants, recorded. The material was listened through several times and sections where the participants expressed uncertainty considering the interpretation of the task were transcribed, as well as sections were uncertainty was discussed.

    Expected outcomes

    The empirical material shows that tutors interpret a task somewhat differently when examining it more carefully.This result is in line with previous research (Crisp, 2007; Glover and Brown, 2006; Nicol, 2010; Handley and Williams, 2011). The empirical material also shows that the same tutor may vacillate in his/her interpretation of a task when examined more thoroughly. Consequently feedback given to students also differs. When assessing say fifty students, consequently, the first student receives feedback on a somewhat different task than the last student does, even if the same tutor assesses the task! The drift of meaning is probably quite minor, but still noteworthy.

    One tutor stated: “we had different pictures and we did discuss together to form a common one”. In her opinion different interpretations were due to lack of communication. So if tutors discuss enough they are able to understand the task in the same way. Recent research points in the same direction. (Handley and Williams, 2011; Nicol, 2010; Price et al, 2010; Carless, 2006). The empirical material indicates another direction. The more you engage in dialogue the more you realise that the words and sentences used could be understood differently, and if more words are used to try to explain what you mean, there are more words to be misunderstood.

    The ambiguity of words, and hence of the dialogue, cannot be bridged as tutors interpret what others say in the light of their previous understanding. They will “hear” what they have, so to speak, already decided to hear. Dialogue often serves to confirm a certain degree of understanding, whereby preliminary interpretations are stabilized. We believe in accuracy of dialogue due to force of habit.. This is especially so when more abstract concepts such as reflect, reason and discuss are used.

    References

    Carless, David (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher Education. 31 (2) 219-233.

    Chanock, K. (2000). Comments on essays: do students understand what tutors write? Teaching in Higher Education, 5(1), 95-105.

    Crisp, Beth (2007). Is I worth the effort? How feedback influences students´ subsequent submission of assessable work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(5) 571-581.

    Glover, Chris & Brown, Evelyn (2006). Written feedback for Students: too much, too detailed or too incomprehensible to be effective? Bioscience Education, 7, 1 http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/journal/vol7/beej-7-3.pdf

    Handley, Karen & Williams, Lindsay (2011). From copying to learning: using exemplars to engage students with assessment criteria and feedback.  Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1) 95-108.

    Higgins, Richard, Hartley, Peter and Skelton, Alan (2002). The Conscientious Consumer: reconsidering the role of assessment feedback in student learning. Studies in Higher Education. 27(1) 53-64.

    Ivanič, Roz, Romy, Clark & Rimmeshaw, Rachel (2000). What Am I supposed to Make of This? The Messages Conveyed to Students by Tutors’ Written Comments. In Lea, Mary & Stierer, Barry (Ed.) Student writing in Higher Education. Suffolk: Open University Press. University of Chicago Press.

    Lea, Mary & Street, Brian (1998). Student Writing in Higher Education: an academic literacies approach. Studies in Higher Education. 23 (2) 157-172.

    Nicol, David (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5) 501-517.

    Price, Margaret, Handley, Karen, Millar, Jill & O´Donovan, Berry (2010). Feedback: all effort, but what is the effect?. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(3) 277-289.

    Sadler, Royce (2010). Beyond feedback: developing student capability in complex appraisal. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5) 535-550.

  • 8.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    En tsunami av verb: om fakta och färdigheter i det svenska utbildningsystemet2018In: Skola & samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727, no 31 maj, p. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det ordning och reda i det svenska utbildningssystemet vad gäller relationen mellan fakta och färdigheter. Svaret är nej, enligt Stefan Sellbjer.

