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  • 1.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Amore, Alberto
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Urban tourism and urban socialist and communist heritage: beyond tragedy and farce?2017In: International Journal of Tourism Cities, ISSN 2056-5607, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 291-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Existing literature on state socialist and communist heritage as a form of tourist consumption predominately focuses on destination contexts, such as the former Soviet countries and the few remaining state communist countries (i.e. China, North Korea and Cuba). As a result, the visitation to places linked to the history of socialism and communism in the so-called western pluralist democracies has often been overlooked and, at most, unacknowledged, especially as most research on "socialist" heritage focuses on sites connected to statist heritage rather than sites connected to socialist movements. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - This paper aims to fill the gap in terms of research focusing on these types of sites, with evidence from a range of countries in Europe and the Americas. It does so by illustrating the presence and engagement with official and non-official communist/socialist heritage at varying levels of commodification. Findings - The paper concludes that not only is there a need to broaden the concept of socialist heritage but that its framing needs to continue to be understood from present day ideological discourses and struggles with respect to the marking of urban heritage tourist locations. Originality/value - This contribution advocates the broadening of the concept of socialist heritage by acknowledging the relevance of "hidden" urban sites related to key socialist thinkers, socialist opposition to fascism, and civil wars in which the socialist movement was involved, while also drawing parallels between the levels of socialist/heritage recognition and use as a commodity in relation to the historical narrative within the studied countries.

  • 2.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    IMT Inst Adv Studies Lucca, Italy.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Who visits World Heritage?: A comparative analysis of three cultural sites2017In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a growing segment of the modern tourism industry, and several studies have been undertaken to identify the individuals who participate in this type of tourism. These have indicated that heritage tourists, generally, are middle class, middle age, and well educated. However, despite their iconic role, there has been relatively little attention paid to profile of visitors to World Heritage Sites. This study aims to better understand the demography of this specific tourism segment through the use of survey-based research at three geographically diverse World Heritage Sites: Independence Hall in the USA, Studenica Monastery in Serbia, and the Archaeological Site of Volubilis in Morocco. Through the use of descriptive statistics, several over-arching trends were noted among the three sites. World Heritage Site visitors were found to be very well educated, but they did not have any similarities in relation to age, income, or residence, which contrasts the "general" heritage tourist typology. However, there were several World Heritage specific trends. While this work is a snapshot of the three sites under study and thus is difficult to generalize, it provides the basis for more comprehensive demographic research on visitors to World Heritage Sites.

  • 3.
    Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prayag, Girish
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    World Heritage as a placebo brand: a comparative analysis of three sites and marketing implications2018In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) List is often regarded as a successful tourism brand that motivates site nominations. However, there is relatively little research dealing specifically with WH brand attraction effects, and what does exist shows conflicting results. There is a significant research gap in terms of awareness of the WH brand and its potential impact on visitation, which this study seeks to fill through a comparative analysis of three diverse case studies: Independence Hall, USA; Studenica Monastery, Serbia; and the Archaeological Site of Volubilis, Morocco. Survey data (n = 771) from these three sites were collected and analyzed resulting in three distinct clusters of visitors. One of the clusters does exhibit higher levels of awareness of the WH brand, but members of this group were not motivated by this knowledge when planning their site visit. It is concluded that the WH brand may function as a placebo, and that its importance may be tied more to political interests than economic advancement. Thus, dependency on the WH List for tourism development may potentially be detrimental for locations in the long term. The WH brand's placebo effect could result in long-term problems for both the site and those whose livelihoods depend on tourism.

  • 4.
    Amore, Alberto
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Jenkins, John
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    They never said "Come here and let's talk about it': Exclusion and non-decision-making in the rebuild of Christchurch, New Zealand2017In: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 617-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making in urban contexts is increasingly characterized by a depoliticized environment that has normalized neoliberal urban policies. These are further pursued in post-disaster contexts across the globe with narratives that overshadow the views and demands of the affected communities. Spatial contestation, exclusion of certain groups from key decisions and episodes of non-decision-making thus shape urban redevelopment through top-down governance. This paper provides a Lukesian narrative on post-earthquake Christchurch, where the redevelopment of the city has been characterized by a strong command-and-control rebuild agenda emanating from the national government, regardless of the feedback and criticisms from the affected community.

