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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Rauno V.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Eriksson, Dag
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Exploitation competition influences the use of foraging sites by tits: Experimental evidence1987In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In coniferous forests of central Sweden, tits (Paridae) and the Goldcrest, Regulus regulus, exploit nonrenewable resources in their group territories during winter. The smaller and socially subordinate species, the Goldcrest and the Coal Tit, Parus ater, forage on the outermost tree parts, while the larger and dominant Willow Tit, Parus montanus, and Crested Tit, Parus cristatus, forage on the inner tree parts. We removed Coal Tits and Goldcrests in three flocks in early winter to see if their absence would cause changes in the foraging patterns of the two dominant species. In late winter, Crested Tits foraged farther outward on branches of spruce in experimental flocks than they did in the control flocks. In spruce, Willow Tits foraged nearer the trunk than Crested Tits, and they did not respond to the experiment. In pine, Willow Tits, however, did move from branches to twigs in the absence of Coal Tits and Goldcrests. The experiment indicates that exploitation competition directly based on food depletion, without any interference, may influence the use of foraging sites by tits in coniferous forests.

  • 2.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Marshall, Rupert C
    Aberystwyth University, UK.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    SOVON Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology, The Netherlands ; Vogeltrekstation Dutch Centre for Avian Migration and Demography, The Netherlands.
    Waldeck, Peter
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Andersson, Malte
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nest parasitism in the barnacle goose: evidence from protein fingerprinting and microsatellites2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geese are often seen as one of nature's best examples of monogamous relationships, and many social pairs stay together for life. However, when parents and young are screened genetically, some chicks do not match their social parents. Although this has often been explained as adoption of foreign young after hatching, conspecific nest parasitism is another possibility. We used nondestructive egg albumen sampling and protein fingerprinting to estimate the frequency and success of nest parasitism in a Baltic Sea population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis. Among the 86 nests for which we had the most complete information, 36% were parasitized, and 12% of the eggs were parasitic. Almost 80% of the parasitic eggs were laid after the host began incubation. Hatching of these eggs was limited to the few cases where the host female incubated longer than normally because her own eggs failed to hatch. Conspecific nest parasitism in this population therefore seems mainly to be an alternative reproductive tactic of lower fitness than normal nesting. Comparison with DNA profiling of chicks (with 10–14 microsatellites) and other evidence confirmed the suitability of protein fingerprinting for analysis of nest parasitism. It can often provide more data than microsatellites, if eggs are albumen-sampled soon after being laid, before most losses occur.

  • 3.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Waldeck, Peter
    University of Gothenburg.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Netherlands Institute for Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), The Netherlands.
    Marshall, Rupert C
    University of Gothenburg ; Aberystwyth University, UK.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Andersson, Malte
    University of Gothenburg.
    Colony kin structure and host-parasite relatedness in the barnacle goose2009In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 18, no 23, p. 4955-4963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), females laying eggs in the nest of other 'host' females of the same species, is a common alternative reproductive tactic among birds. For hosts there are likely costs of incubating and rearing foreign offspring, but costs may be low in species with precocial chicks such as waterfowl, among which CBP is common. Waterfowl show strong female natal philopatry, and spatial relatedness among females may influence the evolution of CBP. Here we investigate fine-scale kin structure in a Baltic colony of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, estimating female spatial relatedness using protein fingerprints of egg albumen, and testing the performance of this estimator in known mother-daughter pairs. Relatedness was significantly higher between neighbour females (nesting ≤ 40 metres from each other) than between females nesting farther apart, but there was no further distance trend in relatedness. This pattern may be explained by earlier observations of females nesting close to their mother or brood sisters, even when far from the birth nest. Hosts and parasites were on average not more closely related than neighbour females. In 25 of 35 sampled parasitized nests, parasitic eggs were laid after the host female finished laying, too late to develop and hatch. Timely parasites, laying eggs in the host's laying sequence, had similar relatedness to hosts as that between neighbours. Females laying late parasitic eggs tended to be less related to the host, but not significantly so. Our results suggest that CBP in barnacle geese might represent different tactical life-history responses.

  • 4. Bellebaum, Jochen
    et al.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Kube, Jan
    Research on Sea Ducks in the Baltic Sea2012Other (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Black, Jeffrey M.
    et al.
    Humboldt State University, USA.
    Prop, Jouke
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University, Sweden.
    Wild goose dilemmas: Population consequences of individual decisions in Barnacle geese2007Book (Other academic)
  • 6. Black, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Prop, Jouke
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The Barnacle Goose2014Book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Cederlund, Göran
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Sweden.
    Sandegren, Finn
    Swedish Sportsmen's Association, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Swedish Sportsmen's Association, Sweden.
    Summer movements of female moose and dispersal of their offspring1987In: Journal of Wildlife Management, ISSN 0022-541X, E-ISSN 1937-2817, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 342-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifty-seven radio-equipped moose (Alces alces) in central Sweden were located during the 3 summers of 1980-83. Forty-two were cows (≤2 years old) and 15 were calves (5 males and 10 females) when captured. Aerial tracking was conducted ≤1 time/week. No significant differences in average size of summer home ranges were found between age classes. All cows returned to the same summer range each spring. Consecutive summer home ranges overlapped from 1 to 100%. Ten of 14 radio-equipped calves accompanied their cow to summer ranges. The 1st indications of separation between cow and offspring were recorded from 7 to 29 May. The average straight line distance between cow and offspring successively increased from separation to mid-June when it became relatively constant (1.5-2.0 km). One of 10 calves that completed the migration together with the cow abandoned its mother's home range completely. Adult female offspring continued to reside near their yearling home range during consecutive summers.

