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  • 1.
    Graziano, Armando
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    World Maritime University.
    Mejia Jr., Maximo Q.
    World Maritime University.
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    It Takes Two to Tango: EU Policy Makers’ Bi-dimensional Approach to Flag State Performance2018In: Ocean Yearbook, ISSN 0191-8575, E-ISSN 2211-6001, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 477-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    On the Future of Maritime Transport - Discussing Terminology and Timeframes2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept 'autonomous ships' has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete - which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term 'autonomous' describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that 'smart ships', or perhaps 'intelligent ships', are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.

  • 3.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Försäkringskassan Sjöfart.
    Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö: arbetsmiljö, arbetsupplevelser, motivation och sjukskrivningar på passagerarfartyg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här projektet undersöker arbetsmiljön för intendenturpersonalen på svenska passagerarfar-tyg. Bakgrunden till projektet ligger i upptäckten att intendenturpersonal ombord passagerar-fartyg år 2010 uppvisade en betydligt högre upplevelse av utmattning, jämfört med andra per-sonalgrupper. Utmattningsupplevelsen indikerades med ett utmattningsindex bestående av ett flertal upplevelseaspekter rörande trötthet och stress i arbetet. Passagerarfartygens intendentur-personal har även rapporterat högre ohälsotal än andra personalkategorier i svensk sjöfart.Projektet innefattar en jämförelse av svenskregistrerad sjöpersonals upplevelser av utmattning fördelat på ombordfunktioner och fartygstyp vid mellan 2010 och 2015, samt förhållandet mel-lan arbetstillfredsställelse, motivation och utmattningsupplevelse inom intendenturen år 2015. I projektet analyseras även Försäkringskassans sjukskrivningsstatistik för åren 2011–2014 med avseende på sjuktalen för långa sjukskrivningar över 60 dagar och diagnosfördelning för inten-denturpersonalen, samt om det möjligt att göra en analytisk koppling till upplevelsen av utmatt-ning. Genom intervjuer och observationer med chefer och medarbetare ombord och iland un-dersöks vilka fysiska, organisatoriska och sociala faktorer som upplevs vara av betydelse för arbetsmiljön.Det övergripande målet är att identifiera friskfaktorer för att minska risken för utmattning och ohälsa som kan leda till långa sjukskrivningar och lämna välgrundade rekommendationer för branschen.Resultaten visar att passagerarfartygens besättning rapporterar högst utmattningsupplevelse både 2010 och 2015. Intendenturpersonalen är också klart överrepresenterade i sjukskrivnings-statistiken och sjuktalen, vilket kan kopplas till upplevelsen av utmattning.Enkätundersökningen 2015 visar att intendenturpersonalen rapporterar mest negativa upplevel-ser av arbetssituation, kamratskap och ledarskap jämfört med andra avdelningar. Det är dock en generellt motiverad yrkesgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. Friskfaktorer som visat sig lindra utmattningsupplevelsen (bemanning, vila, ledarskap, relationer till andra avdelningar) stärker personalens motivation att arbeta till sjössÖkad delaktighet hos intendenturpersonalen i arbetsmiljöarbete och arbetsplatsens utformning kan minska de negativa och höja de hälsofrämjande effekterna av förändringsarbete ombord. Den sociala arbetsmiljön är en viktig del av arbetet till sjöss och omfattar även den lediga tid som tillbringas ombord. Arbetsmiljöarbete bör därför omfatta åtgärder som bryter ner gränser mellan avdelningar, skapar sammanhållning och en gemensam identitet för intendenturen och besättningen i stort.

  • 4.
    Huzzard, Tony
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch
    Karlstad University.
    Mulinari, Paula
    Malmö University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Åke
    Stockholm University.
    Utforska ohälsans orsaker2017In: Upsala Nya Tidning (UNT), ISSN 1104-0173, article id 2017-01-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationsforskning ur arbetsperspektiv har fått sämre förutsättningar, fast den kan minska ohälsa på arbetsplatserna, skriver fem forskare.

  • 5.
    Kataria, Aditi
    et al.
    World Maritime University .
    Holder, Eric H.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Germany.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    World Maritime University .
    Baldauf, Michael
    World Maritime University .
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    World Maritime University .
    Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication2015In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle of ships. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew‐centered design case‐study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room (ECR) that helps the crew coordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship). A series of semi‐structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations and interdepartmental communications, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or encountering heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information shared, and the problems experienced. The seafarer interviews helped to explore on‐board interdepartmental communication and the results are presented in the paper.

