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  • 1.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Effects on white blood cells in senior citizens during post exercise recovery in three different environments (indoors, simulated outdoors and outdoors)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Natural environments are known to promote health and may also provide extraordinary conditions for post exercise recovery (Kuo 2015). In the project Health Effects of Recreation Outdoors (HERO) we explore the hypothesis that post exercise recovery in natural environments may be reflected in white blood cell counts (WBC). In our study 50 seniors (age >65 years) performed moderate physical activity (20 min) followed by passive recovery (2h) in three different environments (indoors, simulated outdoors and “true” outdoors).

    Method

    The experimental setup was a randomized cross-over design, thus all test persons did all treatments in a randomized order. We sampled white blood cells (WBC-diff), which were used to detect and quantify inflammatory response.

    Results

    Our early findings provide some support for the hypothesis that environment may impose differences in recovery effectiveness. White blood cell count (WBC-diff) appears to differ between the treatments and there is a significant interaction between sampling time and recovery environment in the monocytes, suggesting that the monocyte numbers differ, not only between sampling times but also between environments. In addition, WBC also show that some of the test persons develop leukocytosis during exercise and that white blood cell levels decrease rapidly immediately post exercise to levels significantly lower than base line values.

    Discussion

    Our results suggest that moderate physical activity in senior citizens may result in acute leukocytosis (see e.g. Sand et. al. 2013) and that recovery effectiveness (e.g in monocyte response) may be dependent upon environmental factors. The clinical importance of our results are not fully understood but there has been suggested an “open window” immediately post exercise in which infection risk may be elevated (Pedersen & Toft 2000) and it is possible that recovery out of doors may reduce this risk.

    References

    Sand, K., L, Flatebo, K., Andersen, M., B., Maghazachi, A., A. (2013) World J Exp Med 20; 3(1): 11-20

    Pedersen, B., K. & Toft, A., D. (2000) Br J Sports Med 34:246–251

    Kuo, M. (2015) Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-8

  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Outdoor Exercise is More Efficient than Indoor Exercise in Senior Citizens. Physiological Evidence from the HERO Project2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: IntroductionPhysical exercise has been proven beneficial for health in all ages. In elderly, physical exercise, may contribute to prolonged life with maintained high quality and less costs associated with health care for society. In this study we explore if exercise out of doors may provide extra benefits as compared to exercise indoors and we measure power output, lactate levels and perceived effort in 49 senior citizens performing 20 minutes of moderate physical activity.METHODS:MethodThe HERO project is a randomized cross-over experiment with three different treatments <indoors, simulated="" outdoors="" and="">. The study sample consisted of 49 healthy senior citizens. They performed 20 minutes moderate intensity physical activity on an ergometer bike in all three conditions. Before immediately after and at minutes 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 we sampled blood lactate. Power output was computed at 7 occasions during the 20 minutes of cycling, as was the rating of perceived exertion . Data was analyzed using mixed linear models. RESULTS:ResultsOur findings show that there were no differences between the two indoor treatments in any of the measured variables. In the outdoor treatment, however, there were significant effects on blood lactate levels and power output but not in perceived exertion, suggesting that exercise out of doors makes the test person more efficient although the experience of effort stay unaffected.CONCLUSION:Discussion/conclusionsOur results support the notion that the outdoors may provide extraordinary conditions for exercise, not only because it appear to results in more exercise/effort, the outdoors is also an “arena” with high availability and most often totally for free. Previous results from the HERO project also suggests that white blood cell counts are affected by the outdoor treatment, something that may be related to the observed increased power output herein

  • 3.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Recreational fishing in an educational intervention context promotes awareness and knowledge about nature in schoolchildren2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor activities may be intuitively associated with interest for nature and environmental concern. However, most scientific studies suggest that no such correlation exists. In this quantitative study we have used a questionnaire and explored the hypothesis that a one day educational intervention may be a successful tool in increasing environmental awareness, interest for nature and interest for recreational fishing. We present evidence suggesting that educational interventions in which young people are exposed to natural environments in a recreational fishing context have positive effects on interest for nature and recreational fishing, knowledge about nature and environmental awareness. Our findings also reveal that frequency of nature visits does not correlate with self estimated interest for nature.  We also show that the observed effects of the educational intervention “Klassdraget” appear to be larger for the girls which are, by tradition, less interested in recreational fishing as compared to boys.