  • 8.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lundberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University ; Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: ∑2PBPs: 0.57 and 48; ∑2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; ∑7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; ∑7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; ∑7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng ∑2PBPs, 90 ng ∑2PBAs, 370 ng ∑7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng ∑7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng ∑7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 9. Feige, Nicole
    et al.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Graaf, Alexandra J
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leito, Aivar
    Stahl, Julia
    Newly established breeding sites of the barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis in North-western Europe: an overview of breeding habitats and colony development2008In: Die Vogelwelt : Zeitschrift für Vogelkunde und Vogelschutz, ISSN 0042-7993, Vol. 129, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional breeding grounds of the Russian Barnacle Goose population are at the Barents Sea in the Russian Arctic. During the last decades, the population increased and expanded the breeding area by establishing new breeding colonies at lower latitudes. Breeding numbers outside arctic Russia amounted to about 12,000 pairs in 2005. By means of a questionnaire, information about breeding habitat characteristics and colony size, colony growth and goose density were collected from breeding areas outside Russia. This paper gives an overview about the new breeding sites and their development in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in habitat characteristics and population parameters between North Sea and Baltic breeding sites. Colonies at the North Sea are growing rapidly, whereas in Sweden the growth has levelled off in recent years. In Estonia numbers are even decreasing. On the basis of their breeding site choice, the flyway population of Barnacle Geese traditionally breeding in the Russian Arctic can be divided into three sub-populations: the Barents Sea population, the Baltic population and the North Sea population. The populations differ not only in habitat use but also in breeding biology.

  • 10.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Age-related reproductive success in the barnacle goose1992In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 61, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We studied age-related reproductive success in a recently established breeding colony of barnacle goose Branta leucopsis on the island of Gotland, Sweden.

    2. Associations of age and breeding experience with several reproductive parameters were investigated by comparing the success of individuals of 2, 3, 4 and >=5 years of age. Also, we measured the within-individual changes in reproductive parameters as the individuals grew older.

    3. Associations between survival and reproductive success were investigated by comparing the reproductive success of 2, 3 and 4-year-old birds that returned or did not return, respectively, in the subsequent breeding season.

    4. The reproductive success increased up to an age of 4-5 years. Thus, clutch size, number of hatched young and number of fledged young increased, and hatching date was advanced with increasing age. This was due to the fact that individuals increased in reproductive success as they grew older.

    5. A possibly higher probability of survival among individuals that perform well in reproduction could not explain the higher reproductive success in older age-classes as compared to young age-classes of geese, because there were no associations between survival and reproductive success, and very few individuals did actually disappear between any two breeding seasons.

    6. Path analysis suggested age effects only at earlier stages of reproduction, i. e. timing of breeding and clutch size. These characters, in turn, were associated with number of fledged young. These findings were further supported by measurements of hatching success and rearing success, which did not seem to increase with age.

    7. Increased breeding experience was associated with early hatching date and larger clutch size in males, and with larger clutch size in females. This was concluded from path analysis and from comparisons of individuals of the same age but with different breeding experience.

    8. The increase in reproductive success with age in the barnacle goose is probably a result of age-related skills in individuals and the direct effects of these skills on reproductive success, but possibly also because of increased reproductive effort with age owing to these age-related skills.

  • 11.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Breeding range expansion of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis in the Baltic area1991In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 343-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis breeding colonies in the Baltic area. The largest colony is situated on the eastern coast of Gotland. Sweden, and consisted in 1988 of 970 breeding pairs. Breeding birds have also been observed in nine other Baltic localities within the 1980s. Differences in reproductive success at different localities suggest that density-dependent effects are important. Young nonbreeding geese frequently move between colonies during the summer. Intraspecific competition may increase the propensity for natal dispersal by geese from the main colony on Gotland

  • 12.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Intraspecific nest parasitism in the barnacle gooseFjärrlån IN: behavioural tactics of parasites and hosts1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 509-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific nest parasitism in the barnacle goose,Branta leucopsis, was recorded by direct observations of females trying to lay eggs in the nests of other females. This was observed on 36 occasions. Parasitic egg-laying attempts were observed both in mornings and evenings, and lasted on average at least 20 min. Parasitic females approached host nests very fast and immediately sat down on or close to the nest. Host females attacked parasitic females intensively, but host males were much less aggressive. Males paired to the parasitic females were sometimes seen, but they never took any active part in the parasitic egg-laying attempts. Parasitic females probably successfully laid an egg most of the times, as the clutch size in host nests was on average 0·9 eggs larger than in nests where parasitic egg-laying attempts were not observed. Host females were observed to retrieve eggs laid outside the nest cup. Of 27 known cases, parasitic females made their egg-laying attempts before or at the host's start of incubation on 12 occasions, and after the start of incubation 15 times. It is suggested that parasitic females exploited features in the behaviour of potential hosts, such as egg retrieval and low aggressiveness in host males, to succeed in their egg-laying attempts. Nest parasitism seems to be a facultative, ‘best-of-a-bad-job’ tactic in barnacle geese, as parasitic females were observed to have nests of their own before or after the year they behaved parasitically, but never in that particular year.

