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  • 1.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Cost-optimized energy-efficient building envelope measures for a multi-storey residential building in a cold climate2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Yan, J; Yang, HX; Li, H; Chen, X, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 3760-3767Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse cost-optimal building envelope measures including insulation for attic roof, ground floor and exterior walls, and efficient windows and doors for new buildings. The analysis is based on a multi-storey building in south of Sweden with an expected lifetime of at least 100 years. We integrate dynamic energy simulation, total and marginal economic analysis, and consider different scenarios of real discount rates and annual energy price increases. Our analysis shows that cost-optimal thicknesses of insulations for the building envelope elements are significantly higher than those required to meet the current Swedish building code’s minimum energy requirements. For windows, the cost-optimal U-value is about the same as required to fulfil the minimum requirement of the Swedish building code. Overall, large energy and cost savings are achieved when the cost-optimal measures are cumulatively implemented. Compared to the reference, annual space heating reduction of 28-43% is achieved for the building with the cost-optimal measures under the analysed period of 50 years. The cost savings varied between 21 and 188 k€.

  • 2.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effects of end-of-life management options for materials on primary energy and greenhouse gas balances of building systems2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4246-4253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have analysed the life cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of concrete-frame and timber-frame multi-storey building alternatives, designed to meet the current Swedish building code, considering different end-of-life scenarios. The scenarios include recycling of concrete and steel, cascading by recycling of wood into particle board and energy recovery at the end-of-life of the board, energy recovery of wood by combustion, and landfilling of wood with and without landfill gas (LFG) recovery. The energy recovered is assumed to replace fossil coal or gas. Our analysis accounts for energy and GHG flows in the production and end-of-life phases. We estimate the GHG emission changes achieved per unit of difference in finished wood in buildings or in harvest forest biomass between the timber buildings and the concrete building. The results show that the timber building systems give significantly lower life cycle primary energy balances than the concrete building system for all the end-of-life options. The concrete building system gives higher life cycle GHG balances than the timber alternatives for all the end-of-life options, except when wood is landfill without LFG recovery. The end-of-life primary energy and GHG benefit of wood materials is most significant for energy recovery while the benefit of cascading is low. However, replacing fossil gas instead of fossil coal significantly reduce the carbon benefits of the timber alternatives. The benefits of recycling steel and concrete are small. This study shows that end-of-life options for building materials can offer opportunities to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in the built environment.

  • 3.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 135, p. 563-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures and demonstrate its application for modelling a wide range of energy renovation measures for a typical 1970s multi-family building in Sweden. The method integrates energy balance and bottom-up economic calculations considering total and marginal investment costs of energy efficiency measures as well as net present value of total and marginal savings of the measures. The energy renovation measures explored include additional insulation to basement walls, exterior walls, and attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electric appliances and lighting, efficient water taps, glazed enclosed balcony systems, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. The measures are analysed first individually and then designed to form economic packages. Our results show that improved windows give the biggest single final energy savings while resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure for the building. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the energy renovation measures is sensitive to real discount rates and energy price increases. Cost-optimal final heat savings varies between 34% and 51%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. The corresponding electricity savings varies between 35% and 43%. This study shows a method and the significance of various technical and economic-related parameters in achieving deep energy savings cost-efficiently.

  • 4.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Life cycle primary energy use of nearly-zero energy building and low-energy building2017In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1075-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy legislations are increasingly driving towards buildings with very low operation final energy use as part of efforts to reduce energy use and climate impact of the built environment. In this study we analyse the life cycle primary energy use of a recently constructed Swedish conventional 6-storey apartment building and compare it to variants designed as nearly-zero energy building or as low-energy building with a combination of improved thermal envelope and passive design strategies. We maintain the architectural design of the constructed building and improve the thermal properties of the envelope to achieve a low-energy building and also nearly-zero energy building including solar thermal collectors. We consider scenarios where the building variants are heated with renewable energy using cogenerated district heating, also complemented with solar heating system. We follow the life cycle of the building versions and analyse their total primary energy use, considering the production, operation and end-of-life phases. The results show that the relative significance of the production phase increases as buildings are made to achieve very low operational energy use. The production phase accounts for 17 % of the total primary energy use for production, operation and demolition of the constructed building for a 50-year lifespan. The corresponding values for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants ranges between 30 to 31 %. Overall, the life cycle primary energy use for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants are about 30–35 % lower compared to the constructed building.

