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  • 1.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Case management for frail older adults through tablet computers and skype2016In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 405-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Frail older adults are high consumers of medical care due to their age and multiple chronic conditions. Regular contact with a case manager has been proven to increase well-being of frail older adults and reduce their number of health-care visits. Skype calls through tablet PCs can offer easier communication. Objective: This paper examines frail older adults’ use of tablet computers and Skype, with their case managers.Method: Interviews were conducted on 15 frail older adults. A content analysis was used to structure and analyze the data. Results: The results indicate that tablet computers were experienced in a positive way for most frail older adults. Conflicting feelings did emerge, however, as to whether the frail elderly would adopt this in the long run. Skype needs to be tested further as to whether this is a good solution for communication with their case managers. Strong technical support and well-functioning technology are important elements to facilitate use. Conclusion: Using Skype and tablet PCs do have potential for frail older adults, but need to be tested further.

  • 2.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge University of Technology.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Wahlberg, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Factors influenceing internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden2015In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 237-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption;a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-caresolutions. Older adults’ Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. Thesample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated withage, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living.Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts.Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well asliving with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid theexclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.

  • 3.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Distribution of personality, individual characteristics and internet usage in Swedish older adults2012In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This article investigated factors associated with internet usage in the Swedish older adults ranging in age from 60 to 96. Personality traits and individual characteristics have been previously noted to influence internet usage, where older adults have not been the focus population. In this study, the relationships between personality, individual characteristics and internet usage were investigated. Methods: A descriptive analysis of the personality tests of a total of 1402 subjects included in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care was conducted. Three variables were controlled for: sex, age and education. Descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests, chi-square tests and a logistic regression were used in order to detect the relationships with internet usage. Results: Men differ significantly from women in the personality traits analysis. Those with higher education were more open and neuroticism was lower in the oldest older adults. Internet usage declined significantly with age and those with middle to higher education were using the internet the most. No other associations with internet use were found. Conclusion: Personality traits and individual characteristics do not seem to influence the Swedish older adult and their internet usage. What one needs to account for is the age and education of the person. The more educated and the youngest cohorts were using the internet more frequently.

  • 4.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Factors associated with change in Internet usage of the swedish older adults between 2004 and 20102012In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The increased reliance on Internet use in social functions has presumably left out a part of the population: the oldest-older adults. These are people who have not kept themselves up to date with the technological developments for various reasons. There are, however, exceptions from whom we have something to learn. This study investigates the older people in Sweden who started to use the Internet over a period of 6 years. Cognition, extraversion, openness, functional disability, household economy, sex, age and education were investigated in relation to starting to use the Internet. A chi-square test, Spearman correlation and a logistic regression analysis were conducted. It was found that higher cognition, being male and being between the ages of 60 and 80 years were determining factors in starting to use the Internet for the Swedish older adult. Our results indicate that the oldest-older adults are slow to adapt to using the Internet and more attention should be paid on how to support this group.

  • 5.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Effects on life satisfaction of older adults after child and spouse bereavement2017In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 602-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have compared the impact of different familial losses on life satisfaction (LS). Furthermore, there is a lack of research on the effect of having lost both a child and a spouse among older adults. Sample: A random sample of 1402 individuals, 817 women and 585 men, aged 60–96 years from the Blekinge part of the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care (SNAC-B) participated in this cross-sectional study. Aims: The first aim was to compare the effects of child or spouse or both child and spouse bereavement on LS and, the second aim, to investigate if there were gender differences within the bereaved groups. Results: The results showed that having lost a child, spouse or both child and spouse had a negative association with LS, although this effect was small. Having experienced multiple losses did not predict more variance than a single child or spouse loss. Gender differences were found within all the bereaved groups with bereaved men having lower LS than bereaved women. Longer time since the loss was associated with higher LS. Conclusions: Bereaved older adults have somewhat lower LS than non-bereaved and bereaved men seem more affected than bereaved women. Future research needs to address older men´s experiences after the loss of a loved one.