  • 6.
    Kataria, Aditi
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    On common ground at sea: The proactive negotiation for channel navigation2014In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: Part I / [ed] Neville Stanton, Steven Landry, Giuseppe Di Bucchianico, Andrea Vallicelli, AHFE Conference , 2014, Vol. 7, p. 222-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) provides support to marine traffic in congested waters to ensure safe and smooth vessel movement in the waters under its purview. The VTS operators monitor the traffic with the decision support system at hand and talk to the ships on the Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. Safe channel navigation is proactively achieved by interaction and communication on the radio. Thus traffic management within the VTS domain is a complex joint activity, in which diverse stakeholders (bridge teams, VTS operators, pilots etc.) adopt one or more available communicative roles within technologically-mediated interactions to achieve safe and fluent traffic movement. This paper argues that the communicative achievement of channel navigation is a complex joint activity requiring the building up and active sustenance of common ground to promote teamwork and contribute to safe and efficient vessel movements. Monitoring common ground is integral to monitoring oceangoing traffic. This paper draws upon data from the audio recordings of the working channel of the VTS in a major South Asian world port. The authors argue that the proactive, real-time dynamic management of common ground contributes to enhanced situational awareness and sustains safe channel navigation.

  • 7.
    Klomp, Rolf
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Borst, Clark
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Mulder, Max
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ecological interface design: Control space robustness in future trajectory-based Air Traffic control decision support2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC): October 5-8, 2014 San Diego, CA, USA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 329-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:The current evolution of the Air Traffic Management system towards trajectory-based operations is foreseen to bring large changes to the work domain of the Air Traffic Controller. Although this new form of Air Traffic Control leans heavily on the introduction of advanced automation, the general consensus is that the human must remain actively involved in the decision-making loop, and retain the ultimate responsibility for the safety of operations. These responsibilities, together with the complexities of the new task, require the development of innovative decision support tools. In previous research, and following the principles of Ecological Interface Design, a constraint-based decision support tool has been developed for the task of strategic trajectory manipulation. Rather than presenting discrete optimized solutions to the controller, this Travel Space Representation visualizes the constraints for safe control in the form of a set of `go' and `no go' areas. A validation experiment demonstrated that when using this tool, controllers sometimes opted for controlling close to the boundaries of safe control, or for resolutions in narrow control spaces. These results gave rise to concern that such a representation could actually work against the flexibility of the system to cope with inherent system variability. In this study, a metric and two measures have been developed in order to quantify and compare trajectory-based robustness to probabilistic disturbances. A batch-analysis has been performed to investigate how these measures vary for a crossing pair of aircraft under various geometry. Results show that the metric captures additional information which is currently not represented in the tool. When visualized to the controller, this could support them to choose more robust control strategies.

  • 8.
    Klomp, Rolf
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Borst, Clark
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Mulder, Max
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mooij, Martijn
    Thales Research and Technology Netherlands, The Netherlands.
    Nieuwenhuisen, Dennis
    National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands.
    Experimental Evaluation of a Joint Cognitive System for 4D Trajectory Management2013In: Proceedings of the SESAR Innovation Days (2013) / [ed] Dirk Schaefer, Brussels: Eurocontrol, 2013, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective joint human-automation coordination is essential in order to support the central role of the human operator in foreseen future trajectory-based air traffic operations. The SESAR WP-E project C-SHARE aims to achieve this by taking a Cognitive Systems Engineering approach, based upon accomplishing joint human and automation cognition through a shared representation of 4D-trajectory management. In foregoing research, a work domain model and a joint humanmachine interface has been developed to support the human operator in the task of en-route 4D trajectory re-planning. This paper presents the findings of two experiments that aimed to determine the effect of both the initial level of traffic orderliness (i.e., structured versus unstructured traffic) and the scale of perturbations acting upon the airspace (e.g., number of conflicts and restricted areas) on the overall effectiveness of such a system. The findings of the experimental evaluation show that the CSHARE approach to joint human-automation coordination in perturbation management is promising. Further, the experiment subjects accepted the tool and found it supportive for the task at hand, resulting in a manageable degree of workload during all experiment scenarios.