  • 13.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of mate change an new partner's age on reproductive success in the barnacle goose, Branta leucopsis1991In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 116-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate retention frequencies and correlations between mate change and reproductive performance were estimated in a population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, breeding on the island of Gotland in the Baltic. About 90% of the pairs remained together from one breeding season to the next. Only 2.4% of the pairs divorced, most mate changes being consequences of the death of one partner. Divorces were not forecast by low reproductive success, and seemed to be accidental. In the season before mate change, there was no difference in reproductive performance, measured as clutch size, hatching date, and number of fledged young, between faithful pairs and pairs where one partner was subsequently changed. However, in the first season with a new partner, clutch size and number of fledged young decreased on average. Hence, because mate change led to a reduction in reproductive success, it was concluded that mate retention is advantageous. Our results suggest that this reduction is more likely due to the lower average age or breeding experience of new partners than to the benefits of breeding experience with one particular partner.

  • 14.
    Grimvall, Anders
    et al.
    Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Intensiv trafik i haven runt Sverige2014In: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön, Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, , p. 4p. 4-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige omges av hav med en omfattande fartygstrafik. Under 2013 besökte fler än 10 200 unika fartyg Östersjön och Västerhavet, och då är fiskefartygen inte inräknade. En stor majoritet av fartygen var registrerade i länder med höga krav avseende säkerhet och miljö. Men det fanns undantag.

  • 15. Hammar, Linus
    et al.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Havsplanering kan minska konflikter och främja helhetssyn på miljön2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 18-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöfart och fiske har länge haft havet nästan för sig själva. Men på senare år har fler näringar visat intresse för att använda havet. Medan sjöfart och fiske regleras med breda penseldrag, behöver energiutvinning, vattenbruk och sandutvinning söka miljötillstånd för varje enskilt projekt. Med havsplanering finns nu möjlighet att planera för alla anspråk på en gång.

  • 16.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    gency for Environment, Nature Conservation, and Geology of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany .
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Leivits, Meelis
    Estonian Environment Agency, Estonia.
    Rusanen, Pekka
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 19th century, the Great Cormorant was exterminated as a breeding bird in several Baltic countries. The persecution continued until the mid of the 20th century, and in the early 1960s the European breeding population of the continental subspecies sinensis had declined to 4,000 breeding pairs (bp) only, of which Germany and Poland hosted more than the half. During the following two decades, the population development apparently has also been affected by the harmful effects of DDT and PCB.

    As a result of protection measures, and seemingly also due to the ban of DDT and PCB, breeding pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia.

    Baltic-wide surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2012 showed that the Baltic population had stabilized at a level of 155,000 – 170,000 bp during that period. However, after 2012 breeding pair numbers have still increased in the eastern and northern Baltic. Hence, the current population is estimated at 190,000-210,000 bp.

    The highest population densities are found around the highly eutrophic estuaries of the southern Baltic (Odra-, Vistula-, and Curonian lagoon).

  • 17.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Nature Conservation, and Geology of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Aarhus University.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)2014Other (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Agency for Environment, Nature Conservation and Geology of Güstrow, Germany.
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Zydelis, Ramunas
    Duke University, USA.
    Birds2009In: Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: An Integrated Thematic Assessment of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation in the Baltic Sea / [ed] HELCOM, Helsinki Commission , 2009, p. 71-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty different benthic landscapes, 150 biotopes, and a richness of about 100 species of fish, 450 macroalgae species, 1000 zoobenthos species, 3000 plankton species, and many thousands of unknown species of bacteria and viruses—that is a rough estimate of the biodiversity hidden under the Baltic Sea surface. These organisms and their ambient environment form the building blocks of the ecosystem and the interactions among all components determine the characteristic features of the Baltic Sea.

  • 19. Herrmann, Christof
    et al.
    Gregersen, Jens
    Larsson, Rolf
    Larsson, Kjell
    Elts, Jaanus
    Wieloch, Maria
    Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis Lath., 1787)2011Other (Other academic)
  • 20. Jonker, R.M.
    et al.
    Kraus, R.H.S.
    Zhang, Q.
    Van Hooft, P.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Van der Jeugd, H.P.
    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.
    Van Wieren, S.E.
    Loonen, M.J.J.E.
    Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.
    Ydenberg, R.C.
    Groenen, M.A.M.
    Prins, H.H.T.
    Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 5835-5847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST, linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using MIGRATE-N to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Folke K
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Body size and nesting behaviour of the sand wasp Stictia heros (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Costa Rica1989In: Journal of Tropical Ecology, ISSN 0266-4674, E-ISSN 1469-7831, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Dynamic route planning in the Baltic Sea: How can the negative impacts of maritime traffic on sensitive or protected areas be reduced?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic routing means that ships to a greater extent than today are assigned individual routes based on the traffic situation, weather and other prevailing conditions. Dynamic route planning, in addition to reducing the risk of accidents and ship fuel consumption will also, if used correctly, significantly diminish the adverse impact of shipping on the marine conservation values of sensitive or protected areas. An active and dynamic route planning that takes into account sensitive natural environments in the Baltic Sea is also a way for the shipping industry and shipping administration to interact with the marine spatial planning process necessary to achieve an improved marine environment in accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives, the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan and the EU Baltic Sea Strategy and Maritime Policy. 

    The environmental impact of shipping can be measured on different spatial and temporal scales. The impact of CO2 emissions from shipping on the atmosphere is global, while other types of emissions to air and water may have well-defined regional or local effects. The effects on the marine environment can be direct or indirect, prolonged or short-lived. The environmental effects of shipping may also interact with the environmental effects brought about by other activities. Additionally the effect of a given discharge or emission on the marine environment is not only dependent on the size of the discharge or emission, but also to a great extent on where and when they take place. 