  • 6.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the Most Important Negative Life Events in Older Adults Bereaved of Child, Spouse, or Both2018In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Losing a child or a spouse is described as the worst of experiences. However, it is not known whether older adults bereaved of a child, spouse, or both child and spouse experience these losses as among the most important negative events in their life- time. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 1,437 older adults bereaved of a child, spouse, or both included in the southern part of the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care mentioned these losses when asked about their three most important negative life events. Gender differences in their choices of important negative life events were also explored. About 70% of those bereaved of a child or a spouse mentioned these losses as among their three most important negative life experiences. In the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, 48% mentioned both the loss of their child and spouse, while 40% mentioned either the loss of a child or a spouse. Gender differences were only found in the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, with a few more women mentioning the loss of the child but not the spouse, and the men showing the opposite pattern. 

  • 7.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness on Mortality Risk in Older Adults After Child and Spouse Bereavement2016In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 559-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Bereavement effects on mortality risk were investigated in 1150 randomly selected participants, aged 60-104, in the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care.

    Method: Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for age, gender, functional ability, the personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness as well as time since the latest loss were used to predict mortality risk.

    Results: Having lost a child, spouse or both child and spouse did not predict mortality risk. An indirect link between bereavement and mortality was found showing for each year since loss the mortality risk decreased by about 1%. Neuroticism, but not conscientiousness, was associated with mortality risk, with a small-effect size.

    Conclusions: The different bereavements did not predict mortality risk while an indirect link was found showing that mortality risk decreased with time.

  • 8.
    Dahl, Mats
    et al.
    Lund Univ.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Scimone, Benjamin
    Lund Univ.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Old and very old adults as witnesses: Event memory and metamemory2015In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 764-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people constitute an important category of eyewitnesses. Episodic memory performance in older persons is poorer than in younger adults, but little research has been made on older persons' metacognitive judgments. Since more persons of advanced age will likely be called upon as witnesses in coming years, it is critical to characterize this population's metacognitive abilities. We compared event memory metacognition in old adults (66-year-old, n = 74) to very old adults (87 or 90 years old, n = 55). Participants were tested on their memory of a film, using questions with two answer alternatives and the confidence in their answer. As expected, the very old group had a lower accuracy rate than the old group (d = 0.59). The very old group, however, monitored this impairment, since their over-/underconfidence and calibration did not differ from the old group but they displayed a poorer ability to separate correct from incorrect answers (discrimination ability). Possibly, the very old group was able to monitor the level of their over-/underconfidence because they applied general self-knowledge about their memory skills. In contrast, the discrimination of correct from incorrect answers may be more dependent on ability to attend to the features of each retrieved memory.

  • 9.
    Dahl, Mats
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Alwood, Carl Martin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Hagberg, Bo
    The Swedish National study Aging and Care.
    The relation between personality and the realism in confidence judgements in older adults2010In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 283-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relation between personality factors, as measured by the Swedish version of the NEO-FFI questionnaire, and the realism in older adults' (aged 60-93 years, n = 1,384) probability confidence judgements of their answers to general knowledge questions. The results showed very small effect sizes for the contribution of the personality variables to the fit between the proportion correct answers and the level of one's confidence judgements. Although personality differed somewhat within the age span studied and between the genders no differences were found in the relation between the dimensions of the NEO-FFI and the degree of realism in the confidence judgements as a function of age or gender. In total, the results show a significant but very small effect of personality on the realism in older adults' confidence judgements of their semantic knowledge.

  • 10.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Berg, Anne-Ingeborg
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Factorial validity and invariance of the Life Satisfaction Index in older people across groups and time: Addressing the heterogeneity of age, functional ability, and depression.2012In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, extensive research efforts have been directed at exploring life satisfaction in old age, and the Life Satisfaction Index A scale (LSIA), developed by Neugarten et al. in the 1960s, is one of the most commonly used instruments. However, studies have focused on predicting and comparing changes in people’s life satisfaction without testing if the LSIA instrument is equally valid for different subgroups of people. The present study investigated the underlying dimensions of the LSIA in a Swedish population (n=1402) of people 60−96 years of age. The study also examined factorial invariance across age, gender, functional ability and depression during a six-year period. The results showed that while a five-factor solution of the LSIA did not exhibit an acceptable fit to the data, a three-factor solution did show a close fit. The two three-factor models that demonstrated the best fit showed invariance across gender and across time, but noninvariance across groups with different levels of reduced functional ability, depressive symptoms and age. These findings suggest that the psychometric properties of life satisfaction instruments like the LSIA need to be taken into consideration before drawing conclusions about life satisfaction when comparing older people of different ages and with different depression and function levels.