  • 9.
    Porathe, Thomas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Communicating intended routes in ECDIS: Evaluating technological change2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 60, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Misunderstanding each other's intentions is one of the most common causes of shipping accidents. By sending out a number of waypoints ahead and displaying them on the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) a ship's intentions would be clearly visible for other ships. Displaying ships’ intentions would be a major change compared to navigation today. It could be very beneficial but it could also have unintended consequences. This paper reports on findings from an evaluation looking for unintended consequences of change using system simulation. During the simulation an unanticipated behavior was observed. Bridge crews started to click and drag waypoints too negotiate crossing situations ahead of time. The behavior could be compared to agreeing over the VHF. However further research is needed to evaluate this new behavior and how it aligns to COLREGS.

  • 10.
    Porathe, Thomas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    What is your Intention? Communicating Routes in Electronic Nautical Charts2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences: Transport Research Arena 2012 / [ed] Panos Papaioannou, 2012, Vol. 48, p. 3266-3273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports preliminary findings on a simulator study looking for unintended consequences of letting ships exchange routs by use of the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). In a prototype system tested ship's intended routes are visible to other ships, and the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) has the ability to send suggested routes to addressed ships. Preliminary findings show positive response from professional participants in the study although some concerns were also raised.

  • 11.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) : a maritime information service or traffic control system?: understanding everyday performance and resilience in a socio-technical system under change2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a shore-side maritime assistance service that supports bridge teams in their safe navigation of port approaches and other areas that present navigational difficulties. The VTS is implemented in national waters and provides vessels with information through transmissions and broadcasts on Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. With a continued growth in the number, size and cargo volumes of merchant vessels, the role of the VTS has recently become a matter of discussion, and it has been argued that changes, such as implementing an aviation-like control system, would be of an enormous benefit for stakeholders and guarantee safe and efficient traffic movements in the future. The complexity of processes in safety-critical domains, such as maritime traffic management, is increasing due to continuing technical, organisational and environmental developments. The VTS is currently undergoing drastic changes, primarily driven by strategies and projects focusing on increasing the overall efficiency of the maritime transportation system through advanced technology. To reduce the risk of unforeseen consequences, it is important to study and understand the service and its contribution to traffic management before changes are implemented. The purpose of this thesis has been to increase the overall understanding of everyday performance of the VTS system and identify ways of modelling the performance of the service, as a contribution to the ongoing debate on the future needs of maritime traffic management. The VTS is described as socio-technical system that controls and manages maritime traffic in port approaches and other areas that pose navigational difficulties for bridge teams. Field data collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and focus groups have been analysed with the aid of concepts derived from Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) and Resilience Engineering (RE) to understand how the VTS actively contributes to safety through monitoring, responding to and anticipating changes in traffic patterns in the VTS area. The data have also been used to model performance variability in everyday operation with the aid of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). Performance variability is necessary for a system to be adaptive, and is therefore essential for the system’s functioning. By using the FRAM, a new angle of the VTS system has been explored to understand how variability in its functional units affects the overall system performance. The thesis demonstrates the importance of understanding how performance in a socio-technical system can vary and the consequences this may have. The FRAM can be used to analyse the functional design of a socio-technical system, and therefore help to identify and assess ways in which performance variability can be monitored and managed. By understanding the functional design of the VTS system and the complexity of everyday operation, stakeholders will be able to identify advantages and disadvantages of current system design and use this to consider how future demands can best be met.

  • 12.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bruno, Karl
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Enacting Reliability: First steps to define safety in the VTS domain2010In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Human Performance at Sea, HPAS 2010 / [ed] O. Turan, J. Bos, J. Stark, L. Colwell, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the term maritime safety is widely used in the maritime industry, there is no exact definition of what it entails. An explorative study of the VTS domain has been conducted to approach the concept of maritime safety. Four VTS centres were visited and 16 VTS operators were interviewed and observed to derive insights in how maritime safety is constructed from the perspective of an operator. Further, definitions of maritime safety by central actors in the maritime domain have been investigated through a literature study and several interviews. The results indicate that there is no common definition of the term maritime safety. The organisations generally identify maritime safety as an overall goal or an umbrella term for measures such as traffic separation schemes or fairway design. In contrast to this, VTS operators consider maritime safety as a context-dependent condition that is shaped by their own actions. Risk and safety therefore are assessed based on situational factors, such as traffic density and geography, as well as on the individual experiences. We conclude that there is a gap concerning the understanding and definition of maritime safety between most of the central actors (regulators, administrative bodies etc.) and the VTS operators.

