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  • 1. Bengtsson, Sune
    et al.
    Brandin, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Production of syngas by thermochemical conversion of lignocelluloses biomass2007In: Italic4, Science & Technology of biomasses: advances and challenges, 2007, p. 125-128Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Effect of fly ash and H2S on a Ni-based catalyst for the upgrading of a biomass-generated gas2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Effects of fly ashes on Pt-Rh/MgAl(O) catalyst for the upgrading of the product gas from biomass gasification2007In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 2007, p. 1197-1200Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Effects of H2S and fly ash on Ni based catalyst for the reforming of a product gas from biomass gasification:2007In: Europacat VIII, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Study of the deactivation of a Ni based catalyst for the reforming of a product gas from biomass gasification2007In: Europacat VIII, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Albertazzi, Simone
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Catator AB.
    Malik, Azhar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Basile, Francesco
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Brandin, Jan
    Catator AB.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Investigation of reforming catalyst deactivation by exposure to fly ash from biomass gasification in laboratory scale2007In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 2481-2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of synthesis gas by catalytic reforming of product gas from biomass gasification can lead to catalyst deactivation by the exposure to ash compounds present in the flue gas. The impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on reforming catalysts was studied at the laboratory scale. The investigated catalyst was Pt/Rh based, and it was exposed to generated K2SO4 aerosol particles and to aerosol particles produced from the water-soluble part of biomass fly ash, originating from a commercial biomass combustion plant. The noble metal catalyst was also compared with a commercial Ni-based catalyst, exposed to aerosol particles of the same fashion. To investigate the deactivation by aerosol particles, a flow containing submicrometer-size selected aerosol particles was led through the catalyst bed. The particle size of the poison was measured prior to the catalytic reactor system. Fresh and aerosol particle exposed catalysts were characterized using BET surface area, XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction), and H2 chemisorption. The Pt/Rh catalyst was also investigated for activity in the steam methane reforming reaction. It was found that the method to deposit generated aerosol particles on reforming catalysts could be a useful procedure to investigate the impact of different compounds possibly present in the product gas from the gasifier, acting as potential catalyst poisons. The catalytic deactivation procedure by exposure to aerosol particles is somehow similar to what happens in a real plant, when a catalyst bed is located subsequent to a biomass gasifier or a combustion boiler. Using different environments (oxidizing, reducing, steam present, etc.) in the aerosol generation adds further flexibility to the suggested aerosol deactivation method. It is essential to investigate the deactivating effect at the laboratory scale before a full-scale plant is taken into operation to avoid operational problems.

