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  • 1.
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    et al.
    Humboldt University, Germany.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Humboldt University, Germany.
    Waldow, Florian
    Humboldt University, Germany.
    Bildungsmarkt in Bullerbü: Zur aktuellen Debatte über die "Schulkrise“ in Schweden.2015In: Die Deutsche Schule (DDS), ISSN 0012-0731, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 104-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, large parts of the Swedish public perceive Sweden’s school system to be in a state of crisis. Th is has led to a lively debate on educational matters in Sweden. Th e article discusses some particularly prominent aspects of this debate as well as some of its underlying developments in the Swedish school system. It focuses on the eff ects of educational markets and decentralization on the one hand and the situation of the teaching profession on the other

  • 2.
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    et al.
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Waldow, Florian
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Ständig geprüft oder kontinuierlich unterstützt? Schulische Leistungsbeurteilung in Schweden zwischen formativem Anspruch und summativer Notwendigkeit: [Constant examination or continuous support? Assessment practices in Sweden between formative aspiration and summative necessity]2017In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, ISSN 0044-3247, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 317-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish school system, there are no final exams at the end of lower and upper secondary school. Rather, there is continuous formative assessment during the school year. Pupils only receive summative assessments (starting with year 6) at the end of each term. School leaving certificates play a role for access to the different branches of higher secondary schooling, to higher education and to working life. The article discusses the rules and regulations of formative and summative assessment. It then juxtaposes these rules with the assessment practices of teachers on the one hand and the way in which pupils experience assessment on the other. As a result, we find that teachers´ formative assessment practices during the school year are partially superimposed by summative elements, which results in conflicting demands on teachers that they then seek to bring back into balance. Among pupils, the continuous formative feedback seems to lead to effects that differ from the intended ones, among them a feeling of constantly being in an examination situation.

  • 3.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ´Aber ich hab´ mich doch so angestrengt´: Zum Zusammenhang von Anstrengung und gerechter Leistungsbeurteilung aus SchülerInnensicht2016In: DGfE-Kongress 2016. Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.  Kassel, Germany, 13 - 16 March, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Assessing assessment: Students’ conceptions of justice in relation to assessment in Germany and Sweden2018In: Presented at CIES 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Calculated justice? Swedish and German pupils´ justice conceptions regarding grading between arithmetic logic and qualitative complexity2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Das Beurteilen der Beurteilung - Gerechtigkeitsüberzeugungen von SchülerInnen in Schweden und Deutschland zur schulischen Leistungsbeurteilung2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany.2015In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, Marketisation and differentiation in education.: 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To get assessed is an everyday experience for pupils and of high relevance for the individual as grades and certificates allow or restrict the access to further educational opportunities and thereby future life chances. On the normative level, the allocation of life chances is in Sweden, as in all modern and democratic societies, based on the meritocratic principle (Hadjar, 2008) and on the other hand do ascriptive aspects like gender, socioeconomic or sociocultural background continue to play a massive role for Swedish pupils’ results in school (Skolverket, 2013). Due to the far-reaching consequences for the individual, assessment has to be perceived as fair. But what is perceived as fair assessment can differ between individuals and different contexts pupils are involved in. The Ph.D. project “Just assessment in school – pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany” investigates what pupils perceive as fair assessment by using a “contextual comparison” (Steiner-Khamsi, 2010) .The study wants to contribute to a better understanding of which conceptions of justice Swedish and German pupils have regarding assessment, how pupils perceive getting assessed and under which conditions the assessment is considered as fair in different contexts. In addition to the contextual comparison as methodological frame, the Grounded Theory Methodology (Strauss/Corbin, 1990) is applied in combination with Focus Group interviews (Morgan, 1988). Besides the presentation of the Ph.D. project, first preliminary findings from Focus Group interviews with Swedish pupils attending grade nine shall be presented. These will provide a first insight in parts of Swedish pupils’ justice conceptions about assessment since the implementation of the new grading scale as a part of the wide school reform in Sweden year 2011.