    Dynamic route planning means that trade-offs must be made between different factors. These trade-offs must be part of a holistic approach and rest on a sound factual basis. Decision makers will be faced with situations where they are forced to make a choice between avoiding the risk of direct negative effects on habitats, species and biodiversity and avoiding additional emissions to air. The outcomes of such trade-offs will vary in different areas of the Baltic Sea and at different seasons. 

    Dynamic route planning must be adaptive, i.e., the parties involved must be aware that conservation values, natural resources and the maritime fleet in the Baltic Sea are subject to change and adapt planning to cope with these changes. We now have enough knowledge to start using dynamic route planning to reduce the direct adverse effects of shipping on the marine conservation values of sensitive or protected areas. However, if planning is to be effective and trade-offs between different factors and interests more accurate we need to add to our knowledge.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Effects of shipping and recurrent oil spills2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 556-557Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ejder och alfågel: kan vi vända en nedåtgående trend2015Other (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Genetic and environmental effects on the timing of wing moult in the barnacle goose1996In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 76, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic and environmental effects on the timing of wing moult were analysed in a breeding barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) population recently established in the Baltic area. Start of wing moult of adults was found to be correlated with number of fledged young produced and start of wing moult of their breeding partners. Date of birth and age were not significantly correlated with start of wing moult although the length of the interval between hatching date of broods and start of wing moult was correlated with age. Repeatability estimates were significantly different from zero showing individual consistency of start of wing moult between years. Offspring-parent regressions and full-sib analyses yielded significant heritability estimates for start of wing moult. No indications of maternal effects were found. An especially high degree of resemblance between one-year-old full-sibs indicated the presence of a common environment effect on start of wing moult.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Genetic and social inheritance of body and egg size in the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)1992In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present heritability estimates for final size of body traits and egg size as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations between body and egg traits in a recently established population of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) in the Baltic area. Body traits as well as egg size were heritable and, hence, could respond evolutionarily to phenotypic selection. Genetic correlations between body size traits were significantly positive and of similar magnitude or higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates for tarsus length obtained from fullsib analyses were higher than those obtained from midoffspring-midparent regressions, and this indicates common environment effects on siblings. Heritabilities for tarsus length obtained from midoffspring-mother regressions were significantly higher than estimates from midoffspring-father regressions. The results suggest that this discrepancy is not caused by maternal effects through egg size, nor by extra-pair fertilizations, but by a socially inherited foraging site fidelity in females.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Inheritance of body size in the Barnacle Goose under different environmental conditions1993In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 195-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritabilities, genetic variances and covariances for body size traits, i.e. tarsus length, head length and body mass, were estimated under different environmental conditions in a Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) population. Under poor growth conditions, that is, when average body size of fully grown offspring in a given cohort was small, the offspring-parent regressions and full-sib analyses yielded heritability estimates not significantly different from zero. By contrast, when growth conditions were normal or good the heritability estimates were generally significantly positive. Comparisons of genetic covariance estimates indicated that they also differed across the analysed environmental conditions. This result, together with similar results obtained in studies of passerine birds, suggests that genotype-environment interactions might be frequent within the range of environments normally encountered by birds in natural populations. If general, such results might question the validity of assuming approximate constancy of additive genetic variances and covariances over time and environments in evolutionary models.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Oljekatastrofer påskyndar regelverk om fartygs utsläpp2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svärd, M., Johansen Lilja, T., Lundberg, F., Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 44-45Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfart och naturvärden vid utsjöbankar i centrala Östersjön2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver effekter av sjöfart på naturvärden i havsområdet vid de tre stora utsjöbankarna Hoburgs bank, Norra Midsjöbanken och Södra Midsjöbanken. I rapporten diskuteras hur konflikter mellan sjöfart och naturvärden kan reduceras, bland annat genom ändring av fartygsrutter.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfartens miljöpåverkan kan minskas2016In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfåglars utnyttjande av havsområden runt Gotland och Öland: betydelsen av marint områdesskydd2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marint områdesskydd, dvs. att införa särskilda bevarandeåtgärder i geografiskt definierade marina områden, är ett av flera verktyg som kan användas för att bevara hotade och sårbara populationer av sjöfåglar och annan marin fauna och flora. Havs- och kustområdena runt Gotland och Öland, inklusive de tre större utsjöbankarna i centrala Östersjön, är viktiga områden där sjöfåglar söker föda i form av bottenfauna, främst musslor, eller fisk. Flera fiskätande och bottenfaunaätande sjöfåglar befinner sig vintertid ofta i det yttre kustbandet eller långt ute till havs. Alkor, lommar och havslevande dykänder är mycket skickliga dykare och fångar föda på stora djup. Alfåglar dyker regelbundet efter musslor på djup ned till 25 meter. Alkor som sillgrissla och tordmule dyker efter fisk i den fria vattenmassan och kan fånga byten på betydligt större djup.

     

    Syftet med denna rapport är att sammanställa och tolka tidigare genomförda inventeringar av sjöfåglar i Östersjön, med särskilt fokus på fåglarnas utbredning och nyttjande av utsjöbankar och havs- och kustområden runt Gotland och Öland. Syftet är också att diskutera om och hur marint områdesskydd, havsplanering och andra generella skyddsåtgärder kan påverka olika arter sjöfåglar och särskilt de arter eller populationer som är hotade eller som Sverige har ett särskilt ansvar för.