  • 5.
    Amore, Alberto
    et al.
    Southampton Solent Univ, UK.
    Prayag, Girish
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, Sch Tourism & Hospitality, South Africa.
    Conceptualizing Destination Resilience from a Multilevel Perspective2018In: Tourism Review International, ISSN 1544-2721, E-ISSN 1943-4421, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 235-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of resilience has gained momentum in current tourism research, yet there are still flaws and discrepancies between the many notions applied in the field. These limitations arc further evident when we focus on tourist destinations. The aim of this article is to advance the conceptualization of destination resilience through a multilevel perspective (MLP) that frames landscape, regime, niche, and actors as integrated elements of the tourism system. The resulting framework encompasses ecological, socioecological, sociopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociotechnological dimensions reflecting the embeddedness of resilience among heterogeneous and potentially complementary destination stakeholders. It is argued that the use of the MLP advances the understanding of tourism destination planning, particularly in contexts coping with gradual as well as drastic changes due to both demand fluctuations and supply-side disturbances.

  • 6.
    Baird, Tim
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Castka, Pavel
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    New Zealand Winegrowers Attitudes and Behaviours towards Wine Tourism and Sustainable Winegrowing2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are significant economic, environmental, social, and marketing issues that exist from the supply-side perspective in response to sustainability. This study examines New Zealand winegrowers in terms of their attitudes and behaviours towards wine tourism and sustainable wine production. A national survey was conducted at the end of 2015, which was the fourth such survey to be undertaken as part of a longitudinal study of wine tourism in New Zealand. This survey drew on issues of wine and biosecurity, climate change, and eco-labelling, as well as wine tourism. These issues were examined within the context of three key drivers of sustainability: the physical aspects of sustainable wine production, the internal drivers within wine businesses for the adoption of sustainable practices, and the external regulatory aspects that govern the adoption of sustainable wine production practices. The findings indicate that there were substantial concerns with the perceived value provided by both wine tourism and sustainable winegrowing practices. These concerns exist at both the firm level and with the governing bodies that are responsible for implementing sustainable winegrowing initiatives. Unless this perception of the value of sustainability within the New Zealand wine industry is altered in the future, it appears that there will continue to be an ongoing issue as to how sustainable winegrowing initiatives are implemented.

  • 7.
    Darbi, William Phanuel Kofi
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Elite interviews: critical practice and tourism2014In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 832-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elite interview method has been applied to the study of politics and policy-making and to other social and organisational contexts, although it has been relatively little applied in a formal fashion in tourism research. Nevertheless it is a method that has the potential of enhancing the quality and quantity of research data given the power and influence of elite subjects. The conduct of elite interviews suggests that there are qualitatively different aspects in interviewing ‘up’ as compared to interviewing ‘across’ or ‘down’. The article provides a review of some of the major issues involved in the conduct of elite interviews and highlights some of the tactics that researchers may use in the interview process as well as some of the potential ethical and publishing constraints. Even though there are a number of potential methodological challenges in using this method it provides a valuable approach in tourism research, especially studies that aim to understand decision-making processes, policy-making and perceptions. It is shown that individual ingenuity and reflexivity are required in order to overcome some of the challenges reported in existing studies.

  • 8.
    Darbi, William Phanuel Kofi
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Ghana Inst Management & Publ Adm, Ghana.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Knott, Paul
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    The Informal Sector: A Review and Agenda for Management Research2018In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 301-324Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its connotations of non-compliance, illegality, social exploitation and marginality, the informal sector is a substantial contributor to economic life in developing countries and, increasingly, in more technologically advanced activities. Its prevalence in developed economies has also become more widely recognized. In light of its significance, this paper reviews research on the informal sector from a management and organization scholarship perspective, rather than from an entrepreneurship view, as has been the focus until now. It sets out the atypical management practices that are inherent in the sector, explores the under-researched relationship between formal and informal firms, and highlights definitional, conceptual and other limitations in extant research. As a step in resolving these issues, the authors present a conceptual model of formality and informality in a three-dimensional framework that highlights an organizational infrastructure dimension, a view of firms operating along a continuum, and a multi-level analytical context. Building on this, the authors detail opportunities for enhanced appreciation of in situ management and organizational practices in the informal sector and outline tools for pursuing a management and organization scholarship agenda. Overall, the authors argue that management scholarship has great potential to improve understanding of the informal sector, and that the informal sector provides opportunities to advance management theory, research and practice.

  • 9.
    Dubois, Ghislain
    et al.
    TEC, France.
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    CIRED, France.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Weather preferences of French tourists: lessons for climate change impact assessment2016In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 339-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has complex relationships with weather and climate, and there is consensus that tourism could be substantially affected by climatic change. While considerable research has been presented on how climatic change is likely to affect destinations and tourism stakeholders in the future, there remains limited understanding of the weather preferences of tourists. This is a research priority if the implications of climatic change for the temporal and geographic patterns of tourism demand are to be assessed with more relevance. This paper presents the results of a survey (n = 1643 respondents) of the weather preferences of French tourists. Results show the ranking of weather and climate as a factor of destination choice and satisfaction. They also indicate the high tolerance of tourists to heat and even to heat waves, whereas rainy conditions appear to be clearly repulsive. The weight of precipitation in indices like the Tourism Comfort Index should therefore be upgraded. The findings are also compared with studies in other countries. Slight differences in similar surveys can lead to a discrepancy in the appreciation of excessive heat and associated thresholds by 2-3 degrees C, which might limit the possibility to base climate change impact assessment on such fragile data.