  • 7.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on deactivation of reforming catalyst2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 132-133Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Measurement of Aerosol Particles from Steam and Oxygen Blown Gasification of Wood Pellets in a 20 kW Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidised Bed (ABFB) Gasifier2007In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition: From Research to Market Deployment, ETA-Renewable Energies and WIP-Renewable Energies , 2007, p. 1128-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the particle number and mass size distributions from two measurements on steam and oxygen blown atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed (ABFB) gasification (20 kW) of wood pellets are presented. The total particle number concentration determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) varied between 5.1x10^5-6.6x10^6 particles/cm3 (mobility equivalent diameter (dB) 10-670 nm), with the largest variation for particles with dB<100 nm. The particle number size distributions were bimodal with modes at 20-30 nm and at 260-410 nm. The particle mass concentrations determined using a low pressure impactor (LPI) varied between 60-310 mg/m3 for particles with aerodynamic diameter (dae)<5 µm, with modes at 0.2-0.3 µm and at 2-3 µm.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Physical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosol Particles Formed during the Thermochemical Conversion of Wood Pellets Using a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier2007In: Energy Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 3660-3667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product gas obtained through biomass gasification can be upgraded to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The synthesis gas can be further converted to liquid or gaseous fuels. However, the raw product gas contains both gas- and particle-phase impurities that can negatively affect both catalysts and hot-gas filters used for upgrading and cleaning. The present study aimed to characterize, both physically and chemically, aerosol particles formed during the steam- and oxygen-blown biomass gasification of wood pellets in an atmospheric 20 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier. The product gas from the gasifier was sampled upstream from the cyclone at 500 °C. The particle number size distribution determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was bimodal, with modes at 20–30 and 400 nm, mobility equivalent diameters (dB). The total mean number concentration of particles with dB = 15–670 nm was approximately 7 × 10^5 particles/cm3; however, the concentration of particles with dB < 80 nm fluctuated. The particle mass size distribution determined using a low-pressure impactor (LPI) was bimodal, and the total mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameters (dae) < 5 µm was 310 mg/m3. Microscopy analysis of particulate matter on the lower LPI stages, expected to sample particles with dae < 0.4 µm, revealed structures approximately 10 µm in diameter. In addition, the mass concentration of particles with dae < 0.5 µm determined using a LPI was higher than that estimated using a SMPS, possibly because of the bounce-off or re-entrainment of coarser particles from higher LPI stages. Elementary analysis of the particulate matter indicated that it was dominated by carbon. The collected particulate matter was stable when heated in nitrogen to 500 °C, indicating that the carbon was not present as volatile tars but more likely as char or soot. The particulate matter collected on all LPI stages contained a small percentage of ash (noncarbonaceous inorganic material), with calcium as the dominant element.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Andersson, Arne
    Lund University.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Physical and chemical characterisation of potassium deactivation of a SCR catalyst for biomass combustion2007In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 45, no 1-4, p. 149-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a commercial Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst, of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 type, has been studied through comparisons with results from a full-scale biomass combustion plant to that with laboratory experiments. In the latter, the catalyst was exposed to KCl and K2SO4 by both wet impregnation with diluted salt solutions and deposition of generated submicrometer aerosol particles by means of an electrostatic field. The reactivity of fresh and deactivated samples was examined in the SCR reaction. Chemical and physical characterizations were focusing on internal structures and chemical composition. Deposition of submicrometer sized particles on the monolithic SCR catalyst was shown to induce deactivation with characteristics resembling those obtained in a commercial biomass combustion plant.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Andersson, Arne
    Lund University.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Targeting by Comparison with Laboratory Experiments the SCR Catalyst Deactivation Process by Potassium and Zinc Salts in a Large-Scale Biomass Combustion Boiler2006In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst of type V2O5−WO3/TiO2 has been studied in this work through comparisons of results from a full-scale biomass combustion plant with those from laboratory experiments. In the latter, the catalyst was exposed to KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 by both wet impregnation with diluted salt solutions and deposition of generated submicrometer aerosol particles by means of an electrostatic field. The reactivity of freshly prepared and deactivated catalyst samples was examined in the SCR reaction, for which the influence of the different salts and the method of exposure were explored. Chemical and physical characterizations of the catalyst samples were carried out focusing on surface area, pore volume, pore size, chemical composition, and the penetration profiles of potassium and zinc. Particle-deposition deactivation as well as commercially exposed catalyst samples were shown to impact surface area and catalyst activity similarly and to have penetration profiles with pronounced peaks. Salt impregnation influenced pore sizes and catalyst activity more strongly and showed flat penetration profiles. Deposition of submicrometer-sized particles on the monolithic SCR catalyst has been shown to induce deactivation of the catalyst with characteristics resembling those obtained in a commercial biomass combustion plant; the laboratory process can be used to further assess the deactivation mechanism by biomass combustion.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Deactivation of SCR Catalysts by Exposure to Aerosol Particles of Potassium and Zinc Salts2007In: Aerosol Science and Technology, ISSN 0278-6826, E-ISSN 1521-7388, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generated aerosol particle deposition has been applied in laboratory scale to induce deactivation of commercial Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts Of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 monolithic type. The monolithic catalyst has been exposed to the generated submicrometer particle of inorganic salts, KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 at 200 degrees C in a tubular reactor. The generated particles have been deposited on the catalytic surfaces by utilization of an electrostatic field. Physical characterization of the generated aerosol particles were conducted by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with and without catalyst in order to investigate the magnitude of the particle deposition. Particle charge distribution was also evaluated with a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) set up.