  • 9.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Främmande språk och svenska förlag.: Något om utvecklingen av kurslitteraturen inom grundutbildningen i pedagogik 1975–2000.2007In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 247-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Från Byström till Kvale – en empirisk studie av pedagogik som disciplin.2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Fängslad av förtrogenhet: om att som praktiker kunna sitt yrke, men ändå aldrig bli riktigt nöjd2014In: Socialt perspektiv: Livet är en berättelse- Vänbok till Håkan Jenner / [ed] Ingemar Ljunkvist och Per Gerrevall, Stockholm: Svenska nykterhetsvårdsförbundet , 2014, p. 196-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Förändringar i pedagogikundervisningens innehåll under 1900-talets slut. 2006In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 266-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att utifrån pedagogisk kurslitteratur ge ett bidrag till förståelse av innehållsliga förändringar inom pedagogikdisciplinen. Undersökningen omfattar sex svenska universitet under perioden 1975-2000. Litteraturen bestäms genom fyra olika metoder; sortering av ord efter titlar och identifiering av mest använd litteratur samt två innehållsliga kategoriseringar utifrån Dahllöfs ”Pedagogiska hus”, och en version av en modell presenterad i HSFR:s utvärdering. Analysen visar på en tydlig fokusförskjutning från kvantitet till kvalitet vad gäller såväl metod, människosyn som vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkter. En annan förändring rör psykologins kraftiga nedgång, liksom sociologins uppgång. I artikeln argumenteras för att disciplinen befinner sig i ett tillstånd av tilltagande identitetslöshet alternativt diversifiering. Exempelvis minskar antalet texter som ingår i en ”pedagogisk kanon” samtidigt som andelen metodologisk litteratur ökar. Marxistiska texter kulminerar 1980 och är betydligt fler än  texter med anknytning till ramfaktorer, fenomenografi, didaktik etc. Avslutningsvis görs en kort utvikning kring huruvida pedagogiken befinner sig i ett flerparadigmatiskt tillstånd.

  • 13.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    “Have you read my comments? It is not noticeable. Change!”: An analysis of feedback given to students who have failed examinations.2018In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to examine what characterizes feedback regarding the group of students who receive the most comments compared to the rest of the students, all failing at least one task. Could it be that teachers comment differently on the most underperforming students? Menade du: En brist i tidigare studier har varit att Till skillnad från flertalet studier kring feedback bygger studien på ett större

    The empirical material consists of feedback handed out to students following a teacher training programme and is examined on the basis of a descriptive analytical investigation.  The analysis is based on four methods: the type of errors made, the number of times a student makes the same mistake, what kind of feedback was provided, and ‘de-motivational’ comments. One result is that underperforming students receive more feedback on their choice of relevant literature and on the qualification of the answer. Another result is that they receive substantially more ‘de-motivational’ ones as well as a higher proportion of the most negative and disparaging comments. A recommendation for further research is to separate feedback that is related to the qualities of the students’ work from what characterizes the teacher’s comments whatever aspect of the work is being commented on.

  • 14.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    How to handle the Idols of Man?: folk theories and scientific knowledge2011In: ECER 2011, Urban Education: Network: 17. Histories of Education, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to highlight a number of professional situations in which we have to be aware of our folk-theories and the tendency of idolisation. Bacon (1620) speaks of four classes of Idols which besets human minds; false notions that have deep roots in man and her understanding of the world. A parallel is drawn between idols and folk-theories, the later picked up from popular culture and used in our daily efforts to make sense of events and actions. Both have the same origin as inborn dispositions and are developed trough culture and language. The use of folk-theories is however not, as Bacon argues regarding Idols, discussed in terms of extermination or combat. Folk-theories are a part of our existence and serve us quite well. So what is then the problem? The use of folk-theories is inappropriate when they turn in to Idols used in wrong contexts. Focus is on contexts were professionals have to handle lots of information, and therefore mostly are obliged to folk-theoretical thinking. Lipskys concept “street-level bureaucrats” capture parts of this phenomenon, including a broad spectrum of civil positions.