     

    I rapporten beskrivs hur sjöfågelinventeringar till havs kan genomföras och hur resultat från inventeringar som använt olika metodik bör tolkas. Därefter följer en generell beskrivning av de bottenfaunaätande och fiskätande sjöfågelarter som regelmässigt utnyttjar havsområden runt Gotland och Öland under en betydande tid av året. I denna del beskrivs även artens status och olika hot. Sjöfågelarter eller andra kustbundna fågelarter som i huvudsak endast utnyttjar de mest strandnära vattenområdena tas inte upp i denna rapport. Efter artbeskrivningarna följer en beskrivning av förekomsten av olika arter sjöfåglar i utvalda fokusområden. Avslutningsvis diskuteras behov och prioriteringar av marint områdesskydd i de olika fokusområdena respektive behov av generella skyddsåtgärder

     

    Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län. Projektet har till största del finansierats av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten genom anslag 1:11 Åtgärder i havs- och vattenmiljö samt medfinansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län, Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län och Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The Baltic Sea is an important wintering area for waterbirds2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 438-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The common eider, the great cormorant and the white-tailed eagle2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 164-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Regler, ekonomiska styrmedel och teknik kan minska påverkan på miljön2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön. Havsmiljöinstitutets rapport 2017:2, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 4-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I likhet med de flesta andra transportslag har sjöfart en betydande påverkan på jordens klimat, ekosystem och människors hälsa. För att långsiktigt minska de negativa effekterna på havsmiljön krävs skarpare regelverk, ny teknik och ekonomiska styrmedel, samt en samsyn mellan alla de aktörer som påverkar sjöfartens utveckling.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forslund, Pär
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Environmentally induced morphological variation in the Barnacle Goose, Branta leucopsis1991In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 619-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental conditions to which juvenile barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) were exposed during growth were found to affect their body size at fledging as well as their final adult body size. Small juveniles showed compensatory growth from the time of fledging up to one year of age, but this did not fully compensate the differences in body size that were established before fledging. The variation in protein content in plants eaten during growth could probably explain the observed body size differences, sometimes of more than 10%, between different categories of adult geese. Our results imply that one cannot infer selection on morphological characters from differences between samples of adult birds from different localities or from different cohorts within a population, without first showing that environmental conditions during growth do not affect the development of the characters under study.

  • 36.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forslund, Pär
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Population dynamics of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis in the Baltic area: density-dependent effects on reproduction1994In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 954-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The three largest breeding colonies of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis in the Baltic area were studied from their natural establishments in 1971, 1982 and 1987, respectively, to 1993. The number of breeding pairs increased from one pair in 1971 to 1550, 225 and 150 pairs in the largest, second largest, and third largest colonies, respectively, in 1993. 2. Data on clutch size and number of hatched and fledged young were collected from the beginning or the middle of the 1980s. In the largest colony most data on reproductive success were obtained from observations of individually marked geese. 3. Mean clutch size differed among years and colonies. However, there was no trend for decreasing mean clutch size with increasing density in any of the colonies. Hatching success did not decrease with increasing density in the largest colony. 4. The production of fledged young per breeding pair declined drastically in the largest colony as numbers of breeding pairs rose. This decline was mainly caused by an increasing proportion of the breeding pairs failing to produce any fledged young at all. 5. The relative contribution of the smaller colonies to the total production of fledged young in the Baltic area increased considerably over the study years. In 1993, colony 2 hosted only about 13% of the number of breeding pairs in colonies 1 and 2 combined, but it produced about 38% of the fledged young. 6. Our results point out the need to study populations of colonially nesting geese on a colony by colony basis in order to detect density-dependent effects on reproduction.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forslund, Pär
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ebbinge, Barwolt S
    Rijksinstituut voor natuurbeheer, The Netherlands.
    From the High Arctic to the Baltic: The successful establishment of a Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis population on Gotland, Sweden1988In: Ornis Scandinavica, ISSN 0908-8857, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fecundity, survival, immigration and emigration in a recently established population of Barnacle Goose on Gotland, Sweden, are analysed using data from 1971 to 1985. During this period numbers increased from one to 450 breeding pairs. A simulation of population growth using a deterministic population growth model showed that immigration must have occurred during this period, probably mainly during the late 1970s and early 1980s. This net influx together with a high and stable reproductive success and a high annual survival rate resulted in exponential increase in numbers. Several fecundity parameters were higher in the Gotland population than in the Arctic populations of Barnacle Goose. This successful establishment in a temperate area more than 1,300 km south of and 2,000 km away form the species' usual breeding range, questions many explanations of Arctic distributions in geese, for example the hypothesis that a too low protein content in the food plants prevents breeding at lower latitudes.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm Univ.
    Kilpi, Mikael
    Åbo Akad Univ.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Utklippan Bird Stn.
    Leito, Aivar
    Estonian Univ Life Sci.
    Lyngs, Peter
    Christianso Fieldstn.
    Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea2014In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 88, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 x 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Även lite olja kan göra stor skada i havsmiljön2014In: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, , p. 2p. 8-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även små oljeutsläpp från fartyg kan få stora negativa effekter på havsmiljön. Hur stora effekterna blir beror på var och när utsläppen sker. Bättre rutiner och skärpt lagstiftning har lett till att mängden utsläppt olja har minskat under de senaste decennierna. Men antalet utsläpp är fortfarande högt och illegala oljeutsläpp sker i stort sett dagligen runt Sveriges kuster.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den internationella fartygstrafiken i Östersjön och inte minst i havsområdet runt Gotland och Öland är mycket intensiv och förväntas öka i omfattning under kommande år. Sjöfarten behöver tillgång till utrymme på havet i form av ändamålsenliga och säkra fartygsrutter. Intensiv fartygstrafik medför dock påverkan på havsmiljön på grund av driftsrelaterade utsläpp till luft och vatten. Intensiv trafik medför även risker för kollisioner, grundstötningar och andra fartygsolyckor som kan ge upphov till mycket stor miljöpåverkan.