  • 8.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany. Patterns of interactional justice.2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research, Network: 7. Social Injustice and Intercultural Education, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For pupils, being assessed and receiving grades is an everyday experience. At the same time, it is one of the most relevant sources of perceived injustice at school (Fan, Chan 1999). Besides the pedagogical purposes of pupil assessment grades are used for selection purposes when it comes to the distribution of access to further educational opportunities. Pupils use and need grades, summarized in certificates, in order to compete for e.g. access to further educational opportunities or attractive employment. In this way, school certificates and grades are exchanged for life chances (Waldow 2010). The grades’ relevance for the further life chances becomes most obvious at certain transition points within the educational system. For example, in Sweden, pupils´ grades at the end of lower secondary schooling are important in terms of which further upper secondary schooling track pupils can attend – an academic track that qualifies for higher educational studies or a vocational track that qualifies for non-academic employment.

    Therefore, school achievement, expressed in grades, as an indicator for supposed qualification is used to legitimize the selective distribution of life chances (Hadjar 2008). This is common to meritocratic societies that follow the normative ideal of distribution by merit, as it is considered illegitimate letting ascriptive criteria like e.g. gender and sociocultural background steer the distribution. 

    Though western societies strive for the distribution of life chances on the basis of merit, research shows that ascriptive criteria and non-performance criteria matter in teachers´ assessment practice (Lindahl 2007). This fact raises the question about justice and how assessment and grading are perceived by those who are directly concerned with the consequences - the pupils. Too little is known about how pupils perceive assessment and grading (Brown 2008), particularly when it comes to the dimension of justice. There is a need for more detailed knowledge about which justice conceptions pupils hold regarding assessment and in how far contextual aspects matter.

    This paper will present the objectives and the approach of an ongoing study on “Just assessment in school – pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany”. The project investigates which justice conceptions pupils from both contexts hold regarding assessment, what can be seen as the relevant aspects and conditions of perceived (in-)justice and why just assessment in general is perceived as important.

    The paper will present the study along with some preliminary results based on six Focus Group Interviews with Swedish pupils attending grade nine, focusing on the role of interaction for pupils´ justice conceptions (Bies, Moag 1986).

    Method

    Due to the explorative character of the study and the assumed contextuality of pupils´ justice conceptions, the study that is presented is on the one hand framed by the principles applying for contextual comparative educational research (Steiner-Khamsi 2010) and on the other hand by those which apply to qualitative educational research in common and Grounded Theory Methodology (Glaser, Strauss 1967; Strauss, Corbin 1990) in particular. It is assumed that the diverging contexts in which Swedish and German pupils´ assessment experiences are embedded have an impact on their justice conceptions (Greenberg 2001). Therefore, the comparison has to be done in a contextually sensitive way (Steiner-Khamsi 2010). This should also help the researcher to avoid oversimplifications through comparison. The aim of the study is to develop a middle-range theory about pupils´ justice conceptions that is grounded in data (Glaser, Strauss 1967; Strauss, Corbin 1990). The research process is an iterative one, where the researcher is constantly moving back and forth between data collection and analysis, successively developing theoretical abstractions. As the end of lower secondary schooling marks an important transition point in both countries, where grades play a vital role, the sample includes pupils attending this level in both countries. The data are collected through Focus Group interviews (Krueger 1994; Morgan 1988), meaning that data are collected where the issue is normally discussed – in the peer group.

    Expected Outcomes

    The comparative study is expected to provide a theory about pupils´ justice conceptions regarding assessment that allows us to understand more about how pupils perceive assessment and grading in terms of justice and which conditions contribute to a perception of (in-)justice. As the study is still ongoing, first preliminary findings about Swedish pupils´ justice conceptions will be presented.