  • 15.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Högre lönger ger inte fler och bättre lärare.2012In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, no 31 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Intern konkurrens om medel till forskning vid Linnéuniversitetet.2012In: Smålandsposten, ISSN 1104-0009, no 29e februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Kunskapens skilda former2008In: Pedagogiska magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 2, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Kunskapskrav för superbarn?2018In: Skola & Samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727, no 26 Februari, p. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Kunskapsprocess och kunskapsprodukt: Teorier om medvetandet2009In: Nordisk Pedagogik, ISSN 0901-8050, E-ISSN 1504-2995, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to separate between different sorts of knowledge processes and knowledge products in order to deepen the understanding and conditions of knowledge formation. Processes of knowledge are often considered as conscious and in control of the learner. In this regard one could differ between empirical learning, resulting in a sort of everyday folk theories and reflected learning where the product is scientific knowledge. However in pedagogic one has heavily underestimated the effects of automatic and unconscious learning processes which results in intuitive knowledge. With reference to Uljens three forms of knowledge processes are related to the idea of man going through three births´. The container- and connection metaphors are introduced as illustrations of the complexity of knowledge formation.

  • 20.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Meaning in constant flow: University teachers’ understanding of examination tasks2017In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 182-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective feedback presupposes that students understand the task on which feedback is given. But what about the teachers formulating and assessing the task? Do they always understand it as intended? And if so, feedback on what? The purpose of this study is to examine how university teachers individually understand tasks distributed to students. Does interpretation differ if the teachers themselves try to solve the task, discuss the solution with other teachers, as well as trying to formulate better versions of the task? The theoretical framework rests upon a hermeneutic understanding of reality. There is thereby reason to doubt the possibility of information transfer and the understanding of feedback as a strict rational process. The empirical material is collected in connection with a development work and sections where the participants expressed uncertainty considering the interpretation of the task were transcribed. The empirical material shows that teachers interpret a task somewhat differently when examining it more carefully, on their own and together with other teachers. It also shows that the same teacher vacillate in his/her interpretation of a task when examined more thoroughly. Consequently feedback given to students also differs. The drift of meaning is probably quite minor, but still noteworthy.

  • 21.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Pedagogik som diciplin2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in the identity of pedagogy as a discipline has heightened the need for research in order to understand its development during the late twentieth century. The discipline can, in accordance with the starting-point of this project, be determined by a study of the activities which together constitutes the same. One such activity is teaching on courses in level A-C at the university, and the literature used on such courses.

    The primary focus of this paper is to discuss methods to determine literature listed on curriculum’s in A-C courses 1975-2000 in six Swedish universities. The aim is also to evaluate how to analyse the collected material.

    The first part describes how literature is categorized from what could be called deductive and inductive methods. Categorization in relation to Dahllövs “pedagogikens hus” as well as a model outlined in “An evolution of Swedish research in education” is examples of more deductive methods. Analyse of titles of the books used is an example of an inductive method. In the second part examples of analyse will be showed as well as how to illustrate the results of the investigation.

  • 22.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Pedagogik som disciplin – en bestämning utifrån kurslitteratur2007In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to determine ”pedagogik” as a discipline. The study is based on an empirical enquiry of literature used in A-C-courses 1975-2000 at six Swedish universities. An analyse of most used words in titles shows’ that “Pedagogik” is to be seen as the science of education. A more elaborated analyse shows that the most common content firstly has connection to “pedagogical process/teaching”, “educational system” and “learning”, secondly to scientific method and thirdly to psychological and sociological aspects. Some notes are also presented regarding most common anthers and titles. To conclude a more tentative distinction between “pedagogic” as established knowledge and as an activity is discussed.