  • 13.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Graziano, Armando
    World Maritime University.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    World Maritime University.
    Baldauf, Michael
    FRAM in FSA: Introducing a Function-Based Approach to the Formal Safety Assessment Framework2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Neville A. Stanton, Steven Landry, Giuseppe Di Bucchianico, Andrea Vallicelli, Springer, 2017, p. 399-411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is a structured methodology in maritime safety rule making processes. FSA takes organizational, technical and human-related factors into concern. While the method allows for the use of expert input during the identification of hazards and risk control options, the FSA guidelines give preference to assessment methods grounded in quantitative risk assessment. No specific guidance is given on how expert input should be obtained. This article therefore presents the findings of a pilot study with the objective to introduce the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) as a method to enrich FSA studies through structured expert input. Two focus groups (n = 6) were conducted to compare hazards and risk control options identified in one scenario with the help of fault tree analysis and FRAM. The results of the study show that FRAM has the potential to enrich hazard identification as a complementary tool.

  • 14.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology .
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Control and Resilience Within the Maritime Traffic Management Domain2014In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents research conducted within the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) domain. VTS is a service that is provided close to ports and geographically challenging areas to support merchant vessels in their navigation. Although VTS is legally an advice and assistance service, applying concepts from Cognitive Systems Engineering and Resilience Engineering can highlight how the joint human-machine system works to promote safe and efficient traffic movements. The VTS is a Joint Cognitive System that maintains control through a mixture of opportunistic and tactical control. Strategic control is only partially supported by the higher levels of system aggregation that provide the basis for defining daily operations within the settings of the VTS. To increase the VTS system’s ability to anticipate, respond, monitor, and learn, and therefore the ability to be resilient, there is a need to promote more strategic and tactical control within daily operations.

  • 15.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    World Maritime University .
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Modelling Vessel Traffic Service to understand resilience in everyday operations2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 141, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a service to promote traffic fluency and safety in the entrance to ports. This article׳s purpose has been to explore everyday operations of the VTS system to gain insights in how it contributes to safe and efficient traffic movements. Interviews, focus groups and an observation have been conducted to collect data about everyday operations, as well as to grasp how the VTS system adapts to changing operational conditions. The results show that work within the VTS domain is highly complex and that the two systems modelled realise their services vastly differently, which in turn affects the systems׳ ability to monitor, respond and anticipate. This is of great importance to consider whenever changes are planned and implemented within the VTS domain. Only if everyday operations are properly analysed and understood, it can be estimated how alterations to technology and organisation will affect the overall system performance.

  • 16.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Towards Autonomous Shipping: Exploring Potential Threats and Opportunities in Future Maritime Operations2020In: Advances in Human Factors of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Neville Stanton, Springer, 2020, p. 633-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents findings from an ongoing research project aiming to study the future of shipping operations with a specific focus on issues related to human roles, responsibilities and the organization of work. A focus group with representatives for the Swedish shipping cluster (n = 6) and academia (n = 2) has been conducted to explore potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) with the developments towards autonomous shipping. The results show an overall concern for how to realize the transition between today’s maritime traffic and a future setting where vessels may be operated from shore. Technology to automate navigational tasks and increase the degree of autonomy in shipping are developing, but more attention needs to be paid to the transition of work that may accompany the ongoing developments. Clear roles, responsibili- ties and a definition of potential operator competences need to be formulated to ensure a human-centered development for safer shipping.

  • 17.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    Resilience and complexity in a maritime service supply chain's everyday operation2016In: Service Supply Chain Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach / [ed] Tsan-Ming Choi, London: CRC Press, 2016, p. 121-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maritime transport system is one of the major means for transporting goods as safely, efficiently and environmentally friendly as possible. In this system, ports rep-resent hubs connecting maritime to other transport modes such as railway, road and aviation. Therefore ports and their services can be considered as critical bottlenecks where operations need to be sustained in a large variety of operating conditions. This chapter presents an analysis of the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), a maritime shore-based information service which is part of a port’s infrastructure. VTS is a key service in guar-anteeing safe, fluent and efficient traffic flows in and out of a port, therefore making it a crucial part of a port’s ability to provide a constant service performance despite the large uncertainties that are inherent to maritime operations. Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is used to build a functional model of the VTS to analyse the system design and its impact on the service supply chain’s ability to operate in a resilient manner, i.e. being able to sustain required operations prior, during and after disturbances or changes of operating conditions. While the chapter focuses on the mar-itime domain, it also provides an example on how a function-based approach can be used to understand and design service supply chains with a focus on how they achieve successful adaption to the large variety of operating conditions.