    SCR is the most common method to commercially reduce NOx emissions from combustion processes. Catalyst lifetime is important for process economics and extending catalyst life can allow future strengthened emission legislation and diminished NOx emissions.

    Verification of particle deposition has been conducted through comparison with catalyst samples exposed to commercial biomass combustion condition.

    The reactivity of both fresh and exposed catalyst samples as well as commercially used samples was examined in SCR reaction and the methods of deposition as well as the influence of the different salts on catalytic performance have been explored.

    Catalyst samples have been evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with respect to surface morphology of the catalyst material. The laboratory deactivated catalyst samples showed resemblance with the commercially exposed catalyst sample with respect to salts concentration and deposition of the salts particles. The obtained influence on catalyst activity was comparable with commercially obtained catalyst activity reductions at comparable potassium concentration levels.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Physical and Chemical Characterisation of Potassium Deactivation of an SCR Catalyst for Biomass Combustion2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 198-199Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lutic, Doina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Catalytic properties of oxide nanoparticles applied in gas sensors2007In: TOPICS IN CATALYSIS, ISSN 1022-5528, Vol. 45, no 1-4, p. 105-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of gas sensing layers based on indium oxide doped with gold were prepared by using the aerosol technology for deposition as the active contact layer in a metal oxide semiconductor capacitive device. The interaction between the measured species and the insulator surface was quantified as the voltage changes at a constant capacitance of the device. The sensor properties were investigated in the presence of H2, CO, NH3, NO, NO2 and C3H6 at temperatures between 100–400 °C. Significant differences in the morphology of the layer and its sensitivity were noted for different preparation methods and different gas environments.

  • 15.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Rupar, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Bagherpour, Mohammad Bagher
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Effects of irrigation and water content of packings on alpha-pinene vapours biofilteration performance2005In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different physical parameters on the performance of biofilters, treating

    hydrophobic compounds. In this respect, the effects of irrigation and water content of packings on the removal efficiency of bed in different

    pollutant loading rates, and gas phase flow rates, is studied. Alpha-pinene, which is produced from variety of industrial wood products, pulp

    and paper industries, and fragrance production units, has been selected as a model compound. Since the effectiveness of biofiltration depends

    strongly upon water solubility of compounds, in the case of alpha-pinene (2.5 ppm, at 25 ◦C), the process of waste gas treatment is faced

    with difficulties. In this paper, it is shown that performance of biofilters, treating hydrophobic contaminants, declines due to irrigation. This

    reduction is detected by an increase in the outlet concentration from 11% up to 22.5%. Its magnitude depends on the gas velocity inside the

    biofilter and outlet concentration of the bed. The result indicated that pore blocking along the bed has less effect on the performance reduction

    than diffusion coefficient. Also the inhibitory effects of velocity on biodegradation are considerably higher than the effects of concentration.

    In addition, this compost-based biofilter shows noteworthy higher elimination capacities in comparison with previous studied biofiltration

    systems. In this study, a maximum elimination capacity of 227 gm−3 of packing h−1 is achieved by 95% of removal efficiency. The maximum

    concentration in the inlet gas was 650 mgm−3.

  • 16.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Rupar, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Bagherpour, Mohammad Bagher
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Solid phase micro extraction fibers, calibration for use in biofilter applications2006In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a SPME calibration method suitable for use in evaluation of concentrations of hydrophobic substances

    in environmental samples.

    The analyte used in the experiments was alpha-pinene, a hydrophobic organic compound commonly found in wood, and therefore found in

    wood storage facilities, wood processing industries and wood based biofilters. The SPME fibres were calibrated for different concentrations of

    alpha-pinene at different temperatures and relative humidities. The method was used to evaluate the removal efficiency of a lab-scale biofilter.