  • 4.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correlated evolution of color pattern and body size in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata.2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1308-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Differential habitat selection by pygmy grasshopper color morphs; interactive effects of temperature and predator avoidance2006In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 20 (3), p. 235-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix sp.) – eye-catching variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Torngräshoppor (Tetrix sp.) – iögonfallande variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Benefits of outdoor exercise and recovery outdoors in elderly2019In: HEPA Europe, Odense, Denmark, August 28-30, 2019: abstract book, 2019, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ”outdoors” has an added health effect on top of that of physical activity. This hypothesis is based on the fairly extensive volume of evidens suggesting that the outdoor environment is beneficial for overall health. We, however, consider most previous studies insufficiently designed in order to draw causal relationship between spending time outdoors and examined health parameters. In this study we state that our experimental design allows us to do just that. 

    Methods:

    In this randomized cross-over experimental design, 49 healthy subjects (+65 years, 27 female) performed a standardized submaximal bike ergometer test in three different environments (indoors, simulated outdoors and outdoors). The test consisted of 20 minutes cycling and subjects were instructed to stay between 11-13 at the Borg RPE scale (i.e. moderate intensity). Each test was followed by two hours of passive recovery. We measured power output, heart rate, lactate and counts of five fractions (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophiles, basophiles and eosinophiles) of white blood cells (leukocytes) in circulation.

    Results:

    Our results revealed that the outdoor treatment resulted in higher levels of lactate, higher heart rate and higher power output despite that there were no differences in Borg RPE-rating between the treatments. The white blood cell analysis showed an increase of circulating leukocytes in almost all fractions immediately post exercise in all treatments. Numbers decreased rapidly post exercise and the lymphocyte numbers stayed well under baseline for more than one hour during recovery. This is referred to as an “open window” where the immune function is temporarily suppressed and there is an elevated risk of infection of primarily URTI.

    Conclusions:

    Our results not only suggest that exercise is more efficient out of doors such that more exercise/effort is obtained but also that recovery outdoors may be a way to decrease the risk of infections due to exercise induced immune suppression. The risk of getting an infection is known to be generally lower out of doors. Taken together, our results support the notion that exercising and spending time outdoors indeed is beneficial for health in senior citizens.

  • 9.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Andersson, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Physical activity and its influence on monitoring of physical activity2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Testing the role of co-adapted genes versus bet hedging for mating strategies in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 90, p. 491-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Immune function, parasitization and extended phenotypes in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Biological journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 85 (3), p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Martin, J
    Lopez, P
    Indirect effects of prey coloration on predation risk: grasshoppers versus lizards2004In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 6, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    “Developmental instability and immune function in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 19 (1), p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Peak oxygen uptake predicts finishing- and segment time in a full distance Ironman2018In: Presented at the 23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Dublin, Ireland, July 4-7, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Ironman competitions and other extreme endurance events has spread worldwide attracting thousands of endurance-trained athletes, athletes who differ in anthropometric and training characteristics. The relationship between peak oxygen uptake and finishing- and segment time during a full distance IRONMAN competition (Swim 3.9km, Bike 180km and Run 42.2km) has not been examined thoroughly in non-elite athletes.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), finishing time and segment time in non-elite athletes.

    METHODS: 39 non-elite athletes (10 female; age 41.1 ± 9.7, range 24-70 years) performed a 20 m shuttle run test to assess VO2peak. Association between VO2 and finishing- and segment time was estimated using bivariate correlation tests. Gender specific analysis was also performed.

    RESULTS: VO2peak peak was on average 49.9 ± 6.4 O2 ml/kg/minute, range 36.5-63.9 (pooled genders). Finishing time was on average 11h and 52 min. The average times for the different segments were; Swim 1h 21m, Bike 5h 46min and Run 4h 33min. The relationship between VO2peak and finishing time was significant to p<0.001 and                         0.51. The relationship between segment times were Swim  0.19, Bike  0.37 and Run  0.46 all at p<0.001. Gender specific analyses revealed that the association between VO2peak and finishing time was   0.80 for females and  0.49 for males. 

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that VO2peak is a good predictor of finishing time (approx. 50%) as well as for segment time with 19%, 37% and 46% for Swim, Bike and Run respectively (pooled genders). For females VO2peak explains as much as 80% of the variation in finishing time.

  • 15.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schreyer, Hendrik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-9, article id e0179324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.

    METHODS: A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3).

    RESULTS: Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.

    CONCLUSION: Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.

