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  • 1.
    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen
    et al.
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    González-Acuña, Daniel
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 486-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  • 2.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Osbjer, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;Food & Agr Org United Nations, Cambodia.
    Tepper, Viktoria
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Rajala, Elisabeth
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Sweden;Kalmar County Council, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Seng, Sokerya
    Food & Agr Org United Nations, Cambodia.
    Holl, Davun
    Minist Agr Forestry & Fisheries, Cambodia.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden;Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Carriage of carbapenemase- and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in humans and livestock in rural Cambodia; gender and age differences and detection of bla(OXA-48 )in humans2019In: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 603-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal samples were obtained from 307 humans and 285 livestock including large ruminants, pigs and poultry living in 100 households in rural Cambodia in 2011. Each household was interviewed, and multilevel logistic model determined associations between household practices/meat consumption and faecal carriage of ESCE/K. CPE and ESCE/K were detected and further screened for colistin resistance genes. Results CPE/K isolates harbouring bla(OXA-48 )were identified in two humans. The community carriage of ESCE/K was 20% in humans and 23% in livestock. The same ESBL genes: bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-27), bla(CTX-M-55), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-12), bla(SHV-28); AmpC genes: bla(CMY-2), bla(CMY-42,) bla(DHA-1); and colistin resistance genes: mcr-1-like and mcr-3-like were detected in humans and livestock. ESCE/K was frequently detected in women, young children, pigs and poultry, which are groups in close contact. The practice of burning or burying meat waste and not collecting animal manure indoors and outdoors daily were identified as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K. Conclusions Faecal carriage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum cephalosporinase genes are common in the Cambodian community, especially in women and young children. Exposure to animal manure and slaughter products are risk factors for intestinal colonization of ESCE/K in humans.

  • 3.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Drobni, M
    Gauthier-Clerc, M
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Granholm, S
    Kayser, Y
    Melhus, Å
    Kahlmeter, G
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dissemination of Escherichia coli with CTX-M Type ESBL between Humans and Yellow-Legged Gulls in the South of France2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no Article number: e5958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae started to appear in the 1980s, and have since emerged as some of the most significant hospital-acquired infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella being main players. More than 100 different ESBL types have been described, the most widespread being the CTX-M beta-lactamase enzymes (bla(CTX-M) genes). This study focuses on the zoonotic dissemination of ESBL bacteria, mainly CTX-M type, in the southern coastal region of France. We found that the level of general antibiotic resistance in single randomly selected E. coli isolates from wild Yellow-legged Gulls in France was high. Nearly half the isolates (47,1%) carried resistance to one or more antibiotics (in a panel of six antibiotics), and resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin was most widespread. In an ESBL selective screen, 9,4% of the gulls carried ESBL producing bacteria and notably, 6% of the gulls carried bacteria harboring CTX-M-1 group of ESBL enzymes, a recently introduced and yet the most common clinical CTX-M group in France. Multi locus sequence type and phylogenetic group designations were established for the ESBL isolates, revealing that birds and humans share E. coli populations. Several ESBL producing E. coli isolated from birds were identical to or clustered with isolates with human origin. Hence, wild birds pick up E. coli of human origin, and with human resistance traits, and may accordingly also act as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance with a potential to re-infect human populations.

  • 4.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Drobni, P.
    Cent Hosp Växjö.
    Johansson, A.
    Umeå University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Melhus, A.
    Uppsala University.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Drobni, M.
    Uppsala University.
    Characterization, and comparison, of human clinical and black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacterial isolates from Kalmar, on the southeast coast of Sweden2010In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 1939-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the great challenges for modern healthcare. In Gram-negative bacteria, CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been rapidly spreading through Europe since the early 2000s. In Sweden, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli are still rare, but a 3-fold increase has been seen from 2004 to 2007. Enterobacteria and normal flora of wild animals, with or without antibiotic resistance traits, constitute a potential source of human infection and colonization. We studied wild birds with the aim to understand the environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance and, focusing on clinically relevant resistance types, we made comparisons with human clinical samples. In this study, ESBL-producing human clinical isolates and isolates from juvenile black-headed gulls from Kalmar County hospital and the city of Kalmar, respectively, on the southeast coast of Sweden, were characterized and compared. Despite a low frequency of antibiotic resistance among the isolates from gulls, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were found, two with bla(CTX-M-14) and one with bla(CTX-M-15). The same CTX-M types were dominant among human ESBL isolates. In addition, gull isolates were dispersed among the human samples in the PhenePlate (TM) clustering system, indicating that they neither differ from the human isolates nor form any separate clonal clustering. The finding of CTX-M-type ESBLs in E. coli isolated from black-headed gulls in Sweden, where 'background resistance' is low, is consistent with an ongoing environmental spread of these plasmid-borne resistance genes. The results indicate that a potential for transfer between the human population and environment exists even in countries with a low level of antibiotic resistance.