     

    Sverige har liksom de flesta av världens länder i enlighet med internationella konventioner ett uppdrag att skydda minst 10 % av havet. Införandet av marina reservat och nationalparker innanför svensk territorialgräns, och av marina Natura 2000-områden innanför territorialgräns och i svensk ekonomisk zon enligt nationell lagstiftning och EU-direktiv, är ett led i uppdraget. Andra internationella konventioner reglerar vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att styra fartygstrafik eller för att rekommendera sjöfarten att undvika vissa havsområden.

     

    Havsplanering är ett verktyg för att styra det rumsliga nyttjandet av havet och för att reducera konflikter mellan olika samhällsintressen, t.ex. mellan behovet av sjöfart och behovet av att skydda havsmiljön och marin biologisk mångfald. För att på ett effektivt sätt kunna havsplanera och förbättra och utöka skyddet av värdefulla marina områden krävs kunskap om den påverkan som mänskliga aktiviteter, bland annat sjöfart, har på områdena. Ett första steg är att identifiera de havsområden där fartygstrafiken är mycket intensiv, där fartyg passerar genom eller nära särskilt känsliga områden, där fartyg med särskilt farlig last passerar eller där många fartyg ankrar under längre perioder.

     

    Syftet med rapporten är att sammanställa information om fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland. I rapporten beskrivs först hur analyser av fartygstrafik kan genomföras med hjälp av lagrade AIS-data. Därefter beskrivs fartygstrafiken i centrala Östersjön och i särskilda fokusområden runt Gotland och Öland. Avslutningsvis diskuteras risker med fartygstrafik i känsliga havsområden och hur konflikter mellan sjöfartens behov och marint områdesskydd kan reduceras. Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Population trends and threats from ship traffic to long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea2016In: Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe 2015 / [ed] von Nordheim, H. and Wollny-Goerke, K, Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN) , 2016, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis is a small sea duck that breeds in Arctic tundra regions and winter in marine and brackish waters. Surveys indicate substantial declines in numbers in recent decades and the species is now classified by IUCN as globally threatened in the category “vulnerable”. The largest of the four recognized long-tailed duck populations is the West Siberian / North European population. Birds belonging to the WS/NE population breed in northern Russia and northern Scandinavia and overwinter mainly in the Baltic Sea. An International Single Species Action Plan for the long-tailed duck has also recently been developed by specialists under the auspices of AEWA (Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds) (HEARN et al. 2015)

    Two Baltic wide surveys have shown that the WS/NE population has decreased very rapidly from approx. 4.3 million birds in 1992-93 to approx. 1.5 million birds in 2007-2009 (DURINCK et al. 1994; SKOV et al. 2011). Although there is some uncertainty regarding the overall level of the population size estimates it is believed that the difference between the estimates accurately reflects the trend between the mid 1990s and late 2000s. A further decline also after 2009 can be assumed as the mean proportion of juveniles in the wintering population has been low since 2009. The recent decline of the WS/NE population can most likely be explained by a combination of factors affecting both the productivity at the Arctic breeding grounds and the adult mortality in the wintering areas in the Baltic Sea.

    Four important anthropogenic threats affecting the wintering birds have been recognised, namely,

    1. operational oil spills from ships at core wintering sites,

    2. by-catches in fishery,

    3. hunting and

    4. disturbance at and exploitation of offshore mussel banks.

    Mortality due to by-catches has decreased but is still high (BELLEBAUM et al. 2013). Hunting mortality is fairly well known and can be regulated if agreements are reached. Displacement of wintering long-tailed ducks from good feeding areas might be more important in future if planned large scale wind farms will be established at core wintering sites, i.e. at offshore banks.

    In this note one of the four recognised anthropogenic threats, i.e. the threat from intensive shipping activities is elucidated. More specifically, an analysis of ship traffic within and close to two marine Natura 2000 sites is presented. The analysed sites, the Hoburgs bank and the Northern Midsjö bank, are two of the most important wintering sites for long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea. Several hundred thousand long-tailed ducks, which is a significant part of the global population, have been observed wintering within these areas in recent years (SKOV et al. 2011, NILSSON 2012). Possible methods to reduce the threat from ship traffic are also discussed.

  • 42.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rattiste, Kalev
    Uppsala University, Sweden ; Estonian Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonia.
    Lilleleht, Vilju
    Estonian Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonia.
    Heritability of head size in the common gull Larus canus in relation to environmental conditions during offspring growth1997In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the heritability of head length in a common gull (Larus canus) population breeding in western Estonia. Heritability estimates obtained from offspring-parent regressions were moderate to high and significantly different from zero. Head size might hence respond evolutionarily to phenotypic selection. Offspring-mother and offspring-father regressions yielded similar heritability estimates. This indicated that size-related maternal or paternal effects were absent or weak. Heritability and additive genetic variance estimates obtained from offspring-parent regressions and full-sib analyses were higher when offspring had grown up under good environmental conditions than under poor environmental conditions. Such a pattern has previously been found in some other studies of birds. This suggests that genotype-environment interactions might be frequent within the range of conditions experienced by natural bird populations.