  • 5.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy and carbon dioxide implications of low-energy renovation of a Swedish apartment building2013In: Passivhus Norden 2013, 2013, p. 270-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings offer a significant opportunity to reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The construction of new low energy buildings is important in the long term, but has small effect on the building sector’s overall energy use in the short term, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. In this study we analyse the potential for reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions in an existing Swedish apartment building with energy efficiency renovation measures. We model changes to a case-study building with an annual final heat energy demand of 94 kWh/m2 to achieve a low-energy building. The modelled changes include improved water taps, windows and doors, increased insulation in attic and exterior walls, electric efficient appliances and installation of a plate heat exchanger in the ventilation system. We analyse the life cycle primary energy and CO2 implications of improving the buildings to a low-energy building. We consider different energy supply systems, including scenarios where the end-use heating technology is resistance heating, electric heat pump or district heating. We find that greater lifecycle primary energy and CO2 reduction are achieved when an electric resistance heated building is renovated than when a district heated building is renovated. Material production primary energy use and CO2 emission become relatively more significant when the operation energy is reduced. However, the increases in material production impacts are strongly offset by greater primary energy and CO2 reductions from the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant lifecycle benefits. Additional roof insulation gives the biggest primary energy efficiency when the building is heated with resistance heating. For electric heat pump or district heating, more electric efficient appliances give the biggest primary energy efficiency. Still the heat supply choice has greater impact on primary energy use and CO2 emissions.

  • 6.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy Simulation of Existing Swedish Multi-Storey Apartment Building in Växjö: Work Package 2, Task 2.1, carried out by UNI-SE in the Ready Project2016Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Impacts of Common Simulation Assumptions in Sweden on Modelled Energy Balance of a Multi-family Building.2019In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018 / [ed] Johansson D., Bagge H., Wahlström Å., Springer, 2019, p. 689-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we explore key input parameters and common assumptions for energy balance analysis of residential buildings in Sweden and assess their impacts on simulated energy demand of a building. Our analysis is based on dynamic hour-by-hour energy balance modelling of a typical Swedish multi-storey residential building constructed in 1972. The simulation input parameters studied are related to microclimate, building envelope, occupancy behaviour, ventilation, electric and persons heat gains. The results show that assumed indoor temperature set points, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery systems have significant impact on the simulated energy demand. For microclimate parameters, the outdoor temperature, ground solar reflection and window shading gave significant variations in the simulated space heating and cooling demands. We found that input parameter values and assumptions used for building energy simulation vary significantly in the Swedish context, giving considerably different estimated annual final energy demands for the analysed building. Overall, the estimated annual final space heating demand of the building varied between 50 and 125 kWh/m2 depending on the simulation dataset used. This study suggests that site-specific parameter values may be appropriate for accurate analysis of a building’s energy performance to reduce data input uncertainties, as such factors may have a significant impact on building energy balance and energy savings of retrofit measures.

  • 8.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 718-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9-14 kWh/m(2) depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    On input parameters, methods and assumptions for energy balance and retrofit analyses for residential buildings2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 137, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore key parameter values, methods and assumptions used for energy balance modelling of residential buildings in the Swedish context and analyse their effects on calculated energy balance of a typical multi-storey building from 1970s and on energy savings of energy efficiency retrofit measures. The parameters studied are related to microclimate, building envelope, occupancy behaviour, ventilation, and heat gains from electric appliances and persons. Our study shows that assumed indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units have significant effect on the simulated energy performance of the studied building and energy efficiency measures. Of the considered microclimate parameter values and assumptions, the outdoor temperature, ground solar reflection and window shading have significant impact on the simulated space heating and cooling demands. On the contrary, the simulated energy performances are less affected by the variations in air pressure outside and the percentage of wind load that hits the building. We found that input data and assumptions used for energy balance calculations and energy saving analyses vary significantly in the Swedish context. These result in significantly different calculated final energy performance of buildings and energy efficiency measures. To inform accurate analysis of energy performance of building and energy saving measures, input parameters used in simulation models need to be appropriate.