  • 10.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Conclusions: Food tourism and regional development - new localism or globalism?2016In: Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2016, p. 287-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Developing regional food systems: a case study of restaurant-customer relationships in Sweden2016In: Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2016, p. 76-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Norway;Lund University.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sharing versus collaborative economy: how to align ICT developments and the SDGs in tourism?2019In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 74-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great hopes have been placed in the sharing economy to provide a new business model based on peer-to-peer (P2P) exchanges of underutilized assets. As a model, the sharing economy has been expected to make significant contributions to sustainability, providing new opportunities for entrepreneurship, more sustainable use of resources, and consumer co-operation in tight economic networks. However, in recent years, digital platforms have turned into the most important actors in the global sharing economy, turning global corporations, such as AirBnB, Booking, or TripAdvisor into intermediaries controlling and profiting from most transactions. Focused on accommodation, this paper conceptualizes the sharing economy in comparison to the wider collaborative economy, and discusses its social, economic, environmental, and political impacts in comparison to the sustainable development goals. It concludes that the sharing economy has great potential to make very significant contributions to sustainability, though the model is increasingly being replaced by the collaborative economy, which performs as an extension and acceleration of neoliberal economic practices.

  • 13.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hall, C. MichaelUniversity of Otago, New Zealand.
    Tourism and global environmental change: ecological, social, economic and political interrelationships2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This fascinating book is the first comprehensive analysis of the economic, social and political interrelationships between tourism and global environmental change: one of the most significant issues facing humankind today. Its contributors argue that the impacts of these changes are potentially extremely serious both for the tourism industry, and for the communities dependent upon it.

    Integrating knowledge from the social and physical sciences, this significant book explores they key issues surrounding global environmental change, as well as government and industry willingness to meet the challenges posed by it. Divided into four main sections, it investigates:

    • the tourism and global environmental change relationship in specific environments
    • global issues related to environmental change
    • differing perceptions of global environmental change held by tourists and the tourist industry.

    Comprehensive in scope, topical and integrative, this key text is essential reading for students, scholars and researchers in all aspects of tourism, geography and environmental studies.

  • 14.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Norway.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Andersson, Ann-Christin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The manager's dilemma: a conceptualization of online review manipulation strategies2018In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 484-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online evaluations are one of the most important innovations in tourism in recent years, often combining a review/rating (business-specific evaluation) and a ranking (inter-business comparison). As online reputation determines economic success, tourism managers may be tempted to manipulate online content. This paper presents the results from a qualitative study involving 20 hotel managers in southern Sweden, and their perspectives on manipulation. Results confirm that there exists a wide range of review manipulation strategies, many of which are difficult to control. Even though only few managers appear to systematically manipulate, online evaluations represent a significant challenge for businesses, as they introduce direct competition and foster consumer judgement cultures. It is postulated that managers will increasingly find themselves in a Prisoner's dilemma, representing a situation where engaging in manipulation is the most rational choice in an increasingly competitive market situation.

  • 15.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Peeters, Paul
    Scott, D
    The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled?: A Climate Change Mitigation Perspective.2010In: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 119-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through significant emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism sub-sectors in generating emissions, and technical and management options in reducing these. It concludes that given observed and anticipated emission growth rates, technology and management will not be sufficient to achieve even modest absolute emission reductions in the sector, pointing to the key role of social and behavioural change in realizing climatically sustainable tourism. The article also discusses some of the systemic barriers that have to be overcome in order for tourism to comply with post- Kyoto Protocol global mitigation frameworks. The article concludes that radical change will be needed to reconcile the holiday and business travel demands of a growing world population with the climate policy targets of the international community, specifically restricting anthropogenic global warming to less than 2°C.