  • 17.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nanocrystalline ruthenium oxide and ruthenium in sensing applications – an experimental and theoretical study2006In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, ISSN 1388-0764, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 899-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, we have explored RuO2 and Ru nanoparticles (∼ ∼10 and ∼ ∼5 nm, respectively, estimated from XRD data) to be used as gate material in field effect sensor devices. The particles were synthesized by wet chemical procedure. The capacitance versus voltage characteristics of the studied capacitance shifts to a lower voltage while exposed to reducing gases. The main objectives are to improve the selectivity of the FET sensors by tailoring the dimension and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles and to improve the high temperature stability. The sensors were characterized using capacitance versus voltage measurements, at different frequencies, 500 Hz to 1 MHz, and temperatures at 100–400°C. The sensor response patterns have been found to depend on operating temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to investigate the oxidation state due to gas exposure. Quantum-chemical computations suggest that heterolytic dissociative adsorption is favored and preliminary computations regarding water formation from adsorbed hydrogen and oxygen was also performed

  • 18.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Strand, Michael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Nanoparticles for long-term stable, more selective MISiCFET gas sensors2005In: Sensors and Actuators B, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of metal-oxide nanoparticles and utilization of these particles as gate materials for field-effect sensor devices is reported. Improved

    selectivity to specific gases is expected by modulating the size of the oxide nanoparticles or impregnating them with catalytic metals. Another

    objective is to improve the long-term thermal stability of the sensors, since the metal loaded nanoparticles may prevent thermally induced

    restructuring of the gate layer, which is often a problematic issue for the catalytic metal layers. Because of its reasonably high electrical

    conductivity, which is especially important for the capacitive gas sensors, ruthenium dioxide has been identified to be one of the potential

    candidates as gate material for the field-effect sensor devices. Interestingly, this material has been found to change its resistivity in different

    gaseous ambients. When used as a gate material, sensitivity to reducing gases has been observed for the RuO2/SiO2/4H-SiC capacitors.

    Changes in the resistivity of the films due to various gas exposures have also been recorded. Morphological studies of nanoparticles (SiO2

    and Al2O3), loaded or impregnated with catalytic metals (e.g. Pt), have been performed.

  • 19.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    New Materials for Chemical and Biosensors2006In: Material and Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1042-6914, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 275-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide band gap materials such as SiC, AlN, GaN, ZnO, and diamond have excellent properties such as high operation temperature when

    used as field effect devices and a high resonating frequency of the substrate materials used in piezoelectric resonator devices. Integration of FET

    and resonating sensors on the same chip enables powerful miniaturized devices, which can deliver increased information about a gas mixture or

    complex liquid. Examples of sensor devices based on different wide band gap materials will be given.

  • 20.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Effects of irrigation and water content of packings on2005In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different physical parameters on the performance of biofilters, treating

    hydrophobic compounds. In this respect, the effects of irrigation and water content of packings on the removal efficiency of bed in different

    pollutant loading rates, and gas phase flow rates, is studied. Alpha-pinene, which is produced from variety of industrial wood products, pulp

    and paper industries, and fragrance production units, has been selected as a model compound. Since the effectiveness of biofiltration depends

    strongly upon water solubility of compounds, in the case of alpha-pinene (2.5 ppm, at 25 ◦C), the process of waste gas treatment is faced

    with difficulties. In this paper, it is shown that performance of biofilters, treating hydrophobic contaminants, declines due to irrigation. This

    reduction is detected by an increase in the outlet concentration from 11% up to 22.5%. Its magnitude depends on the gas velocity inside the

    biofilter and outlet concentration of the bed. The result indicated that pore blocking along the bed has less effect on the performance reduction

    than diffusion coefficient. Also the inhibitory effects of velocity on biodegradation are considerably higher than the effects of concentration.

    In addition, this compost-based biofilter shows noteworthy higher elimination capacities in comparison with previous studied biofiltration

    systems. In this study, a maximum elimination capacity of 227 gm−3 of packing h−1 is achieved by 95% of removal efficiency. The maximum

    concentration in the inlet gas was 650 mgm−3.

    © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Saqnati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Strand, Michael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Lillieblad, Lena
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers2005In: Aerosol Science and Technology, ISSN 0278-6826, Vol. 39, no 91, p. 919-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of submicrometer

    aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating

    combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass

    fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle

    diameter growth factor (Gf ) was measured when taken from a dehydrated

    to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30–

    350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility

    Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed

    similar diameter growth and the Gf at RH = 90% for 110/100 nm

    particles was 1.68 in the 1MWboiler, and 1.5 in the 1.5MWboiler.

    These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to

    other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are

    the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of

    alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained

    using the Zdanovski-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule

    and a chemical composition of potassium salts only, taken from

    ion chromatography analysis of filter and impactor samples (KCl,

    K2SO4, andK2CO3). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became

    more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative

    humidity. When diluted with hot particle-free air, the fractallike

    structures remained intact until humidified in the H-TDMA.

    A method to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated

    combustion aerosol and to convert the measured mobility diameter

    hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume diameter

    growth is presented. The fractal dimension was estimated to be

    ∼2.5.

  • 22.
    Strand, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lutic, Doina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. University of Kalmar, Department of Technology. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. University of Kalmar, Department of Technology. Bioenergiteknik.
    Catalyst properties of oxide nanoparticles applied in gas sensors manufacturing2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 167-168Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Strand, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Fly ash elementary composition in a moving grate boiler fired with sulphur-doped woody fuel2007In: 15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ETA-Renewable Energies and WIP-Renewable Energies , 2007, p. 1468-1469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elementary composition of fly ash particles in the size range of 0.03-1.64 mm were studied in a 7 MW moving-grate boiler fired with moist sawmill residues together with varying admixtures of elementary sulphur. Size segregated elementary analysis showed that the main elements were K, S, Cl and Zn and that there were no enrichment of any of these elements in any size fraction. When a sulphur admixture of 0.25 % was used the concentration of S increased, and the particles were almost completely depleted of Cl. Sulphur admixture had no significant effect on the concentration or distribution of the trace elements analysed.

  • 24.
    Strand, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Metal oxide nanoparticles as novel gate materials for field-effect gas sensors2006In: Materials and Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1042-6914, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 275-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxide nanoparticle layers have shown interesting behavior as gate materials for high temperature (typically at 300-400 deg.C) metal-insulator-silicon carbide (MISiC) capacitive sensors. Distinct shifts in the depletion region of the C-V (capacitance-voltage) characteristics could be observed while switching between different oxidizing and reducing gas ambients (air, O 2 , H2 , NH3 , CO, NOx , C3H6 ). Shifts were also noticed in the accumulation region of the C-V curves, which can be attributed to the change in resistivity of the gate material. Sensor response patterns have been found to depend on operating temperature.

  • 25.
    Strand, Michael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels2005In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 139-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels: forest residues, pellets and sawdust. Boilers used in the three district heating units were of moving grate type, with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multicyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Number and mass size distributions were determined. Elemental composition of the particles was determined by particle induced X-ray emissions analysis (PIXE) and thermal-optical analysis. Particles' morphology was assessed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 &mu;m (PM5) at medium operation load ranged from 6.3 to 7.7&times;10<sup>7</sup> particles/cm <sub>n</sub><sup>3</sup>, with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. PM5 mass concentration at medium load from low pressure impactor measurements ranged between 51 and 120 mg/m<sub>n</sub><sup>3</sup>, with the highest values from unit operating on forest residues. Both PM5 mass and total number concentrations were dominated by fine mode contributions i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 &mu;m (PM1). Elements determined by PIXE (Z&gt;12) contributed to 21-34% of PM1 mass, of which K, S, Cl and Ca contributed to 18-33% of PM1 mass, and Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb and Cd to 1-3%. Emitted concentrations of heavy metals depended on type of the fuel and operating load. Particulate organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon contribution to PM1 ranged from 1-19% and 0-56%, respectively. Particulate OC concentrations strongly depended on the operation load regardless the type of the fuel, while EC concentrations seemed to depend both on load and the type of the fuel. Considering the potential public health implications of the obtained results, further research is needed to carefully assess the impact of particle emissions from biofuels combustion on human health and environment. &copy; 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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