  • 5.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Bjorn
    Uppsala University.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University.
    Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA2014In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 897-899Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    et al.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Moreno, Lucila
    Herrmann, Bjorn
    Palma, Ricardo
    Latorre, Alejandra
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Kinsella, Mike J.
    Martin, Nicolas
    Araya, Karolina
    Torres, Ivan
    Fernandez, Nicolas
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala Universitet.
    Health evaluation of wild gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the Antarctic Peninsula2013In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1749-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically wildlife conservation was based on habitat protection and exploitation control. Only recently have diseases been considered an important issue. However, pathogens are usually described during or after disease outbreaks, but to determine which pathogens may be emerging, surveys of wildlife health are critical in a given time. This study deals with the health status of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in two localities at the Antarctica Peninsula and one at Ardley Island off the South Shetland Islands. Cloacal swaps, fresh fecal samples, ectoparasites, and blood smears were collected. We examined and dissected 14 penguin corpses found dead. Fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and in the carcasses four endoparasitic species were found: Diphyllobothrium sp. and Parorchites zederi, Corynosoma shackletoni and Stegophorus adeliae. The tick Ixodes uriae occurred in five of the examined penguins, and the louse Austrogoniodes gressitti on six birds. From the colony grounds, we collected 1,184 I. uriae. We recorded antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as E. coli, in ecosystems where gentoo penguins breed. Cloacal samples (300) were negative for Chlamydia, as well as for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Newcastle and Influenza viruses.

  • 7.
    Haemig, Paul
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) Test Negative for Salmonella2008In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 8, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Laurell, Karl
    Uppsala University.
    Rakib, Mufti Mahmud
    Uppsala University.
    Ahlstedt, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Caceres, Mercedes
    Natl Autonomous Univ Leon UNAN Leon, Nicaragua.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli2016In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 682-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing -lactamases such as extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of Leon, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n=100), poultry (n=100) and wild birds (n=100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-22), and bla(CTX-M-3) genotypes. The bla(CTX-M-15) constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of bla(CTX-M) genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  • 9.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Melhus, Åsa
    Drobni, Mirva
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Antimicrobial drug-resistant escherichia coli in wild birds and free-range poultry, Bangladesh2012In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 2055-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.

  • 10.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bengtsson, Stina
    Central Hospital Växjö.
    Porczak, Aleksandra
    Central Hospital Växjö.
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå University.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University.
    Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e76150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.

  • 11.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lindberg, Peter
    University of Göteborg.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)2012In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 7373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  • 12.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prado, Valeria
    Torres, Daniel
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Haemig, Paul
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella2007In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 30, p. 1227-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Molin, Y.
    Drobni, M.
    Calisto-Ulloa, N.
    Gomez-Fuentes, C.
    Astorga-Espana, M. S.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, D.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Human-Associated Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase in the Antarctic2012In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 2056-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) type CTX-M resistance were isolated from water samples collected close to research stations in Antarctica. The isolates had bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) genotypes and sequence types (ST) indicative of a human-associated origin. This is the first record of ESBL-producing enterobacteria from Antarctica.

  • 14. Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Palmgren, Helena
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Salmonella birds migrating through Sweden2003In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9 (6)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    et al.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Tyrlöv, Veronica
    Uppsala University.
    Uher-Koch, Brian D.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Schmutz, Joel A.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Atterby, Clara
    Uppsala University.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala Universit.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Migratory Birds Inhabiting Remote Alaska2018In: EcoHealth, ISSN 1612-9202, E-ISSN 1612-9210, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.