  • 16.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    Hall, C. Michael
    University of Cantebury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Scott, Daniel
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Tourism and Water2015Book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Weaver, David B.
    Synthesis and conclusions2009In: Sustainable tourism futures: perspectives on systems, restructuring and Innovations / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall and David B. Weaver, London: Routledge, 2009, 1, p. 299-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Peeters, Paul
    Hall, C. Michael
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    Dubois, G
    Lehmann, L
    Scott, D
    Aall, Carlo
    Tourism and Water: Supply, demand, and security. An International Review2012In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews direct freshwater consumption in tourism from both quantitative and qualitative viewpoints to assess the current water demand of the tourism sector and to identify current and future management challenges. The article concludes that even though tourism increases global water consumption, direct tourism-related water use is considerably less than 1% of global consumption, and will not become significant even if the sector continues to grow at anticipated rates of around 4% per year (international tourist arrivals). The situation differs at the regional level because tourism concentrates traveller flows in time and space, and often-in dry destinations where water resources are limited. Furthermore, the understanding of tourism’s indirect water requirements, including the production of food, building materials and energy, remains inadequately understood, but is likely to be more substantial than direct water use. The article concludes that with expected changes in global precipitation patterns due to climate change, it is advisable in particular for already water scarce destinations to engage in proactive water management. Recommendations for managing tourism’s water footprint are made.

  • 19.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Ring, Amata
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Dwyer, Larry
    University of New South Wales, Australia ; Griffith University, Australia.
    Andersson, Ann-Christin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Optimizing or maximizing? A challenge to sustainable tourism2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 527-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually all destinations seek to increase tourist numbers, pursuing economic maximization strategies. Considerably less attention is paid to optimizing existing tourist systems to create more profitable, stable, resilient and potentially more sustainable entities. While aspects of tourist expenditure, average length of stay and seasonality as three key destination management variables have received considerable attention in the literature, focus has usually been on the identification of “profitable” tourism markets by considering observed patterns of spending, length of stay and vacation timing. Building on such earlier studies, this paper focuses on flexibilities in these parameters: could tourists have spent more, stayed longer or visited during a different season? Perceptions of destination expensiveness as a potential deterrent to visitation were also addressed. Based on a sample (n = 1914) of domestic and international tourists in the Swedish cities of Kalmar and Stockholm, data were collected in face-to-face interviews using questionnaires. Results indicate considerable potential to optimize the Swedish tourism system with regard to all variables studied, while also providing new insights for destination management in the context of economic resilience. Results also indicate the need for researchers everywhere to have detailed market knowledge if they are to persuade the industry to change its sustainability behavior.

  • 20.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Ctr Sustainable Tourism, Sogndal, Norway.
    Scott, Daniel
    Hall, C. Michael
    Challenges of tourism in a low-carbon economy2013In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 525-538Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the interrelationships of tourism and climate change from a mitigation perspective. Tourism is an increasingly important part of the global economy that is dependent on the annual movement of billions of travelers, often over large distances. The current contribution of the tourism sector to global climate change is reliably established at approximately 5% of CO2 emissions, though national tourism economies can be considerably more carbon-intense. Great uncertainty remains regarding tourism's future emission trajectories. However, in all scenarios, tourism is anticipated to grow substantially and to account for an increasingly large share of global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly if other sectors manage to achieve absolute emission reductions. The emission reduction challenges facing tourism in a low-carbon economy are analyzed and current industry, government, and consumer responses critically examined. The article ends with a discussion of the implications of business-as-usual emissions trajectories versus the +2 degrees C climate policy target for future tourism development. WIREs Clim Change 2013, 4:525-538. doi: 10.1002/wcc.243 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  • 21.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund Univ.
    Scott, Daniel
    Univ Waterloo.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Univ Canterbury.
    Inter-market variability in CO2 emission-intensities in tourism: Implications for destination marketing and carbon management2015In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 46, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing gap between tourism's rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions and the sector's 'aspirational' emission reduction targets as well as the international policy consensus to reduce emissions from this and all other sectors of the economy. The transport component is the largest GHG contributor to the global tourism system. In the absence of supranational policy agreements to curb emissions from international aviation and cruise tourism, as well as limited national policy initiatives, there has been a recent shift in research to the potential role of market-based carbon management for destinations to reduce emissions. Air travel is the most important subsector generating GHGs in international tourism. This article analyses the composition of international tourism markets arriving by air and their respective contribution to emissions at 11 selected countries with distinctly different tourism economies. The implications of changes in the market composition of these countries between 1995 and 2010 for average tourist carbon intensity and total emissions are examined. Results indicate variations in inter-market emission intensities of up to a factor 30 (127-3930 kg CO2/tourist) if comparing individual markets for the whole range of destinations, and up to a factor 5 (370-1830 kg CO2/tourist) if comparing average emission intensities between destinations. Findings are discussed with regard to the potential for destinations to reduce emissions from tourism by strategically fostering specific markets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scott, Daniel
    Hall, C. Michael
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    Dubois, Ghislain
    Consumer behaviour and demand response of tourists to climate change2012In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 36-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of climate change on tourism demand patterns will be shaped by the response of tourists to the complexity of mitigation policy anti its impacts on transportation systems, the wide range of climate change impacts on destinations, as well as broader impacts on society and economic development. Tourists have the largest adaptive capacity of elements within the tourism system because of their flexibility to substitute the place, timing and type of holiday, even at very short notice. Consequently, understanding tourist perceptions and reactions to the impacts of climate change is essential to anticipating the potential geographic and seasonal shifts in tourism demand, as well as the decline or increase of specific tourism markets. Yet, despite a wide range of publications assessing reactions of tourists to various environmental and climate-related changes, little is actually known about the complexity of demand responses. The paper reviews and discusses existing studies, and provides a framework for a better understanding of perceptions of change, as well as identifying major current uncertainties and research needs.