  • 43.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tegelström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forslund, Pär
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Intraspecific nest parasitism and adoption of young in the barnacle goose: effects on survival and reproductive performance1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the proportion of extra-pair young in a population of barnacle geese, Branta leticopsis, breeding in the Baltic area, Sweden. Of 137 analysed fledged young 17% were found to be extra-pair young. One or more extra-pair young were found in 27% of the 63 analysed families. The proportion of extra-pair young differed between years. No case of extra-pair fertilization was detected. All extra-pair young at fledgling originated either from intraspecific nest parasitism or from adoptions of foreign hatched young. Broods with extra-pair young at fledgling were significantly larger than broods without extra-pair young. However, the number of within-pair young did not differ significantly in broods with and without extra-pair young. Body mass, survival or subsequent reproductive performance did not differ between parents with and without extra-pair fledged young. Post-fledgling survival and age at first breeding were not significantly different between the three analysed classes of fledged young, i.e., within-pair young in families without extra-pair young, within-pair young in families with at least one extra-pair young, and extra-pair young. It is concluded that possible costs or benefits associated with caring for extra-pair fledged young are small or absent in this population.

  • 44.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effekter av oljeutsläpp på övervintrande alfågel Clangula hyemalis vid Hoburgs bank i centrala Östersjön mellan 1996/97 och 2003/04: Effects of oil spills on wintering Long-tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis at Hoburgs bank in central Baltic Sea between 1996/97 and 2003/042005In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 15, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is an important marine area for wintering birds. Surveys in the 1990s showed that more than 25 % of the European Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis population wintered at Hoburgs bank and east of Gotland. A shipping route with very frequent traffic goes from southwest Baltic Sea via Öland, Hoburgs bank and east of Gotland to the Gulf of Finland. In year 2000 about 58 500 ships passed east of Öland along this route. Hundreds of oils spills are registered along the route each year. Weekly surveys of oiled birds at southern Gotland and analyses of birds that had drown in fish nets showed that tens of thousands of ong-tailed Ducks were injured by oil each year in central Baltic Sea. Of 998 birds that drowned in fish nets at Hoburgs bank 11.8 % were found to have oil in the plumage. There was no clear relationship between the number of oiled birds observed and the number of registered oil spills in different years. Many sea duck have a life history in which variable or low productivity is compensated for by relatively high adult survival. This makes sea duck populations very susceptible to extra adult mortality caused by oil spills.

  • 45.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Van der Jeugd, Henk P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Continuing growth of the Baltic barnacle goose population: Number of individuals and reproductive success in different colonies1997In: Research on arctic geese: proceedings of the Svalbard Goose Symposium, Oslo, Norway, 23-26 September 1997 / [ed] Fridtjof Mehlum, Jeff Black, Jesper Madsen, Norsk Polarinstitutt , 1997, Vol. 200, p. 213-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic barnacle goose population increased rapidly after 1971, when the first breeding attempt was observed off the eastern coast of Gotland, Sweden. In 1997, about 3,990 pairs bred along the Baltic coast in Sweden, western Estonia and southern Finland. The majority of these pairs, about 3,490 pairs, were found breeding in colonies along the eastern coasts of Gotland and Oland, Sweden. The total population size at the end of July in 1997 was estimated to be approximately 17,000 individuals. The production of fledged young per breeding pair was negatively related to the size of colonies, although the production varied greatly among different colonies. In 1997, the largest Baltic colony hosted more than 50% of the total number of breeding pairs but produced less than 15% of the total number of fledged young. This finding points out the need to consider different colonies as separate demographic units when studying regulation processes in populations of colonially breeding geese. In the future, we find it most probable that the Baltic population will continue to increase and that new colonies will be established. We also expect that the number of Baltic barnacle geese eventually will be limited by the availability of predator-safe grazing grounds with short, protein rich grass which families with newly hatched goslings are dependent on.

  • 46.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    van der Veen, Ineke
    Uppsala University, Sweden ; University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Forslund, Pär
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Body size declines despite positive directional selection on heritable size traits in a barnacle goose population1998In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1169-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of more than 2000 marked barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) in the largest Baltic colony, Sweden, showed that structurally large females generally produced larger clutches and larger eggs, hatched their broods earlier in the season, and produced more and heavier young than smaller females. In males, the corresponding relationships between reproductive parameters and structural body size were weaker or nonsignificant. Because structural body size traits have previously been found to be significantly heritable and positively genetically correlated, an increase in mean structural body size of individuals as a response to selection might have been expected. By contrast, we found that the mean adult head length and mean adult tarsus length decreased significantly in the largest colony by approximately 0.7 and 0.5 standard deviations, respectively, in both males and females during the 13-year study period. Environmental factors, such as the amount of rain in different years, were found to affect the availability of high-quality food for growing geese. As a consequence of this temporal variability in the availability of high-quality food, the mean adult structural body size of different cohorts differed by up to 1.3 standard deviations. Comparisons of mean body size of cohorts born in different colonies suggest that the most likely explanation for the body-size decline in the main study colony is that a density-dependent process, which mainly was in effect during the very early phase of colony growth, negatively affected juvenile growth and final size. We conclude that large environmental effects on growth and final structural body size easily can mask microevolutionary responses to selection. Analyses of environmental causes underlying temporal and spatial body size variation should always be considered in the reconstruction and prediction of evolutionary changes in natural populations.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Thord
    Uppsala University, Sweden ; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bird Ringing Centre, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Post-fledging migration of common murres Uria aalge in the Baltic Sea: management implications1999In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of common murre Uria aalge chicks, at Slora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea (Sweden), we used two data sets to investigate the post-fledging migration to learn more on potential threats from human activities. Firstly, we radio tracked 12 chicks on average 5.1 h during their first night at sea, after jumping from the breeding cliffs in early July. Their average speed was 1,9 km h-’and all chicks swam in a similar direction (SW) with a mean bearing of 235°. By searching an area of ca 400 km2 further off the island between two and six days after the radio tracking, we concluded that they did not stop, even temporarily, within 40 km off the island, but had continued the swimming migration. Our second data set was made up by 400 recoveries of ringed chicks. Only those recovered within eight months after fledging (until February) were included. Two birds recovered at the Polish coast in the beginning of August had moved on average 10.7 and 12.3 km day-’(i.e. 0.45-0.51 km h-). In August, all chicks, except one, were found south of Gotland > 70 km away. The average distance to the recovery sites in. August was 253.5 km (n = 11). The pattern of distribution of birds reported in September. October and during the winter period from November to February was about the same as in August. The average direction from the colony lo the recovery sites was S to SW. Important findings from nature management perspective are: 1) our data suggest that the route of the chicks at least partly coincide with ship routes with at least 42000 passages each year. Hence, there is a potential for a great part of the common murre population to get in contact with oil spillage at this stage, notably in the first half of July. 2) From the 400 reported recoveries of ringed chicks we concluded that the most important over wintering areas are around Bornholm and the Bay of Gdansk. Hence, these are the most likely areas for conflicts with the fishery and oil spillage during the winter.