     

  • 11.
    Holst, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Can communicative problems between caregivers and patients with severe dementia be bridged by help from a close family member?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown connections between personality and various kinds of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. It has for example been found that personality traits such as introversion, rigidity, and a tendency to suppress emotions, as remembered retrospectively by a close family member, correlated positively with disturbed communicative behaviors in people with severe dementia. This finding indicates that personality characteristics should be considered in nursing care because they may help a caregiver to understand communicative attempts from a person not able to speak for themselves, i.e. express their feelings. Information from a next of kin about a sick person’s personality may help to bridge communicative gaps in care situations. However, the reliability of such information is not known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement between healthy elderly people`s self-assessment and the assessment made by a next of kin concerning personality and Sense of Coherence (SOC). The participants (n=154) answered questions from the Eysenck personality scale and the Antonovsky SOC scale. The study shows high or moderate agreement in ratings when analysed by means of an intra-class correlation coefficient (range between r =.57 and r = .72) indicating that in general a close relative is able to report on the personality of a next of kin.  The inter-rater agreement was high on SOC and Extraversion and somewhat lower on Neuroticism. For Neuroticism, length of time of relationship increased the odds for a good inter-rater agreement.  Thus seemingly a next of kin is a reliable informant for the elderly in general and is probably also able to add information useful in the nursing care of people with a severe dementia disease.

  • 12.
    Holst, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Self and next of kin's assessment of personality and sense of coherence in elderly people: Implications for dementia care.2012In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses sometimes fail to understand the behaviour of individuals with severe dementia. Information from a next of kin may help to bridge this communicative gap. One factor that influences a person’s reaction to a disease is her/his personality and ability to cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement between healthy elderly people`s self-assessment and the assessment made by a next of kin concerning personality and Sense of Coherence. The participants (n=154) answered questions from the Eysenck personality scale and the Antonovsky SOC scale. The study shows high or moderate agreement in ratings when analysed by means of an intra-class correlation coefficient (range between r =.57 and r = .72) and the results indicate that in general a close relative is able to report on the personality of a next of kin.  The inter-rater agreement was high on SOC and Extraversion and somewhat lower on Neuroticism. For Neuroticism, length of time of relationship increased the odds for a good inter-rater agreement.  Thus seemingly a next of kin is a reliable informant for the elderly in general and is probably also able to add information useful in the nursing care of people with a dementia disease.

  • 13.
    Mosesson, Matts
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work. FoU Välfärd.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. FoU Välfärd.
    Wikström, Eva
    FoU Välfärd.
    Att organisera för mötesplatser2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att organisera för mötesplatser

    Vid FoU Välfärd i Södra Småland är en viktig tanke med arbetet att det skall vara gränsöverskridande, innovativt och med en klar inriktning på brukarmedverkan. Eftersom de offentliga aktörer som aktivt arbetar med kunskapsutveckling i Kronobergs län är intressenter i FoU, skapas unika mötesplatser. Här samverkar kommuner, landsting, Försäkringskassan, Länsarbetsnämnden, Länsstyrelsen, Regionförbundet, frivilligorganisationer och Växjö universitet. Vad skapar detta för möjligheter?

    Med den starka koppling som finns mellan de olika intressenterna/aktörerna skapas mötesplatser där frågor formuleras och utvecklas för att bidra till kunskapsutvecklingen. En viktig strävan är att lyfta fram att det är i den praktiska verksamheten som frågor uppstår kring fenomen som vi vill veta mer om. Vad är det vi egentligen gör? Hur fungerar det för våra brukare och vår personal? Hur kan man ta tillvara goda exempel och utveckla dem? Hur kan man koppla samman olika kompetenser från brukare, offentliga aktörer och forskare så att ny kunskap uppstår?

    Vi vill, med ett antal praktiska exempel, visa hur det kan gå till att organisera för att utveckla välfärdsarbetet i ett helt län.

    Folkhälsa är ett för alla angeläget område, men vad innebär det att det sprids på så många aktörer? Det första exemplet handlar om FoU-s roll som länsövergripande samordnare av kartläggningar. Genom att kartlägga vad olika insatser innebär, finns också möjligheter att få dem att samverka och få ett större genomslag.