  • 23.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University;Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Zeiss, Harald
    Harz University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Hall, C. Michael
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Martin-Rios, Carlos
    HES-SO University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Ram, Yael
    Ashkelon Academic College, Israel.
    Grøtte, Ivar-Petter
    Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    A cross-country comparison of accommodation manager perspectives on online review manipulation2019In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accommodation businesses are increasingly dependent on a limited number of reservation platforms. A significant feature of these platforms is guest evaluations, which are transformed into ratings and rankings. As the positioning of the business in comparison to competitors determines customer demand, accommodation managers have considerable interest in maintaining or improving their online reputation. One response may be to engage in manipulation strategies. This paper presents the results of a survey including 270 hotel managers in five countries, Germany, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. Managers confirm growing competition as a result of ratings and rankings, and they report that guests are increasingly aware of the importance of reviews. To avert negative online feedback impacts, managers intervene strategically. The paper discusses new market pressures, emergent consumer judgement culture and consumer citizenship, opportunities for legal redress and the emerging importance of reputation management strategies.

  • 24.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, Dept Management, Christchurch 1, New Zealand / Univ Oulu, SF-90100 Oulu, Finland / Univ Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Framing tourism geography: notes from the underground2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, p. 601-623Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism geography is a significant contributor to the study of tourism, yet is generally perceived as marginal to geography. The review frames contemporary tourism geography by examining it in the context of geographical knowledge processes, changes to the environment within which it is situated, issues of marginality, and the ongoing significance of major binaries in geographic thought including physical/human geography and applied/theoretical geography. These frames are relevant to the wider domain of tourism studies as well. Although noting the dangers of invented disciplinary traditions and heritage as a result of the writing of reflective reviews and texts, the article argues that tourism geography has been a significant contributor to the bringing together and hybridity of geographic binaries, especially in the development of more critical applied geographies of environmental change. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; Univeristy of Oulu, Finland.
    Global change, Islands and sustainable development: Islands of sustainability or analogues of the challenge of sustainable development?2015In: Routledge International Handbook of Sustainable Development / [ed] Michael Redclift & Delyse Springett, Routledge, 2015, p. 55-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Intervening in academic interventions: framing social marketing's potential for successful sustainable tourism behavioural change2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 350-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given tourism's growing emissions and contribution to environmental change, the positive potential of behavioural interventions, and especially social marketing, has increasingly become a focus for sustainable tourism and mobility research. This paper uses the lens of social marketing to investigate the capacities of tourism researchers to contribute to sustainable tourist behavioural change. Several key and interrelated issues are identified: the nature of socio-technical systems and regimes, understanding what constitutes a successful behavioural intervention, the role of theory and belief systems in interventions, and the potential role of upstream social marketing in policy learning and system change. In the case of social marketing, the essentially political nature of engaging in communications on sustainability is also highlighted. This has implications for the social marketing knowledge base on which sustainable tourism behaviour research draws, such as the value of political marketing and psychology, as well as the challenge that this provides for notions of value-free or objective tourism research. The need for behavioural change by tourism researchers, as well as by governments, the industry, and tourists is noted. These issues are critically evaluated and expanded upon to aid academic researchers in understanding and promoting behaviour change in tourism studies.

  • 27.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury ; Univ Oulu ; Univ Johannesburg.
    On the mobility of tourism mobilities2015In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism mobilities are increasing over time and over space. However, while overall growth is clearly of significance, there is a need for a greater interrogation of some of the underlying assumptions made with respect to the nature of tourism mobility in the highly North American and Eurocentric English language tourism literature. Therefore, closer examination of mobilities in the so-called emerging economies that are becoming of growing importance with respect to aggregate tourism consumption and production may shed significant light on our understandings of tourism and associated mobilities.