  • 18.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    Petersen, Erik-Styhr
    World Maritime University ; Lyngsø Marine, Denmark.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    World Maritime University.
    Baldauf, Michael
    World Maritime University.
    Kähler, Nina
    DNV-GL, Germany.
    Increased Awareness for Maritime Human Factors through e-learning in Crew-centered Design2015In: 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015 / [ed] Ahram, T; Karwowski, W; Schmorrow, D, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 2824-2831Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, the need to address human factors in shipping through integration of ergonomics in the design of ships and shipboard equipment has increased significantly as a result of the technological development of modern ships. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Nations’ specialized organizationfor ship safety issues, has adopted a vision to address human factors as a key element for the improvement of maritime safety, and in that context acknowledges the human element as complex and multi-dimensional. IMO’s standards focus on the avoidance of human and organization error. But in spite of this, and despite the availability of qualified guidance on maritime human factors, there is little evidence of what could be seen as a comprehensive regulatory framework for crew-centered design, i.e. a design practice where ships and ships’ equipment is explicitly designed with human operator usability as an integral part of the design process. Recently, a European Commission sponsored project CyClaDes has made an attempt to address this paradox from a number of vantage points: An accident analysis, interviews with mariners (n=23), and short visits on board 5 vessels have been conducted to identify knowledge that provides insights into crew involvement in design, which, in turn, have been used to develop five training packages as one outcome of the project.

  • 19.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundh, Monica
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    “Under Dangerous Conditions”: Safety Construction and Safety-Related Work Onboard of Merchant Vessels2013In: Proceedings, 5th Symposium on Resilience Engineering: Managing Trade-offs: 24th-27th June 2013 at Soesterberg, The Netherlands / [ed] Ivonne Herrera, Jan Maarten Schraagen, Johan van der Vorm, David Woods, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2013, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper presents findings from a qualitative study conducted on board of two merchant vessels. Interviews and observations have been used to obtain insights in how safety is defined and promoted by the personnel working on board. The merchant vessel, the crew and the single mariner are identified to be part of a sociotechnical system displaying three levels of system aggregation; personcentred, crew-centred, and vessel-centred. The common ground of a crew, an overlap of the individual mariners’ experience and knowledge, is identified as a basis for trust and predictability of action on board, which is a necessity to be able to conduct work safely. Furthermore, the results also show how storytelling is used to transform individual and organisational experiences into knowledge that can guide safety-related work on board. The stories told among the crew often exemplify how mariners, both on an individual, but also on a crew-centred level of system aggregation, balance safety and efficiency in the light of increasing production demands.

  • 20.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Decision support for vessel traffic service (VTS): user needs for dynamic risk management in the VTS2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Supplement 1, p. 4866-4872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a shore-side service implemented by a “Competent Authority to improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the environment”. It is a service that operates through VTS centers, from which VTS operators monitor traffic, assist in navigational matters and provide information to all ships in a designated area. As VTS is provided by operators located on shore, they usually make use of several decision support systems to be able to monitor the traffic and to provide information to the vessels. Although several new tools and approaches have been introduced in the VTS domain, there is still room for improvements. This paper summarizes the results from three studies conducted within the EfficienSea project to approach user needs for dynamic risk management in the VTS domain. Data was collected by conducting study visits and observations at VTS centers, a focus group interview as well as several semi-structured interviews. The paper summarizes the results and presents technical and organizational user needs for dynamic risk management within the VTS domain.

  • 21.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    "Safety is everywhere": The Constituents of Maritime Safety2011In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 55th Annual Meeting 2011: Volume 55, Issue 1, Sage Publications, 2011, p. 1798-1802Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although maritime safety is one of the key terms in regulation, guidelines and recommendations, such as SOLAS (International Convention for the safety of life at sea (IMO, 1974), in the shipping domain, there is, to the best of our knowledge, neither an explanation of this specific type of safety nor any explicit understanding on how it is promoted by those who work on board of merchant vessel. This qualitative study approaches maritime safety from a crew perspective and discusses what constituents should be considered to be part of maritime safety.