  • 48.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden ; Gotland University, Sweden.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University, Sweden.
    Population differentiation in the redshank (Tringa totanus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism.2005In: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 321-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ar]

    The redshank (Tringa totanus) is declining throughout Europe and to implement efficient conservation measures, it is important to obtain information about the population genetic structure. The aim of the present study was two-fold. First, we analysed the genetic variation within and between populations in the Baltic region in southern Scandinavia. Evidence of genetic structure would suggest that different populations might require separate management strategies. Second, in an attempt to study large-scale genetic structure we compared the Baltic populations with redshanks from northern Scandinavia and Iceland. This analysis could reveal insights into phylogeography and long-term population history. DNA samples were collected from six breeding sites in Scandinavia presumed to include two subspecies (totanus and britannica) and a further sample from Iceland (subspecies robusta). Two methods were used to study the population genetic structure. Domain II and III of the mitochondrial control region was analysed by DNA sequencing and nuclear DNA was analysed by screening amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Mitochondrial DNA showed no variation between individuals in domain II. When analysing an 481 bp fragment of domain III seven haplotypes were found among birds. On the basis of mtDNA sequences, redshanks showed some evidence of a recent expansion from a bottlenecked refugial population. Bayesian analyses of AFLP data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between suggested subspecies but not between populations within the Baltic region. Our results indicate that populations of redshanks in Europe constitute at least three separate management units corresponding to the recognised subspecies.

  • 49.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Gotland University, Sweden ; Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University, Sweden.
    Uppföljning av häckfåglars förekomst och utbredning på öländska sjömarker2005Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanställer resultat från delprojektet ”Uppföljning av arters förekomst och utbredning” som ingår som en del i övervakningen inom LIFE-projektet ”Strandängar och våtmarker i det öländska odlingslandskapet” som Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar driver. Arbetet har utförts i samarbete med Högskolan på Gotland, Lunds universitet, Naturvårdsverket och Jan Pettersson (JP Fågelvind).

    Delprojektet har omfattat häckfågelinventeringar av sjöfåglar år 2003 respektive 2004 inom projektområdet. Dessa inventeringar som omfattade simfåglar, vadare och måsar, trutar och tärnor var en upprepning av motsvarande inventeringar som genomfördes i strandnära betesmarker på Öland år 1988 respektive 1998. Vi studerade också kläckningsframgång hos vadare kopplat till predation (främst kråka, korp och räv) och trampskador från betande djur. Överlevnaden hos vadarbon under-söktes vid olika tätheter av betesdjur. Häckfågelinventeringarna kompletterades med uppföljning av andelen lyckade häckningar av rödbena som fungerade som en modellart för häckningsframgång hos vadare i allmänhet. För detta krävdes att en metod för uppföljning av effekten av predation av ägg och ungar utarbetades och prövades.

  • 50.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden ; Gotland University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University, Sweden.
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nesting success in redshank Tringa totanus breeding on coastal meadows and the importance of perches used by avian predators2005In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, E-ISSN 1944-6705, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CapsuleNest survival rates could not be explained by distance to habitat edges or other features used by predators.

    AimsTo investigate if predation on Redshank nests was affected by habitat characteristics at a local scale.

    MethodsWe examined survival rates of Redshank nests on coastal meadows on the Baltic island of Gotland, Sweden, over two breeding seasons. We analysed nest survival rates in relation to several habitat characteristics that may benefit predators searching for nests. We examined existing studies concerning predation rates on wader nests in relation to edges and habitat features potentially used by avian predators.

    ResultsWe found no significant effects of distance to habitat edge or to nearest potential lookout for avian predators or to shoreline. Abundance of Lapwings Vanellus vanellus, an aggressive species with active nest-defence, did not have any significant effect on nest survival rate, nor did vegetation concealment of nests. Nest survival rates were significantly different between years and lower later in the season.

    ConclusionsThere is only weak support for general effects on wader nest predation rates of proximity to edges and features used by avian predators. Simple mechanical management actions such as removal of trees and bushes on coastal meadows may not directly, and by itself, result in higher reproductive success of waders. Further understanding is needed of the behaviour of predators and the composition of the predator community in different landscapes in order to increase the efficiency of management actions to remove threats to vulnerable species on coastal meadows.

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