  • 23.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Pedagogik som disciplin på väg in i ett nytt århundrade: att karaktärisera utifrån sortering av ord.2012In: Kvalitet och kollegialitet – vänbok till Leif Lindberg. / [ed] Stigmar Martin och Sandstedt Thomas, Växjö: Linnéuniversitet , 2012, 1, p. 140-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Pedagogisk kunskapsteori – ett verktyg för lärarens lärande.2006In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 7-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Perspectives on learning and knowledge – theoretical and empirical studies.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Profilering och likformighet - om pedagogikens innehåll vid sex svenska universitet 1975-20002010In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 15, no 2/3, p. 187-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show, on the basis of a categorisation of course literature, how six Swedish pedagogic university institutions during the period of 1975-2000 have navigated to meet general currents within the social sciences and have paid attention to discipline of pedagogic itself. Theoretical departure for analysis is taken in Hofstetter & Schneuwlys concept of professionalization. The categorisation of the empirical material has partly been inspired by concepts borrowed from Dahllöf’s ”Pedagogiska hus”, partly from a model presented in the HSFR-evaluation of pedagogical research. For every department, (Uppsala, Lund etcetera), there is an account given for what is typical for the whole period of 1975-2000 as well as departmental development within the period. The analysis shows, that Linköping and Lund have a greater sensitivity concerning general theoretical and methodological currents within the social sciences, whilst Stockholm shows less sensitivity in this regard. Concerning changes within the discipline of pedagogic, Stockholm, Lund and Göteborg show movements across the whole field of micro/macro levels, as well as in relation to philosophy and theory of science. Göteborg emphasises on the macrolevel, while Uppsala focuses on the meso. Umeå and Link

  • 27.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Real konstruktivism: Ett försök till syntes av två dominerande perspektiv på undervisning och lärande2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting-point of the thesis was that teachers to a large extent teach on the basis of intuitive theories. This creates a tendency that a number of frequent conceptions, pedagogical and didactic theories, experiences of one's own school days etc. become parts of a more fragmentary structure of ideas, rather than a coherent theory of teaching. With the aim of creating a deeper understanding of questions related to teaching and learning, two dominating perspectives were described initial. By putting the intuitive ideas in relation to basic paradigmatic assumptions a picture was given of what the teacher has to know in order to thoroughly understand a certain perspective. In addition, examples of pedagogical theories were presented that can be referred to the perspective in question, which teachers can adopt to qualify their understanding. A critical discussion of the paradigmatic assumptions paved the way for a third perspective, where thoughts occurring in the other two were partly combined. Here a theoretical basis was also presented to explain why the use of mental tools of thinking, especially such that are linked to knowledge theory may lead the teacher to a more reflective way of dealing with questions of teaching and learning. The third perspective was illustrated, first with four examples of how teaching can be performed, and then also in the form of in-service training for teachers.

    In the empirical section and in the final conclusion the perspectives were illustrated, discussed and examined critically. On the basis of questionnaires answered by upper secondary school teachers, interviews and observations, assumed examples of intuitive theories were presented. The empirical material was also analysed from the same starting-points as the formulation of the perspectives. Ten teachers' systems of intuitive theories about teaching and learning could thus be constructed. Five of these were presented and a comparison with the perspectives was made. Some analyses, however, turned out to agree best with a further perspective, which had not been focused on in the thesis. It was also found that teachers' practice can be enriched by being confronted with scientific knowledge. The value of such knowledge was illustrated through the evaluation of an inservice programme for teachers.

  • 28.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Replik på kommentarer om kunskapskrav2018In: Skola & Samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727, no 26 Februari, p. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    The unconscious turn in pedagogic2018In: International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, E-ISSN 1833-4105, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to widen the understanding of the conditions of knowledge formation. Since it is, as will be argued, partly unconscious and automatized, it is also partly out of our control. Various theories which pay attention to unconscious and automatized knowledge formation are described. As the reasoning deals with a number of complex processes about man, culture, language and science, it should be seen as a palette of possible angles. The possibility of strict rationality will, in the light of these supposed circumstances, be elaborated on in relation to Bacon’s concept of Idols and to folk theories. The latter are picked up from popular culture and used in our daily efforts to make sense of events and actions. Folk theories could be seen as a modern interpretation of Idols. By means of two examples, the relevant educational implications will be illustrated. One of the cases refers to critical thinking and the other one to feedback in higher education. The final section suggests how to handle a situation with a partly unconscious knowledge formation, which requires for instance to be more humble or more open-minded.