  • 22.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bruno, Karl
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The context matters: Maritime safety in the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) Domain2010In: Reliability, Risk and Safety - Back to the Future: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences, ESREL 2010, September 15, 2010, Rhodes, Greece / [ed] Ben J. M. Ale, Ioannis A. Papazoglou, Enrico Zio, CRC Press, 2010, p. 1773-1780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a service to the maritime community implemented topromoteand improve maritime safety. In recent years VTS has become a topic of increased interest formaritime stakeholders and the general public. To derive insights on how maritime safety is constructedin the VTS domain this exploratory study was conducted. Four VTS centres were visited and 15 VTSoperators were interviewed and observed at work. Further a focus group interview with 8 VTS operatorswith focus on decision support tools in the VTS domain was conducted. The results of the study indicatethat VTS operators define maritime safety as context-dependent a condition which is formed by theirindividual actions. Regulations and guidelines exist, but do not shape the daily work of the operators asmuch as their own experience and expertise. Safety arises in the interaction between the individual actorand others; it is influenced by contextual aspects, such as traffic density or weather conditions, rather thanby what is stated by the regulating organisation.

  • 23.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    van Westrenen, Fulko
    Umantec, The Netherlands.
    Mitchell, Deborah L.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Learning lessons in resilient traffic management: A cross-domain study of Vessel Traffic Service and Air Traffic Control2012In: Human Factors : a view from an integrative perspective: Proceedings HFES Europe Chapter Conference Toulouse 2012 / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Frédéric Dehais, Clemens Weikert, Stefan Röttger, Dietrich Manzey, Sonja Biede, Florence Reuzeau, Patrice Terrier, Groningen: HFES Europe Chapter , 2012, p. 277-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although younger than the maritime domain, aviation has had a huge impact on the system design and development within shipping. Stakeholders often look towards aviation to make shipping, and the way that traffic is handled and organised, safer, more efficient and more effective. Although legally not the same, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is frequently compared to Air Traffic Control (ATC). In this article the area of traffic management within the maritime and aviation domains is addressed from a Resilience Engineering perspective. Focus is placed on the arrival part of a mission. The comparison is based on information collected during two study visits at VTS centres and one study visit at an ATC centre. The two organisations are described with the help of the Resilient Engineering capabilities: to respond, to monitor, to anticipate, and to learn. Furthermore, it is discussed how VTS and ATC adapt to cope with the complexity encountered during daily work.

  • 24.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Have a Healthy Lifestyle or Organize Work: Creating Healthy Shipboard Work Environments2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VI: Transport Ergonomics and Human Factors (TEHF), Aerospace Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 455-464Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study concerning the work environment on board Swedish passenger vessels. The study explored workrelated experiences of personnel in the service department (hotel, restaurant, catering, shops) based on individual and group interviews, observations, survey data and social insurance statistics concerning sick leave longer than 60 days. The results of this paper are based on ten semi-structured individual and group interviews with 16 respondents. The respondents were HR personnel from six shipping companies and crewmembers working onboard. The results show that in the HR personnel’s perception, healthy work environments are often associated to individual personal health activities, such as access to a gym or healthcare, lectures or other measures directed towards the individual seafarer. Aspects of the organizational and social work environments were barely mentioned as stressors or as contributing factors to an increasing number of sick absences. The interviewed crewmembers, however, highlighted the need for both organizational and social measures to foster healthy work environments. The need for employee participation within the organizational design and decision-making processes, including methods on how to conduct risk assessments prior to physical and organizational changes and follow up their consequences were emphasized. Thus, to create safe and sustainable work environments on board, more attention needs to be directed towards including shipboard personnel in the physical and organizational design of their own work environment rather than promoting a healthy lifestyle through measures directed towards the individual worker.

  • 25.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strategies and measures to improve the work environment of service crew on board Swedish passenger vessel2018In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from three workshops focused on the physical, organizational and social work environment of service crew working on board Swedish passenger vessels. The first workshop aimed to identify underlying causes of long‐term sick leave among employees in the service department, and potential measures that can be taken to reduce ill‐health. The second and third workshop explored knowledge of available methods to identify occupational safety and health risks, and suggest health‐promotion strategies at individual, team and company levels. A total of 58 persons from the Swedish maritime cluster participated in the workshops. During the workshops, open and structured brainstorming was used to create affinity diagrams to systematically summarize the identified causes, risks and strategies. Although the results presented in this article stem from a research project focused on Swedish passenger vessels, many of the findings may be transferable to an international maritime setting towards a deeper understanding of seafarers’ work environment and working conditions.