  • 10.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Materials for the Thermal Upgrade of an Existing Building2019In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, article id 012044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing building stock is estimated to need major renovations in the near future. At the same time, the EU energy-efficiency strategy entails upgrading the energy performance of renovated buildings to meet the nearly-zero energy standard. To upgrade existing buildings, two main groups of measures can be adopted: thermally-improved building envelope and energy-efficient technical devices. The first measure usually involves additional building materials for thermal insulation and new building cladding, as well as new windows and doors. A number of commercially-available materials can be used to renovate thermal building envelopes. This study compares the life-cycle primary energy use and CO2 emission when renovating an existing building using different materials, commonly used in renovated buildings. A Swedish building constructed in 1972 is used as a case-study building. The building's envelope is assumed to be renovated to meet the Swedish passive house standard. The entire life cycle of the building envelope renovation is taken into account. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly reduce the production primary energy and associated CO2 emissions by up to 62% and 77%, respectively. The results suggest that a careful material choice can significantly contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions associated with energy renovation of buildings, especially when renewable-based materials are used.

  • 11.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy and carbon balance of materials used in a building envelope renovation2019In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, article id 012045Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) are a priority waste stream in EU's polices, accounting for about 30% of all waste generated. At the same time, according to the EU energy-efficiency directive, existing buildings subject to significant renovation need to be upgraded in their thermal building envelope in order to meet higher energy performance standard. This involves additional building materials and hence increases the CDW generation. This study investigates the energy and CO2 emission balance of building envelope renovation when using different building materials, taking into account the production and end-of-life stages. The study is based on a Swedish case-study building assumed to be upgraded to the passive house standard. Benefits from waste recovering are considered, including construction and demolition wastes. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly affect the primary energy and CO2 emission balances. Depending on the material alternative the end-of-life primary energy use and net CO2 emission can be reduced by 5%-21% and 2%-24%, respectively, compared to the initial primary energy use and net CO2 emission. Therefore, a careful material choice at the design stage, as well as an efficient waste management, can contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission associated with energy renovation of existing buildings.

  • 12.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy use of residential buildings: implications of materials, modelling and design approaches2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings can play an essential role in the transition to a sustainable society. Different strategies, including improved energy efficiency in buildings, substitution of carbon intensive materials and fuels, efficient energy supply among others can be employed for this purpose. In this thesis, the implications of different insulation materials, modelling and design strategies on primary energy use of residential buildings are studied using life cycle and system perspective. Specifically, the effects of different insulation materials on production primary energy and CO2 emission of buildings with different energy performance are analysed. The results show that application of extra insulation materials to building envelope components reduces the operating primary energy use but more primary energy is required for the insulation material production. This also slightly increases the CO2 emissions from material production. The increases in primary energy use and CO2 emissions are mainly due to the variations in the quantities, types and manufacturing processes of the insulation materials. Thus, choice of renewable based materials with energy efficient manufacturing is important to reduce primary energy use and GHG emissions for building material production.

    Uncertainties related to building modelling input parameters and assumptions and how they influence energy balance calculations of residential buildings are explored. The implications on energy savings of different energy efficiency measures are also studied. The results show that input data and assumptions used for energy balance simulations of buildings vary widely in the Swedish context giving significant differences in calculated energy demand for buildings. Among the considered parameters, indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) have significant impacts on the simulated building energy performance as well as on the energy efficiency measures. The impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is rather small but increases with more parameter combinations and more energy efficient buildings. Detailed energy characterisation of household equipment and technical installations used in a building is essential to accurately calculate the energy demand, particularly for a low energy building.