  • 30.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Triggers fostering critical thinking in the eyes of the already succeeded2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine what kind of seminars that may foster critical thinking, if you ask the already succeeded. The point of departure is that lectures, associate professors and professors have achieved competences that have enabled them to advance within the academic system. They are so to say the best succeeded examples. Could it be that there have been special occasions, sequences of occasions or anything the like that had been especially important in developing these competences? And if so, could these be transformed to exercises within an existing Master's programme?

    In accordance with Mezirow (1990) we hold meaning perspectives, made up of propositions, beliefs, higher-order schemata, theories, evaluations and network of arguments. New experiences is transformed and assimilated in processes of interpretation within these meaning perspectives. They are mostly uncritically acquired in childhood through socialization, often in an emotionally charged relationship context, where parents and teacher play a prominent role. Meaning perspectives have three functions, to guide actions, to reassess the justification for what you already know and to give coherence to the familiar. Critical reflection or premise reflection is, if we follow Mezirow to challenge the validity of such already made presuppositions. It involves awareness of how our presuppositions have constrained how we understand, perceive and feel about the world.

    Paul & Elder (2012) claims that critical thinking has three dimensions, i. e. analytic, evaluative and creative, each dimension necessary to be monitored. We also have to realize that every domain of human thought is possible to question regarding the parts of thinking. Paul, Binker, Martin & Adamson (1989) maintain that a critical thinker is a “reasonable person” with intellectual autonomy. One of the most important steps towards this ideal is to relize that you have a perspective that you must work on and change. You have to command the elements of thinking to develop special traits of mind, as intellectual courage, humility and integrity. The authors speak of perfection of thought, as clarity, precision, consistency and being logical.

    If one compares the two perspectives of critical reflection, and tries to draw them apart Mezirow speak of transformation and of changing meaning perspectives, while Paul et al emphasizes the development of special traits of mind. It could be that exercises promoting transformation should be more open and thus have no obvious or correct answer. Maybe such exercises open gaps into the mind, trigging transformation partly conscious and partly unconscious. An interpretation of Paul et al is that exercises with the goal of forming traits have to be repeated within a certain form, especially if one emphasizes promoting capacities as perfection of thought and being logical.

    Sternberg & Grigorenko (2003) gives another interpretation of critical thinking. The authers make a distinction between analytical, creative and practical teaching. The first means to encourage students to analyse, judge, critique and compare, the second to encourage to invent, create and discover and the third encourage to use, apply and implement.

    Methodology

    The empirical material consists of 30 interviews conducted among lecturer, associate professors and professors in pedagogy. Two question areas are in focus:

    1 If you look back on your own experience, could you mention a special occasion or a sequence of occasions which have been especially important in improving your, what could be called, scientific or critical thinking and transformative skills? What sort of competence, capability or knowledge did you acquire at this occasion?

    The first question is intended to be a gateway to the second question.

    2 If we turn over to the Master's programme, special seminars will be arranged in order to advance student’s critical thinking. The form is about one hour of introduction together with the teacher, two hours of work in groups where the students are alone, and one hour of summing up together with the teacher. Could the experience we just talked about be transformed to an exercise within this form of seminar developing such competences?

    The interviews could be characterised as informal conversational interview, which is the most open-ended approach (Patton, 1990). They last from 15 to 30 minutes and are carried through as a dialogue where both parts made suggestions and interpretations.

    Results

    Most of the interviewed could quite easily point out occasions that had been especially important in improving their critical thinking. In some cases a well-informed, even strict person was mentioned. Most of the competences mentioned are to acquire some form of reflective attitude, for example to be open, to realize, to dare and to always be ready to reconsider

    The second question is however in main focus. The suggestions have been analysed out of three different methods.