  • 26.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Underlying Causes of and Potential Measures to Reduce Long-term Sick Leave Among Employees in the Service Department on Board Swedish Passenger Vessels2017In: Safety of Sea Transportation: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation (TransNav 2017), June 21-23, 2017, Gdynia, Poland / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, Leiden: CRC Press, 2017, p. 287-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a workshop focused on the physical, social and organizational work environment in the service department on board Swedish passenger vessels. Twentyseven maritime professionals participated to provide input to potential causes and measures for long-term sick leave. During the workshop, an affinity diagram was created to systematically order the input of the respondents. The results show a wide range of causes and potential measures across multiple organizational levels. Unclear leadership, ambiguous or high demands with limited decision latitude, as well as aspects of work organization, i.e. manning, pressure for effectiveness, and extensive working hours were identified as important contributors to long-term sick leave. Although the findings are based on a workshop with Swedish maritime professionals, the results may be transferable to the international maritime sector to gain a deeper understanding of how to create, organize and promote a safe and efficient work environment.

  • 27.
    Relling, Tore
    et al.
    NTNU .
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hareide, Odd Sveinung
    Royal Norwegian Naval Acadamy.
    A socio-technical perspective on the future Vessel Traffic Services2019In: Necesse, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 112-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy is expected to cause significant changes to the Maritime Traffic System (MTS). The Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) is a control system in the MTS and will be affected by new interactions caused by autonomy. The paper proposes a proactive approach in discussing the future VTS. The paper renders the historical development of socio-technical systems theory and argues for systemic evaluation of internal and external consequences of changes in the design of the future VTS. A democratic process to involve people from the various levels of the VTS organisation with different competencies is suggested. To evaluate the consequences of change, a systemic internal and external approach is suggested. For discussing internal consequences, a levelled socio-technical systems model is adapted and applied. External consequences are suggested to be discussed by applying design principles of system-of-systems to understand the interplay between VTS and the MTS.

  • 28.
    Sandberg, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöström, John
    Linköping University.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Prioritera forskning om att organisera för hälsa i arbetet2016In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, article id 16-11-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationsforskning om och för bra arbetsplatser faller mellan stolarna. Det hävdar sex forskare inom olika ämnen, som nu föreslår en rad övergripande förändringar. Bland annat ett eget forskningsråd för arbetslivsforskning.

  • 29.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    et al.
    World Maritime University.
    Graziano, Armando
    World Maritime University.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    World Maritime University.
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    TRACEr-MAR: applying TRACEr in a maritime context2017In: Risk, Reliability and Safety : Innovating Theory and Practice: Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, Glasgow, Scotland, 25-29 September 2016 / [ed] Lesley Walls, Matthew Revie, Tim Bedford, CRC Press, 2017, p. 120-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytical framework of the Technique for the Retrospective and predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors (TRACEr) was developed with a specific focus on Air Traffic Control as a retrospective incident analysis technique and as predictive hun1an error identification. TRACEr focusses on the hun1an­machine interface (HMI) and suggests that incidents are often triggered by underlying cognitive and psychological processes which affect the performance of an operator. However, in order to be used in the maritime context, TRACErneeded to be adapted. This adaptation is calledTRACEr-MAR and has so far been used during a maritime accident report review exercise in order to identify areas in which the HMI can potentially be improved. This paper introduces the adapted TRACEr-MAR framework and discusses the lessons learned through presenting results from an application case. 