    References

    Bies, R.; Moag, J. S. (1986): Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In Roy Lewicki, Blair et al (Ed.) Sheppard (Eds.): Research on negotiation in organizations, pp. 43–55. Brown, Gavin T. L. (2008): Conceptions of Assessment: Understanding What Assessment Means to Teachers and Students. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Fan, Ruth M.; Chan, Silver (1999): Students’ perceptions of just and unjust experiences in school. In Educational and Child Psychology 16 (4), pp. 32–50. Glaser, Barney G.; Strauss, Anselm L. (1967): The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co. Greenberg, Jerald (2001): Studying Organizational Justice Cross-Culturally: Fundamental Challenges. In International Journal of Conflict Management 12 (4), pp. 365–375. Krueger, Richard A. (1994): Focus groups. A Practical Guide for Applied Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. Lindahl, Erica (2007): Gender and ethnic interactions among teachers and students: Evidence from Sweden. IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation (25). Available online at http://www.ifau.se/Upload/pdf/se/2007/wp07-25.pdf, checked on 23/11/2014. Morgan, David L. (1988): Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications. Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2010): The Politics and Economics of Comparison. In Comparative Education Review 54 (3), pp. 323–342. Strauss, Anselm L.; Corbin, Juliet M. (1990): Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 3rd ed. Los Angeles, Calif: Sage Publications. Waldow, Florian (2010): Bedömningens roll i fördelningen av livschanser i Tyskland och Sverige. In Folke-Fichtelius, Lundahl (Eds.): Bedömning i och av skolan. Praktik, principer, politik. 1st ed. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, pp. 111–128.

    This proposal is part of a master or doctoral thesis.

  • 9.
    Vogt, Bettina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    Waldow, Florian
    Effizienz durch Vermarktlichung?: Zur Entwicklung und den Konsequenzen der Einführung von Bildungsmärkten am Beispiel Schwedens.2017In: Ökonomisierung von Schule: Aktuelle Transformationen des schulischen Feldes in nationaler und internationaler Perspektive / [ed] S. Hartong, B. Hermstein, & T. Höhne, Weinheim: Juventa Verlag, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Vogt, Bettina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Waldow, Florian
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    Oehme, Fanny
    Unterschiedliche Welten der Meritokratie?  : Schulische Leistungsbeurteilung und Verteilungsgerechtigkeit in Deutschland, Schweden und England im Zeitalter der „standards-based reform".2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Vogt, Bettina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Waldow, Florian
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    Oehme, Fanny
    Unterschiedliche Welten der Meritokratie?: Schulische Leistungsbeurteilung und Gerechtigkeit in Deutschland, Schweden und England.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Classroom research: Methodology, categories and coding2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The purpose of this text is to frame the methodological considerations developed in two research projects focused on classroom research. The first project is titled Understanding curriculum reforms – A theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11 (years 2014–2017), and the second project has the title Exploring the elusive teaching gap – Equity and knowledge segregation in teaching processes (years 2018–2020). Both projects are financed by the Swedish Research Council.

    In the research projects, empirical data are collected from curriculum events in the classroom. The task is therefore about developing an analytical framework to investigate various organisational repertoires (frame factors) that are actualised with a curriculum; for example, factors such as content-orientation, teaching space and temporal organisation of the teaching. It is also about how a curriculum takes shape in the classroom and which different communicative repertoires  (teaching talk including listening and learning talk including listening) are activated in relation to different content focuses, as well as how such repertoires can be described based on comparative typologies/categories. The focus of the research is the coding of data relating to knowledge perceptions and forms of knowledge, which is a more challenging task. All the recorded lessons relate to teaching in a full class. The coding scheme can be found in the last chapter in this anthology

  • 13.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Making Social Studies in Standards-Based Curricula.2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a knowledge debate was initiated in the early 1990s through the official report School for Bildung (SOU 1992:94). The purpose of the report was two-fold: to widen the concept of knowledge from a one-sided cognitive meaning and to offer ‘new’ concepts of knowledge adapted to a performance model (Bernstein 2000) of school curriculum. Since this debate, school reforms, including new grading systems, have been continuous but the knowledge base in curriculum has remained the same. In Sweden, there is currently a major debate on the status of "facts" in the school's knowledge concept. One line of argument claims that the students do not get the opportunity to learn enough factual knowledge. Instead, the abilities have been dominating. However, factual knowledge is embedded in the abilities, because without factual knowledge the abilities become empty, the other argument goes. This debate, as well as a debate of the failure of the current “knowledge requirements” in curriculum to provide tools for equivalent grading, has led to an initiative from the Swedish National Agency for Education (NAE). The NAE has initiated a curriculum reform aiming at strengthen the clarity and equivalence in the content as well as in the knowledge requirements in the syllabi.