    First the material is divided into exercises suitable for students within courses in pedagogic, in social science and in general science. Second the material is structured out of the distinction between analytical, creative and practical teaching (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2003). Half are characterised as practical, seven as creative and six as analytical. In the third method two different theoretical approaches are used. 18 of the exercises are characterized as forming logical traits (Paul & Elder, 2012; Paul, Binker, Martin & Adamson,1989)) while four are categorized as transformative (Mezirow, 1990). An interesting result is that 78%? of the suggested exercises promoting transformation were made by professors or associate professors, while 75% of the exercises forming logical traits were suggested by doctors.

    Intent of publication

    Journal of Diversity in Higher Education

    References

    Mezirow, Jack (1990). How Critical Reflection Triggers Transformative Learning. I Mezirow, Jack and Associates Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods.NewburyPark: SAGE Publications.

    Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda (2012). Critical Thinking. Boston: Pearson

    Paul, Richard, Binker, A.J.A, Martin, Douglas, & Adamson Ken (1989). Critical Thinking Handbook: High School. Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique: Sonoma State University.

    Sternberg, Robert & Grigorenko, Elena (2003). Teaching for Successful Intelligence: Principles, Procedures, and Practices.   In Journal of the Education of the Gifted, 27(2/3), 207-228.

     

  • 31.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Triggers Fostering Critical Thinking in the Eyes of the Already Successful2016In: Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, ISSN 1093-1082, E-ISSN 2153-9871, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine the types of seminars that may foster critical thinking using the perspective of those who have already successfully developed such skills. Associate Professors and Professors could be said to be among this group as they have progressed through the academic system to attain a certain level of achievement. Also under investigation is the extent to which such competencies lead to generic skills. In order to understand the context of this empirical study, a short account of a Master’s program in pedagogy at the University of Southern Sweden will be outlined. The empirical investigation consists of open-ended informal and conversational interviews carried through as a dialogue. The result is analyzed by three different methods, with focus on two theoretical approaches, i.e. the development of logical traits and the encouragement of transformations. Fifteen of a total of twenty-two exercises are characterized as more suitable for developing logical traits and nine are categorized as transformative. Perhaps a mix of these two types of seminars would be most effective in promoting generic skills. In the empirical result, attitudes play an important role. One of the keys to promoting generic skills is for lecturers, associate professors and professors to believe in the generic qualities of the exercises and to utilize them themselves.

  • 32.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Underkännandets praktik i lärarutbildningens kärna2017In: Att bedöma lärarkvalitet: Skicklighet, lämplighet & kompetens / [ed] Per Gerrevall, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 1, p. 212-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Vetenskaplighet i hela lärarutbildningen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Jenner, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    How to Unite Scientific Reasoning and Practical Knowledge in Teacher Education: As Illustrated by a Postgraduate Course2012In: International Journal of Education, ISSN 1948-5476, E-ISSN 1948-5476, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 220-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the question of how to unite scientific reasoning and practical knowledge is brought to the fore. Experiences from a postgraduate course in special education are discussed, since attempts to make different vocational education programs more academic often lead tp special problems. The overaching question connected with scientific reasoning can be formulated thus: "How do we gain assured knowledge about reality?", a question with its roots in ontological, epistemological and methodological issues. Using such questions as a starting point for reflection proved to be a way to practice scientific thinking. In order to deepen the understanding of how knowledge is constructed, as well as of the contents of practical knowledge, tacit knowledge and scientific reasoning, some distinctions are made. First three forms of knowledge products and knowledge processes are distinguished and secondly, the issue of unconscious and automatized knowledge is elaborated on.

  • 35.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    I laughed aloud when I read that knowledge requirements come from middle school-Knowledge Progression in the Swedish Educational System2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Werner Sellbjer, Filippa
    Lund university.
    Klimatkrisen kräver nya realistiska drömmar2018In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, no 4 nov, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatt: Medborgarna måste se ett reglerat fossilfritt samhälle som mer attraktivt, ja till och med att föredra framför dagens som kan uppfattas och ses som friare. Det är också tid för modiga ledare att träda fram och leda oss i kampen mot den globala uppvärmningen, skriver Stefan Sellbjer och Filippa Werner Sellbjer.

1 - 36 of 36
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