  • 28.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Eastern Finland, Finland ; Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies, Germany.
    The ecological and environmental significance of urban wastelands and drosscapes2013In: Organising Waste in the City: International Perspectives on Narratives and Practices / [ed] María José Zapata Campos, C. Michael Hall, Policy Press, 2013, p. 21-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ;.
    The environmental externalities of medical and health tourism: Implications for global public health2016In: The Routledge Handbook of Health Tourism / [ed] Melanie Kay Smith & László Puczkó, Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 193-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the literature on health and medical tourism in the tourism literature tends to emphasise the potential value to consumers of medical tourism as well as the associated value to (primarily) private healthcare operators and destinations (Musa, Thirumoorthi and Doshi, 2012; Wang, 2012; Medina-Muñoz and Medina-Muñoz, 2013; Alberti, Giusti, Papa and Pizzurno, 2014; Alén, De Carlos and Domínguez, 2014; Woo and Schwartz, 2014; Johnson and Garman, 2015; Wu, Li and Li, 2016). In the medical literature the value drive has been more critically assessed, in part because of concerns over the implications for the patient when things go wrong, but also because of the implications for state-funded public health systems, especially those geared towards a model of universal health (Hall, 2011; Barros, 2015). Nevertheless, there appear to be significant academic and policy divides between countries that primarily embrace private health models and those with stronger publicly provided health systems, especially regarding the ethics and equity of medical and health tourism (Hall, 2012a; Ormond, 2015). However, a key issue in considering medical and health tourism is where the externalities lie, the nature of those externalities and over what timeframe they should be considered in policy making. This chapter therefore seeks to address these questions in the context of the wider health implications of medical tourism and how these should be considered at a time of increasing concerns as to the physical and economic capacities of health systems to respond to disease threats.

  • 30.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland .
    The local in farmers' markets in New Zealand2013In: Sustainable culinary systems: local foods, innovation, tourism and hospitality / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2013, 1, p. 99-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; Oulu University, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Tourism and environmental change in Asia2016In: The Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Asia / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Stephen J. Page, Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 72-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asia has been the fastest growing economic region in the world since the 1970s. Economic development has primarily been driven by adopting a labour-intensive, export-oriented industry development strategy, including tourism, that has been supported by substantial exploitation of both human resources and natural resources (United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for the Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 2012). Asian populations are regarded as having a strong intrinsic environmental ethic (Yencken 2000), yet despite this, environmental losses in the region have been profound with respect to deforestation and desertification, pollution, extinction and biodiversity loss (UNESCAP & ADB 2000; Hubacek et al. 2009; Avishek et al. 2012; Galli et al. 2012; Shively & Smith 2014). As Barua and Khataniar (2015: 23) note specifically with respect to the policies of national governments in relation to sustainability in the Asian context, ‘in their pursuit of achieving higher economic growth and standards of living, resources have been exploited at a rate much faster than the regenerative capacity of nature’.

  • 32.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Tourism planning and human security: knowledge and intervention construction and trust in "solving" environmental change2014In: Trust, Tourism Development and Planning / [ed] Robin Nunkoo, Stephen L.J. Smith, Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 86-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand ; Univ Oulu, Finland ; Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Dayal, Natasha
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Majstorovic, Dea
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Mills, Hamish
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Paul-Andrews, Leroy
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Wallace, Chloe
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Truong, Van Dao
    Accommodation Consumers and Providers' Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices for Sustainability: A Systematic Review2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 625Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accommodation and lodging are an integral component of the tourism and hospitality industry. Given the sectors' growing contribution to resource consumption and waste, there is a growing body of literature on the attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers, managers, staff and owners of lodging with respect to sustainability. This paper presents the results of a systematic analysis of articles on attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers and the provision of accommodation with respect to sustainability. The results indicate that there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on the sustainability of practices and behaviours. There are limitations in geographical coverage as well as methods, with research dominated by convenience sampling approaches. It is concluded that while there appear to be improvements in the potential sustainability of lodging with respect to technological approaches, the lack of systematic long-term studies on behavioural interventions represents a significant challenge to reducing the absolute emissions of the sector as well as reductions in energy and water use and waste production. Given the lack of longitudinal studies, it is not known whether observed behavioural changes are sustained over time.

  • 34.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food tourism is a topic of increasing importance for many destinations. Seen as a means to potentially attract tourists and differentiate destinations and attractions by means of the association with particular products and cuisines, food is also regarded as an opportunity to generate added value from tourism through local agricultural systems and supply chains and the local food system.