  • 30.
    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens-Uwe
    et al.
    World Maritime University .
    Praetorius, Gesa
    World Maritime University .
    Graziano, Armando
    World Maritime University .
    Kataria, Aditi
    World Maritime University.
    Baldauf, Michael
    World Maritime University.
    Introducing the Concept of Resilience into Maritime Safety2016In: Proceedings : 6th Symposium on Resilience Engineering: Managing resilience, learning to be adaptable and proactive in an unpredictable world. 22th-25th June 2015 at Lisbon, Portugal / [ed] Pedro Ferreira, Johan van der Vorm, David Woods, Sophia Antipolis Cedex: Resilience Engineering Association , 2016, p. 176-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is a structured methodology in maritime safety rule making processes. FSA takes organizational, technical and human-related factors into concern. While the method allows for the use of expert input during the identification of hazards and risk control options, the FSA guidelines give preference to assessment methods grounded in quantitative risk assessment. No specific guidance is given on how expert input should be obtained. This article therefore presents the findings of a pilot study with the objective to introduce the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) as a method to enrich FSA studies through structured expert input. Two focus groups (n = 6) were conducted to compare hazards and risk control options identified in one scenario with the help of fault tree analysis and FRAM. The results of the study show that FRAM has the potential to enrich hazard identification as a complementary tool.

  • 31.
    van Westrenen, Fulko
    et al.
    Umantec, The Netherlands.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Maritime traffic management: a need for central coordination?2014In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management is not formally organised in the maritime domain. Ships are autonomous and find their own way. Traffic is organised through rules, regulations, and “good seamanship”; it is a distributed system. In areas of high traffic-density support is proved by vessel traffic service (VTS) to promote traffic safety and fluency. VTS does not take control. This organisational structure has proven itself in situations with sufficient resources. When resources become insufficient (e.g. not enough sailing space), the traffic needs an organising mechanism. In this article, the authors argue that the most promising way to do this is by organising centralised planning coordination, whilst leaving maritime traffic a distributed system with no additional central control.

  • 32.
    van Westrenen, Fulko
    et al.
    Umantec, The Netherlands.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Chalmers University of Technology .
    Situation awareness and maritime traffic: having awareness or being in control?2014In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 161-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation awareness (SA) is generally seen as a mental representation of the system state, an objective measure of the ?situation out there?. In this article, the authors make an argument that SA can only have a meaning in relation to the task of the user and characteristics of the system. This will be argued with the help of a specific environment: vessel traffic monitoring. The long-time constants and the complex constraints imposed on the ship require that the operator monitoring the traffic has a good SA: the operator must make long-term predictions about possible traffic developments. For this, being in control and having SA are inseparable characteristics of the same process.

  • 33.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Occupational safety and health for service crew on passenger ships2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 121, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service crew is a vital part of the customer experience on board passenger ships, but also has important duties in the safety organization in case of emergencies. Yet, they are not always recognized as seafarers and have received less attention in research that addresses occupational safety and health in the maritime domain.

    This study explores the occupational safety and health for the service crew working on Swedish passenger ships.The purpose is to analyze causes of work-related ill-health, investigate and identify important aspects of the physical, organizational and social working conditions. The study has adopted a mixed methods approach, including survey questionnaires, register data on reported long-term sick leave, and field visits on board.

    Key findings show that service crew on passenger ships report the highest levels of perceived exertion. They also have the highest rates of long-term sick leave lasting 60 days or more. Most diagnoses are related to musculoskeletal and psychological disorders. Important factors in the shipboard work environment include high physical load and strenuous working postures, poor workplace design, long working hours, limited time for recovery, and the perceived mental and emotional load that comes with unclear boundaries between work and recreation and the social interaction with customers and colleagues. The most prominent health promotive factors to reduce the perceived exertion are appropriate manning, time to rest, working with managers that attend to problems and experiencing good working relations with other departments on board.

  • 34.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Sjukt kul jobb.: Servicepersonalens arbetsmiljö, sjukskrivningar och arbetstillfredsställelse på passagerarfartyg2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stundtals tufft men ändå givande. Så skulle arbetssituationen kunna sammanfattas för de som jobbar inom intendenturen med service och försäljning till gäster på passagerarfartyg. Många arbetsmoment innebär hög fysisk och mental arbetsbelastning med liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sina arbetsförhållanden. Men trots att servicepersonalen är överrepresenterade bland de långa sjukskrivningarna är det en motiverad arbetsgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. I den här rapporten sammanställer vi några av de viktigaste resultaten från forskningsprojektet Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under åren 2015–2017. Både projektet och den här rapporten har finansierats av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus.

  • 35.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Work environment challenges and participatory workplace interventions on passenger ships2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES) Conference Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund University , 2017, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical load and time pressure. The design of workplaces and equipment is a cornerstone for a sustainable work environment. Participatory design practices open the opportunity to foster employee engagement in workplace design, contributing towards increased employee health and well-being.

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