    Det andra exemplet handlar om hur vi organiserat ett projekt om trygghet i boendet, där fokus ligger på hur trygghetsbegreppet kan förstås och hanteras ur olika perspektiv. Verksamhetsrådens roll i FoU-arbetet tydliggörs här med delaktighet från offentliga aktörer i FoU-projektets alla faser ”från ax till limpa”.

    Kan brukare/brukarorganisationer – praktiker - utbildning och forskare lära varandra och av varandra? I det tredje exemplet visar vi hur vi med hjälp av kombinationstjänster gör det möjligt att skapa ett kreativt klimat där frågor formuleras och kompetensutveckling kommer till stånd. Från lärande organisation till lärande samverkan.

    Medverkande: FoU-ledarna Matts Mosesson, Mikael Rennemark och Eva Wikström

  • 14.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictors of survival in the Swedish 60 to 96 years old population2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl 1, article id ckw166.004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Longevity is multi-determined. In this study, biological, social and psychological factors were included in a multivariate model in order to investigate their predictive ability of survival in a nine year follow up period.

    Methods

    The sample was drawn from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC), including a representative database of Swedish inhabitants aged 60 to 96 years. The participants (N = 6986) were followed during the years 2002 to 2011. Data was collected including age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), muscle strength, living alone or not, household economy, functional status, smoking habits and education. These variables were used as predictors in multiple logistic regression analyses in order to estimate the odds ratios of survival during the follow up period.

    Results

    During the nine year period, 4447 participants (64%) survived. Education was the strongest predictor of survival with 57% higher odds to survive for higher educated participants (P<.001. 95%CI = 1.38 – 1.78), followed by not living alone, which increased the odds of survival with 37% (P<.001. 95%CI = .65 - .83). Light physical activity increased the odds of survival with 18% (P<.001. 95%CI = 1.12 – 1.24) and not smoking was significant related to survival but the odds ratio was as low as 10% (P<.01. 95%CI = 1.03 – 1.71).

    Conclusions

    Social aspects such as education and not living alone are strong predictors of survival in older populations and must be considered in the understanding of differences in longevity. In addition, life habits such as physical activity and smoking behaviors should be taken into account.

    Key message:

    • Both social and behavioral factors contribute to the understanding of differences in longevity in the Swedish population of 60 to 96 years old people in Sweden.

  • 15.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Changes in mood, activity level and cognition at the age of 66 years, associated with leaving working life before the age of 60: longitudinal results from the SNAC study2013In: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, E-ISSN 1878-7657, Vol. 4, no Supplement 1, p. S208-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age of retirement has economical implications as we tend to live longer with the result that an increasing number of older inhabitants have to share limited economical resources. This is however not only an economical issue. It is also of interest to investigate health- and quality of life-related factors associated with age of retirement. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in mood, activity level, and cognition at the age of 66 years associated with leaving working life before the age of 60 years.

  • 16.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Decreased cognitive functions at the age of 66, as measured by the MMSE, associated with having left working life before the age of 60: results from the SNAC study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 304-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The age of retirement has financial implications as we tend to live longer, with the result that an increasing number of older inhabitants have to share limited financial resources. However, this is not only a financial issue. It is also of interest to investigate factors related to health and quality of life associated with the age of retirement. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in mood, activity level, and cognition at the age of 66 associated with leaving working life before 60. Methods: Baseline and follow-up data on 840 participants of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care – Blekinge was used. Mood was measured by the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale and activity level by 27 survey items. Cognition was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: Retirement before 60 years of age was not associated with lower cognitive functions and a higher score on depression at baseline, but retirees were less active. Six years later, at the age of 66, a decline in their cognition was found. Retirees were still not more depressed but less active. In a logistic regression analysis, being retired increased the odds ratio for cognitive decline by 1.36-times (OR 2.36) when gender, activity level, education level, and depression were adjusted for. Conclusions: Participants who retired before the age of 60 declined in cognitive ability over the 6-year study period.

  • 17.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Holst, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Halling, Anders
    Lund University.
    Factors related to frequent usage of the primary healthcare services in old age: findings from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care2009In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People aged 60 or more are the most frequent users of healthcare services.

    In this age range, however, both frequent and infrequent users can be found.

    Frequent users have high rates of illnesses. Previous research has found that

    the frequency may be influenced also by psychological and social factors.