    From a regional development perspective this book goes beyond culinary tourism to also look at some of the ways in which the interrelationships between food and tourism contribute to the economic, environmental and social wellbeing of destinations, communities and producers. It examines the way in which tourism and food can mutually add value for each other from the fork to the plate and beyond. Looking at products, e.g. cheese, craft beer, noodles, wine; attractions, restaurants and events; and diverse regional examples, e.g. Champagne, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Margaret River, southern Sweden, and Tuscany; the title highlights how clustering, networking and the cultural economy of food and tourism and foodscapes adds value for regions. Despite the attention given to food, wine and culinary tourism no book has previously directly focused on the contribution of food and tourism in regional development. This international collection has contributors and examples from almost every continent and provides a comprehensive account of the various intersections between food tourism and regional development.

    This timely and significant volume will inform future food and tourism development as well as regional development more widely and will be valuable reading for a range of disciplines including tourism, development studies, food and culinary studies, regional studies, geography and environmental studies.

  • 35.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    From food tourism and regional development to food, tourism and regional development: themes and issues in contemporary foodscapes2016In: Food Tourism and Regional Development: Networks, products and trajectories / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Stefan Gössling, Routledge, 2016, p. 3-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Gössling, Stefan
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Global environmental change and tourism enterprise2009In: Tourism enterprise and sustainable development: international perspectives on responses to the sustainability agenda / [ed] David Leslie, London: Routledge, 2009, 1, p. 17-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland .
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Re-imagining sustainable culinary systems: The future of culinary systems2013In: Sustainable Culinary Systems: Local Food, Innovation, and Tourism & Hospitality / [ed] C. Michael Hall and Stefan Gössling, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 293-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland .
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable Culinary Systems: An introduction2013In: Sustainable Culinary Systems: Local Foods, innovation, and Tourism & Hospitality / [ed] C. Michael Hall and Stefan Gössling, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 3-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland .
    Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sustainable Culinary Systems: local Foods, Innovation, and Tourism & Hospitality2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Scott, Daniel
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    The evolution of sustainable development and sustainable tourism2015In: The Routledge handbook of tourism and sustainability / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall & Daniel Scott, London: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.Scott, DanielUniversity of Waterloo, Canada.
    The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and Sustainability2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability remains one of the major issues in tourism today. Concerns over climate and environmental change, the fallout from the global economic and financial crisis, and the seeming failure to meeting UN Millennium development goals have only reinforced the need for more sustainable approaches to tourism, however they be defined. Given the centrality of sustainability in tourism curricula, policies, research and practice it is therefore appropriate to prepare a state of the art handbook on the relationship between tourism and sustainability.

    This timely Handbook of Tourism and Sustainability is developed from specifically commissioned original contributions from recognised authors in the field, providing a systematic guide to the current state of knowledge on this area. It is interdisciplinary in coverage and international in scope through its authorship and content. The volume commences with an assessment of tourism’s global environmental, e.g. climate, emissions, energy use, biodiversity, water use, land use, and socio-economic effects, e.g. economic impacts, employment and livelihoods, culture. This then provides the context for sections outlining the main theoretical frameworks and constructs that inform tourism and sustainability, management tools and approaches, and the approaches used in different tourism and travel industry sectors. The book concludes by examining emerging and future concerns in tourism and sustainability such as peak-oil, post-carbon tourism, green economy and transition tourism.

    This is essential reading for students, researches and academics interested in the possibilities of sustainable forms of tourism and tourism’s contribution to sustainable development. Its assessment of tourism’s global impact along with its overviews of sectoral and management approaches will provide a benchmark by which the sustainability of tourism will be measured for years to come.

  • 42.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Scott, Daniel
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Tourism and sustainability: an introduction2015In: The Routledge handbook of tourism and sustainability / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall & Daniel Scott, London: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 1-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Scott, Daniel
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Tourism and sustainability: towards a green(er) tourism economy?2015In: The Routledge handbook of tourism and sustainability / [ed] Stefan Gössling, C. Michael Hall & Daniel Scott, London: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 490-519Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury; New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Harrison, David
    St Mary's University, UK ; University of Surrey, UK.
    Weaver, David
    International Academy for the Study of Tourism, Hong Kong.
    Wall, Geoffrey
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Vanishing peripheries: does tourism consume places?2015In: Challenges in tourism research / [ed] Tej Vir Singh, Channel View Publications, 2015, 1, p. 161-191Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Hultman, Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Tourism mobility, locality and sustainable rural development2010In: Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe: Approaches to Development. / [ed] McLeod, D. and Gillespie, S., London: Routledge, 2010, p. 28-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural Europe is a highly developed tourism region, representing advanced tourism experience and supposed modern approaches to this industry. That said, it remains highly sensitive and fragile in terms of environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts. This volume focuses on rural Europe as a fascinating example of how tourism development impacts on the communities and the environment of rural regions and offers insights into how long term sustainability could be achieved in this specific region and correspondingly in other rural parts of the world.