    Aim

    The purpose of this paper is to reintroduce a theoretically based dialogue on the relevance of current knowledge concepts in curricula in general, and the expressions of knowledge progression in particular. In this explorative study, we investigate the following research questions: How can factual knowledge be emphasized without being instrumental? How can the school's overarching goals and values be reflected in the syllabi? With what knowledge expressions can an equivalent assessment be promoted?

    Theoretical framework and method

    In the theoretical framework, we draw on Bernstein’s (2000) two pedagogical models, as well as his understanding of horizontal and vertical to place the Swedish curricula Lgr 11 and Lgy 11 in a broader typology. Following Deng & Luke (2008), we specifically discuss the knowledge concepts in the syllabi of civics for compulsory school and upper secondary school. To discuss the knowledge expressions in the knowledge requirements in terms of increased clarity and equivalence, we distinguish between knowledge in relation to content and achieved competences in relation to different levels of grading (Carlgren et al. 2009). In the result section, we present a revised version of syllabi in civics for Year 6 and 9 in compulsory school and Year 1 in upper secondary school.

    Expected conclusions

    We suggest that achieved competences need to be related to content in the knowledge requirements for increased clarity of what different forms of knowing that should be achieved.  Moreover, we introduce alternative terms for how different levels of competences could be expressed in the grading system to increase equivalence.

  • 14.
    Waldow, Florian
    et al.
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Münster.
    Falkenberg, Kathleen
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft Münster.
    Oehme, Fanny
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft Münster.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft Münster.
    Escalating Comparative Complexity: Using a Grounded Theory Methodology in International Comparisons2013In: ECER, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research 2013: Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escalating Comparative Complexity: Using a Grounded Theory Methodology in International Comparisons

    The main focus of the research workshop lies on the question how to apply a Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) in internationally comparative studies. The challenge is to combine two methodological approaches that both are comparative but follow different logics and apply different practices of comparison.

    Within GTM, various comparative operations are used to generate a new theory that is grounded in data. Firstly, the whole research process is characterised by the continual interplay of theoretically guided data collection and empirically gained theory. Existing theory, developing conceptualizations and data are therefore constantly compared to each other. Secondly, the basic analytical operation is to compare new codes and categories with existing data in order to conceptualize it more and more. Comparisons both within cases and between cases round off the analysis. The Grounded Theory itself, which is the end product of the research process, grows so to speak from innumerable processes of these types of (micro-) comparisons.

    Internationally comparative studies, even case-oriented small-N-comparisons, need to use more or less abstract categories in order to compare previously specified entities. This logic of comparison corresponds more to a macro-type of comparison, which, however, may sit somewhat uneasily with the “constant comparative method” (Glaser 1965, Grove 1988) of GTM. Besides, aiming at international comparisons combined with GTM leads to an escalating number of levels of comparison. This problem is aggravated when intra-national comparisons (comparing groups of actors within and between countries) are introduced. How to handle the many comparative levels as well as the various types of comparative operations is to be discussed in the research workshop.

    A second problematique that will be discussed in the research workshop concerns the use of different types of data. For the GTM, “all is data” (Glaser & Holton 2004). However, combining different types of data is not a trivial matter, e.g. when data on institutional structures (e.g. legal texts) is to be combined with data on personal beliefs (e.g. interview data). Again, the problem is aggravated when a comparative perspective is employed.

    The subject matter discussed in the workshop is taken from the work of a research group at the University of Münster, Germany, investigating the differing conceptions of justice underlying the systems of pupil assessment in Germany, Sweden and England (see Waldow 2011, Research group “Different worlds of meritocracy?” 2011. In societies following the meritocratic ideal, educational certificates and the examinations connected to them play a key role in allocating life chances to individuals. These allocation processes need to be perceived as fair by those concerned if they are to possess legitimacy. However, what is considered fair changes over time and differs both between different countries and between different groups of actors within countries. The research group studies differences between different groups of actors and differences between countries and aims at employing a GTM.

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