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what degree such factors add to

    the explanation of differences in number of visits to a physician. A crosssectional

    study was conducted with a random sample consisting of 1017

    individuals, aged 60 to 78 years, from the Blekinge part of the Swedish

    National Study on Aging and Care database. The data were collected during

    2001 to 2003. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used with

    frequent (three visits or more during a year) and infrequent use as a

    dichotomous dependent variable. The final statistical analyses included

    643 individuals (63% of the sample). Independent variables were sense of

    coherence (SOC), internal locus of control, education level and social

    anchorage. Control variables were age, gender, functional ability and

    comorbidity. The results showed that comorbidity was most strongly related

    to frequent use [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)

    5.54–12.04]. In addition, SOC and internal locus of control had small, but

    significant effects on the odds of being a frequent user (adjusted OR = 1.03,

    95% CI 1.00–1.06 and adjusted OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.02–1.27, respectively).

    The lower the SOC and the internal locus of control were, the higher were the

    odds of frequent use. Education level and social anchorage were unrelated

    to frequency of use. The results indicate that frequent healthcare services

    users are more ill than infrequent users. Psychological factors influence the

    use only marginally, and social factors as well as age and gender are not by

    themselves reason for frequent healthcare services use.

  • 18.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogréus, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sanmartin-Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Relationships between frequency of moderate physical activity and longevity: an 11-year follow-up study2018In: Gerontology and geriatric medicine, E-ISSN 2333-7214, Vol. 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Moderate physical activity gains survival. There are, however, several variables that may affect this relationship. In this study, the relationship between moderate physical activity and longevity was investigated, taking into account age, gender, smoking habits, cohabitation status, body mass index, leg strength and balance, education level and cognitive function. Method: A sample of 8,456 individuals aged 60 to 96 years, representative of the Swedish population, was included. Participants were followed from 2004 to 2015. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the predictive value of physical activity on longevity. Results: Participants still alive in the follow-up measure were more physically active on a moderate level. Being active 2 to 3 times a week or more was related to a 28% lower risk of not being alive at the follow-up measure. Discussion: The low frequency of physical activity, necessary for survival benefits should be considered in public health programs.

  • 19.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Halling, Anders
    Landstinget Blekinge.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Relationships between physical activity and perceived qualities of life in old age. Results of the SNAC-study2009In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, ISSN 1360-7863, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of different types Quality of life to strenuous and light physical activity in old age. Methods: The Swedish SNAC-Blekinge baseline database, consisting of data on 585 men and 817 women 60 to 96 years of age, was utilized. The independent variables were light and strenuous physical activity. Four dependent variables concerned with various quality of life components were employed (well-being, engagement, emotional support and social anchorage). Age, gender, functional ability and co-morbidity were included as possible confounders. Non-parametric bivariate and multivariate statistical tests were performed. Results: Correlations suggested there to generally be a positive relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for possible confounders showed light physical activity to increase the odds of experiencing well-being, engagement and social anchorage, whereas strenuous physical activity increased the odds of experiencing engagement and emotional support. Thus, light physical activity and strenuous physical activity differed in their relation to quality of life generally. Conclusions: The results indicate that physical activity has a salutogenic effect by enhancing the quality of life and it can be assumed to be connected to quality of life by generating pleasure and relaxation.

  • 20.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology ; Lund University.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Pain among older adults from a gender perspective: Findings from teh Swedish National study on Aging and Care2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 258-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is common in the elderly population and its prevalence varies according to the studied disease, clinical setting, sex and age. This study examines pain in an aging population from a gender perspective.

    METHODS: The Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC) is conducted at four research centres. Participants were recruited from the baseline sample (n=1402) at one of the research centres, SNAC-Blekinge. Individuals aged 60 years and older were included and non-participation was documented. Research personnel conducted the medical examination on two occasions.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of pain was 769/1402 (54.8%), distributed as 496/817 (64.5%) women and 273/585 (35.5%) men, p<0.01. Women reported more pain located in the vertebral column, p<0.01. The most common pain location was the legs and feet. About 84% reported pain intensity as 4 or higher on the visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain intensity declines with age among men, p<0.01. The most frequent treatment was painkillers. A total of 128/263 (48.7%) of the men received no pain treatment compared with 177/478 (37.0%) of the women, p<0.01. In a multivariate logistic regression model, women yielded the highest OR [OR 1.94 (C.I. 1.51-2.49)] for pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pain is common among older adults and there are significant differences between the sexes. Almost 55% of participants reported pain, predominantly women. In the majority of cases the intensity was rated as moderate or severe (VAS >4) and women rated higher than men p<0.02. Almost half of the men (48.7%) did not receive any treatment compared to 37% of the women, p<0.01.