    Sustainable Tourism in Rural Europe contains contributions from leading international scholars that review and analyse the concept and practice of sustainable tourism in this region through a multidisciplinary approach that embodies the view that sustainable tourism warrants a holistic approach in terms of its impacts and development potential. Divided into three sections: Key Themes and Issues; The State and Development; The Local Community and Development, this book addresses contentious and vital issues through theory, detailed research and case studies, offering real world approaches to sustainable development, showing problems including local politics which challenge abstract models. It introduces cutting edge research dealing with contemporary developments throughout Europe and consequential lessons/implications for other rural parts of the world.

    This volume will be of interest to students, researchers and academics in the areas of Tourism, Geography and Environmental Studies.

  • 46.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; Oulu University, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Page, Stephen J.
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Conclusion: prospects for tourism in Asia2016In: The Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Asia / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Stephen J. Page, Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 375-386Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapters contained in this book are by no means a complete assessment of tourism in Asia. Arguably the tendency in much Western tourism literature when discussing tourism in Asia has been to focus on east and southeast Asia and ASEAN member countries and to neglect south Asia (Hall & Page 2000a). Yet, as the chapters within this book undeniably show, there are complex inter-relationships which exist in terms of the tourism markets, regions and activities within Southeast and South Asia. Importantly, the residents in neighbouring Asian countries are increasingly providing major tourism markets for each other. This is reflected in the complex web of airline and cruise routes that are intra-regional in nature, often short-haul or medium-haul cross-border trips. For example, the growth of the Indian and the Chinese middle class has had substantial implications for intraregional travel as well as intercontinental travel, which is where much Western business and academic research is focused. What is also often overlooked is the extremely important domestic tourism market in Asian countries (see Singh 2009 for an important exception). In one sense of course this is understandable when framed in terms of the importance given to the attraction of foreign exchange by many governments in the region, and which is therefore also reflective of a number of chapters in the present volume. Nevertheless, it is also worth noting that despite most national tourism organisations' emphasising inbound tourism due to balance of trade and investment benefits, in some cases (e.g. Sri Lanka and Malaysia), tourism authorities have also tried to use domestic tourism as a substitute for a decline in international visitor arrivals, especially during periods of economic and financial crisis (Lew & Hall 1999; Hall 2010).

  • 47.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Page, Stephen J.
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Following the impact factor: utilitarianism or academic compliance?2015In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 51, p. 309-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of impact factors has grown substantially in academia and publishing far beyond their original intended use. They are now used extensively in academic and research assessments as well as in the promotion of journals, publishers, institutions and individuals. The implications of such metricisation for understandings of research quality are discussed as well as for research strategies, the commercialisation of academic publishing, the disciplining of academic knowledge and publishing strategies, knowledge development and the further neoliberalisation of higher education. The paradoxes and problems of current and potential future directions are discussed including with respect to the development of open access publications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 48.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Ram, Yael
    Ashkelon Acad Coll, Israel.
    Walk score (R) and its potential contribution to the study of active transport and walkability: A critical and systematic review2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 61, p. 310-324Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Walk Score (R) index has become increasingly applied in studies of walking and walkability. The index assesses the "walking potential" of a place through a combination of three elements: the shortest distance to a group of preselected destinations, the block length, and the intersection density around the origin. The Index links a gravity-based measure (distance accessibility), with topological accessibility (street connectivity) measured by two complementary indicators that act as penalties in the final score (R) (linearly expanded in the range 0-100). A systematic review of Scopus (R) and Web of Science was conducted with 42 journal articles eventually being evaluated. Research was primarily undertaken in North American urban geographies. Analysis of walk ability using Walk Score (R) is inconsistent. Twenty-nine papers do not exclusively relying on Walk Score (R) as a single measurement of walkability and add further estimates to better capture the multiple dimensions of walkability. In 33 studies the Walk Score (R) was used as an independent variable, and only once as a mediating-moderating variable. In eight papers (18%) the Walk Score (R) was a part of a bivariate correlation model. On no occasion was it used as a dependent variable. Results tend to only partly support the validity of Walk Score (R). The paper concludes that the Index is best understood as a surrogate measure of the density of the built environment of a specific neighborhood that indicates utilitarian walking potential. Implications for, and potential areas of, future research are discussed.

  • 49. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Scott, Daniel
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lunds universitet.
    The Primacy of Climate Change for Sustainable International Tourism2013In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Scott, Daniel
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University.
    Tourism, climate change and development2015In: Tourism and development: concepts and issues / [ed] Richard Sharpley, David J. Telfer, Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2015, 2, p. 332-357Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 77
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