  • 16.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fitness benefits of diverse offspring in pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1305-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Do females obtain fitness benefits from an increase in offspring diversity?Hypotheses: Polyandry increases offspring diversity within a clutch. Increased offspring diversity will reduce competition among siblings (manifested as increased mean survival in more diverse families) and the probability that all offspring might be ill-suited to future conditions (manifested as lower variance in survival in diverse families).Organisms: Pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix subulata and Tetrix: undulata, that are polymorphic for colour pattern.Field site: South-central Sweden.Methods: We varied the number of mates provided to colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers. We reared families in either warm or cold conditions using a split-brood design.Conclusions: The colour morph diversity of broods increased with the number of experimentally provided mates. Colour morphs represent alternative strategies that differ in body size, physiology, behaviour, and life history. Survival increased with increasing sibling diversity, supporting the hypothesis that different morphs avoid competition by using different subsets of available resources. Homogeneous families (in which all siblings belong to the same or only a few colour morphs) varied more in survival than did families with diverse siblings, supporting the hypothesis that morphs vary in their ability to cope with and utilize different resources.

  • 17.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ringblom, K
    Civantos, E
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Coevolution of color pattern and thermoregulatory behavior in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata2002In: Evolution, Vol. 56, p. 349-360Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mittuniversitetet.
    Ledare tveksamma tillstyrketräningsråd för barn2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 47-50Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har vi haft en försiktig hållning till styrketräning för barn.År 2009 kom Riksidrottsförbundet med rekommendationer som imotsats till tidigare tydligt förespråkar styrketräning. I en pilotstudievisar vi bland annat att fotbollsledare från olika divisioner trots detär oeniga om vad som egentligen är det rätta.

  • 20.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Mittuniversitetet.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Awareness of current recommendations and guidlines regarding strength training for youth2014In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, E-ISSN 2191-0278, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Physical conditioning of youth has always been a controversial topic as it raises ethical, physiological, and medical issues. Current recommendations and guidelines suggest that strength training is a relatively safe and worthwhile method in conditioning youth. This, however, requires well-informed coaches who follow age-appropriate strength training recommendations and guidelines, compiles well-designed strength training programs, and provides qualified supervision and instructions. The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches’ awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.

    Method: A total of 39 football (US: soccer) coaches (34 males and 5 females) training boys in age groups 8–12 years were included in this study. Data were collected using an attitude statement questionnaire, and the assertions were based upon current recommendations and guidelines.

    Results: The results revealed significant differences among coaches in terms of knowledge of important aspects of strength training for youth.

    Conclusions: The results suggested that coaches in the present study were not aware of the latest recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.

  • 21.
    Hargeby, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Habitat-specific pigmentation in a freshwater isopod: Adaptive evolution over a small spatiotemporal scale2004In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea) differed between habitats in two Swedish lakes. In both lakes, isopods had lighter pigmentation in stands of submerged vegetation, consisting of stoneworts (Chara spp.), than in nearby stands of reed (Phragmites australis). Experimental crossings of light and dark isopods in a common environment showed that pigmentation had a genetic basis and that genetic variance was additive. Environmental effects of diet or chromatophore adjustment to the background had minor influence on pigmentation, as shown by laboratory rearing of isopods on stonewort or reed substrates, as well as analyses of stable isotope ratios for isopods collected in the field. In both study lakes, the average phenotype became lighter with time (across generations) in recently established stonewort stands. Taken together, these results indicate that altered phenotype pigmentation result from evolutionary responses to local differences in natural selection. Based on the assumption of two generations per year, the evolutionary rate of change in pigmentationwas 0.08 standard deviations per generation (haldanes) over 20 generations in one lake and 0.22 haldanes over two generations in the other lake. This genetic change occurred during an episode of population growth in a novel habitat, a situation known to promote adaptive evolution. In addition, stonewort stands constitute large and persistent patches, characteristics that tend to preserve local adaptations produced by natural selection. Results from studies on selective forces behind the adaptivedivergence suggest that selective predation from visually oriented predators is a possible selective agent. We found no indications of phenotype-specificmovements between habitats. Mating within stonewort stands was random with respect to pigmentation, but on a whole-lake scale it is likely that mating is assortative, as a result of local differences in phenotype distribution.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Dynamics of colour polymorphism in a changing environment: Fire melanism and then what?2008In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 154, no 4, p. 715-724Article in journal (Refereed)
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