  • 21.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Medicinska Fakulteten.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Elmsthål, Sölve
    Lunds Universitet, Medicinsk Fakultet.
    Relation between pain and Qol among older adults , influenced by biological, psychological and social factors: findings from the SNAC-B study2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola ; Lunds Universitet.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Elmståhl, S.
    Lunds universitet.
    Personality traits among older adults and its association with pain: findings from the SNAC-B study2013In: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, E-ISSN 1878-7657, Vol. 4, no S1, p. 28-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University.
    Relationships between pain and quality of life: Findings from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care - Blekinge study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    The influence of pain as well as Quality of Life (QoL) varies in accordance with biological, social, psychological and existential factors. This study investigates the influence of such factors on the relationship between pain and QoL among older adults from a gender perspective.

    Methods

    The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC-Blekinge) baseline sample comprised 1402 individuals aged 60–96 years, of whom 769 (55%) reported pain. The participants were invited by a letter to take part in the study, which was carried out by research staff in two sessions of three hour each. Participants gave informed consent and completed a questionnaire between the two sessions. The reason for non-participation was registered among subjects who declined the invitation. Pain and insomnia were self-reported. Data on age, gender and if living alone or not were collected from the questionnaire. Co-morbidity was obtained from electronic patients records for a period of up to two years prior to participating in the SNAC study. SoC was measured by a translated short form from the original twenty-nine question instrument. QoL, was estimated using the HRQL Medical Outcome Study-Short Form (SF 12). In a model, pain, age, sex, insomnia, co-morbidity, living alone, sense of coherence (SOC), household economy, education and QoL were calculated through multivariate logistic regression.

    Results

    Among women, pain was found to have the highest OR (odds ratio) for low QoL [OR 2.27 (CI 1.36–3.78)], followed by low economic status [OR 1.75 (CI 1.08–2.84)], co-morbidity [OR 1.24 (CI 1.05–1.46)], low SOC [OR 1.08 (CI 1.06–1.10)] and lower age [OR 1.05 (CI 1.02–1.08)]. In men, insomnia was found to be the main contributor to low QoL [OR 1.86 (CI 1.04–3.33)], followed by low SOC [OR 1.08 (CI 1.05–1.11)] and lower age [OR 1.04 (CI 1.01–1.07)].

    Conclusions

    Pain has a strong relationship with low QoL among elderly women. Insomnia is associated with low QoL among men who suffer less from pain. Thus the main result is a striking gender difference: Elderly women suffer from pain, elderly men suffer from insomnia.

    Implications

    It is important to take account of sex, age, sleep problems, co-morbidity, SOC and economic status in order to understand the relationship between pain and QoL among older adults.

  • 24.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University;Blekinge University of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elmsthål, Sölve
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    The influence of personality traits on perception of pain in older adults: Findings from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care – Blekinge study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 7, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    The experience of pain may vary in accordance with personality traits and individual characteristics. Neuroticism is demonstrated to constitute a vulnerability factor among younger and middle-aged pain patients. The combination of openness and neuroticism is associated with high anxiety/depression scores among adult individuals with chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between pain and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness among persons aged 60 years and older. An additional aim was to explore whether such associations are equally gender expressed.

    Methods

    The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care includes a randomly selected sample from the National Population Register. The data collection was conducted at four research centres and was approved by the Ethics Committees of Lund University and the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. The Blekinge sample includes 1402 individuals, aged 60–96 years, of whom 769 (55%) reported pain. A total of 2312 individuals had been invited to participate. The reason for non-participation was registered. Participants underwent medical examination and testing by research personnel, conducted in two sessions, each of which lasted about 3 h. A questionnaire was completed between the two sessions. Pain was self-reported and based on the question: Have you had ache/pain during the last 4 weeks? Information on personality traits was obtained by means of the personality SGC1 questionnaire; a 60-item Swedish version of Costa & McCrae's FFM questionnaire. Personality traits were then tested based on gender by means of multivariate forward logistic regression in models adjusted for age, insomnia, financial status and educational level.