  • 16.
    Retamal, Patricio
    et al.
    Univ Chile, Chile.
    Llanos-Soto, Sebastian
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Moreno Salas, Lucila
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Lopez, Juana
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Vianna, Juliana
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Univ Andres Bello, Chile.
    Castaneda, Francisco
    Univ Chile, Chile.
    Fresno, Marcela
    Univ Chile, Chile.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Isolation of drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis strains in gentoo penguins from Antarctica2017In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 2531-2536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activity in Antarctica constitutes a continuous risk for the introduction of infectious diseases into indigenous wildlife populations. Penguin colonies living close to human settlements or inhabiting in areas considered for tourism could be facing a greater threat of infection. Fecal samples from Pygoscelis penguins (Pygoscelis spp.) were collected from different sites within Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetlands Islands in order to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica. Bacterial identification and characterization was performed applying biochemical and molecular techniques. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance by the disk diffusion method, and PCR analyses were used for detection of resistance and virulence-associated genes. Four samples (1.74%) from P. papua were found to be positive to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains. All of them showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance to at least three antimicrobials, and shared a similar gene profile through PCR. Results in this study urgently call for improvements in sanitary standards for waste disposal and sewage treatment in Antarctica. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report antimicrobial resistance in S. enterica isolated from Antarctic wild species.

  • 17.
    Stedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    McMahon, Barry J
    Uppsala University.
    Hasan, Badrul
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Olsen, Björn
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Drobni, Mirva
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries2014In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, article id 21565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria.

    METHODS: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine.

    RESULTS: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources.

    CONCLUSION: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

  • 18.
    Stedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital;Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    McMahon, Barry J.
    University College Dublin, UK.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University;Östersund Hospital.
    Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe2015In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), a group of enzymes conferring resistance to third generation cephalosporins have rapidly increased in Enterobacteriacae and pose a major challenge to human health care. Resistant isolates are common in domestic animals and clinical settings, but prevalence and genotype distribution varies on a geographical scale. Although ESBL genes are frequently detected in bacteria isolated from wildlife samples, ESBL dissemination of resistant bacteria to the environment is largely unknown. To address this, we used three closely related gull species as a model system and collected more than 3000 faecal samples during breeding times in nine European countries. Samples were screened for ESBL-producing bacteria, which were characterized to the level of ESBL genotype groups (SHV, TEM), or specific genotypes (CTX-M). Results: ESBL-producing bacteria were frequently detected in gulls (906 of 3158 samples, 28.7 %), with significant variation in prevalence rates between countries. Highest levels were found in Spain (74.8 %), The Netherlands (37.8 %) and England (27.1 %). Denmark and Poland represented the other extreme with no, or very few positive samples. Genotyping of CTX-M isolates identified 13 different variants, with bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-14) as the most frequently detected. In samples from England, Spain and Portugal, blaCTX-M-14 dominated, while in the rest of the sampled countries blaCTX-M-1 (except Sweden where bla(CTX-M-15) was dominant) was the most frequently detected genotype, a pattern similar to what is known from studies of human materials. Conclusions: CTX-M type ESBLs are common in the faecal microbiota from gulls across Europe. The gull ESBL genotype distribution was in large similar to published datasets from human and food-production animals in Europe. The data suggests that the environmental dissemination of ESBL is high from anthropogenic sources, and widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria in common migratory bird species utilizing urban and agricultural areas suggests that antibiotic resistance genes may also be spread through birds.

  • 19.
    Stedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Drobni, Mirva
    Divergent, and Locally High, Levels of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in European Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) Conform to Patterns of Human Clinical Antibiotic Usage2011In: EcoHealth, ISSN 1612-9202, E-ISSN 1612-9210, Vol. 7, no Supplement 1, p. S98-S98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Wahlgren, J.
    et al.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sahlin, S.
    Haemig, Paul
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fouchier, RAM
    Osterhaus, ADME
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bonnedahl, J.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pisareva, M.
    Grudinin, M.
    Kiselev, O.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Falk, KI
    Lundkvist, Å.
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gene segment reassortment between American and Eurasian lineages of avian influenza virus from waterfowl in the Beringia Area2008In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 783-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since prehistoric times, the Bering Strait area (Beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the Old and the New Worlds. On a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and Pt. Barrow, Alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. Four of 202 samples (2%) from Alaska were positive for influenza A virus RNA in two independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening assays, while all shorebird samples from the Chukchi Peninsula were negative. Subtypes H3N8 and H6N1 were recorded once, while subtype H8N4 was found in two samples. Full-length sequences were obtained from the three unique isolates, and phylogenetic analysis with representative sequences for the Eurasian and North American lineages of influenza A virus showed that one HA gene clustered with the Eurasian rather than the North American lineage. However, the closest relative to this sequence was a North American isolate from Delaware described in 2002, indicating that a H6 spillover from Asia has established itself in North America.

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