    Results

    When adjusting for covariates among women, neuroticism had a small but significant odds ratio of experiencing pain (OR 1.05, CI 1.02–1.08). Insomnia had the highest odds ratio (OR 2.19, CI 1.52–3.15) followed by low education (OR 1.59, CI 1.07–2.36), while belonging to the younger part of the older adult cohort was also associated with pain (OR 1.02, CI 1.005–1.04). In men, neuroticism (OR 1.03, CI 1.002–1.06) followed by openness (OR 1.03 CI 1.001–1.07) had a small but significant odds ratio of experiencing pain. Insomnia had the highest odds ratio (OR 1.98, CI 1.24–3.15).

    Conclusions

    Personality traits and pain were related among the older adults but there were gender differences. The relationship between pain and neuroticism in women was about the same in strength as the relation between pain and neuroticism/openness in men. Both sexes suffer from insomnia. The relationship between personality traits and pain was only affected to a minor extent by insomnia.

    Implications

    There is a need to increase awareness of the impact of personality as well as to provide improved treatment for pain and insomnia in older people.

  • 25.
    Sandin-Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Landstinget Blekinge.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Highlighting Patterns of Factors Influencing the Relationship between Pain and Quality of Life among Older Adults - Findings from the SNAC Study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    The influence of pain on Quality of Life may vary depending on several reasons, biological as well as social, psychological or even existential. Thus, to better understand individuals who suffer from pain, psychosocial and quality of life aspects should be taken into account. Consequently, the aim of this study was look for patterns of biological/psychological and social factors that alter the relationship between pain and Quality of life.

     

    Method:

    The sample includes 1402 individuals aged 60 – 96 years out of whom 769 (55%) reported suffering from pain. This sample of older adults is being followed over time. Data were collected from physical examinations, patient records and a questionnaire. Age, gender, if living alone, KASAM, insomnia and pain were included as independent variables. The outcome variable, Quality of life, was estimated using the HRQL Medical Outcome Study-Short Form (SF 12).

     

    Results:

    All independent variables were related to Quality of Life in expected directions. Logistic regression analyses, showed that, multivariately, four factors influenced the quality of life among elders. Suffering from pain (OR1.66), insomnia (OR 1.70), KASAM (OR 1.08) and age (OR 1.05) increased the odds of experienced low Quality of Life.

     

    Conclusion:

    The results clearly show that insomnia means high odds for a low quality of life. The next most influential factor leading to low quality of life is pain. Significantly but with low OR, also age and KASAM increase the risk of having a low Quality of Life.  Thus, when understanding the relationship between pain and Quality of Life, sleeping problems and older age need to be considered.

  • 26.
    Sandin-Wranker, Lena
    et al.
    Landstinget Blekinge ; Blekinge University of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Berglund, Johan
    Bleking University of Technology.
    Pain among older adults with gender perspective: findings from the SNAC study2011In: 6TH WORLD CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF PHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE, Turin: EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA , 2011, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Chronic pain is a high-cost health problem. The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of pain among the elderly focusing on gender, distribution and treatment of pain, sleep disturbance, depression, overweight and use of healthcare providers.

    Methods: The sample includes 769 individuals with pain out of 1402 individuals in the Swedish SNAC (Blekinge) database. This sample of elderly people from different (10) age cohorts (aged 60-96yrs) is being followed over time. Data were collected from physical examinations, patient records and a questionnaire which sought information concerning the following areas: domestic arrangements; current pain and areas most affected; sleep patterns and depression.

    Results: The whole sample comprised a majority of women, 817 (58,3%) and in the group with pain 496 (64.5%) were women. The most common treatment was pharmaceutical drugs.  Seven groups were identified according to the location of the worst pain, the largest being the legs, 518 (65.6%). Women with pain reported more insomnia p<0.040, use of sleeping pills p<0.0003 and depression p<0.008. Overweight is a common problem among the elderly in general and also among the elderly with pain. Women were overrepresented concerning contacts with GP´s p<0.004 and primary care nurses p<0.003.

    Conclusions: Elderly people with pain are usually treated with drugs. The majority of those who reported insomnia (73.4%) were among individuals with pain. There are gender differences regarding insomnia and depression confirmed in the group of elderly people with pain. This group is also overrepresented concerning contacts with healthcare providers. 

     

  • 27.
    Sandin-Wranker, lena
    et al.
    Landstinget Blekinge.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Pain and wellbeing by gender among the elderly2010Conference paper (Refereed)
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