    The design and construction of new buildings present many possibilities to minimise both heating and cooling demands over the lifecycle of buildings, and also in the context of climate change. Various design strategies and measures are analysed for buildings with different energy performance under different climate scenarios. These include household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology, bypassing the VHR unit, solar shading of windows, combinations of window u- and g-values, different proportions of glazed window areas and façade orientations and mechanical cooling. The results show that space heating and cooling demands vary significantly with the energy performance of buildings as well as climate scenarios. Space heating demand decreases while space cooling demand and the risk of overheating increase considerably with warmer climate. The space cooling demand and overheating risk are more significant for buildings with higher energy performance. Significant reductions are achieved in the operation final energy demands and overheating is avoided or greatly reduced when different design strategies and measures are implemented cumulatively under different climate change scenarios.

    The primary energy efficiency of heat supply systems depends on the heat production technology and type of fuel use. Analysis of the interaction between different design strategies and heat supply options shows that the combination of design strategies giving the lowest primary energy use for space heating and cooling varies between heat supply from district heating with combined heat and power (CHP) and heat only boilers (HOB). The primary energy use for space heating is significantly lower when the heat supply is from CHP rather than HOB. Operation primary energy use is significantly reduced with slight increase in production primary energy when the design strategies are implemented. The results suggest that significant primary energy reductions are achievable under climate change, if new buildings are designed with appropriate strategies.

  • 13.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Carbon balances for a low energy apartment building with different structural frame materials2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4254-4261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the life cycle carbon implications of a building, with structural frame of prefabricated concrete, prefabricated modular timber or cross laminated timber (CLT) elements, designed to meet the Swedish passive house criteria. The analysis covers non-biogenic carbon flows related to the building alternatives, over an assumed life time of 80 years. The building alternatives are all modelled to have the same housing service and operation energy demand. Substitution factors, showing the efficiency of CO2 emissions reductions when wood alternatives are used instead of non-wood alternatives, are calculated for the CLT and modular alternatives with reference to the concrete alternative. The results show that the CLT and modular buildings give less carbon emissions to the atmosphere during production and when the buildings are demolished at the end-of-life. Moreover, the wood residues from the production and end-of-life activities for the timber alternatives far exceed that for the concrete alternative. The substitution factors differ slightly between the CLT and the modular alternatives, and are significantly lower when fossil gas is substituted by wood residues instead of fossil coal. In summary, the life cycle carbon emissions are significantly lower for the timber alternatives.

  • 14.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Design strategies and measures to minimise operation energy use for passive houses under different climate scenarios2019In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 299-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, the implications of different design strategies and measures in minimising the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden are analysed under different climate change scenarios. The analyses are conducted for recent (1996-2005) and future climate periods of 2050-2059 and 2090-2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in Southern Sweden. The considered design strategies and measures encompass efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, solar shading of windows, window size and properties, building orientation and mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand as well as risk of overheating increases under future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies and measures are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window U-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40-51%, and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy use for operation decreased by 42-54%. This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climates.

  • 15.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Design strategies for a Swedish residential building to minimize primary energy use and CO2 emission2016In: The 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems : SDEWES 2016: September 4-9, 2016. Lisbon, Portugal, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate2017In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1185-1195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building version, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden and explore various design strategies to minimise these demands under different climate change scenarios. The analysis is performed for recent (1996–2005) and future climate periods of 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in South of Sweden. Design strategies include efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, window solar shading, building orientation, window size and properties, besides mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand increases as the risk of overheating under the future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window u-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40–51 % and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy for operating the building versions decreased by 49–54 % This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and the potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climate scenarios.

  • 17.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effect of different frame materials on the primary energy use of a multi storey residential building in a life cycle perspective2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 185, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary energy implications over the life cycle of a multi storey residential building with different building systems are explored here. The main structural materials of the buildings include precast concrete, cross laminated timber (CLT) and prefabricated timber modules (modular). The analysis covers energy and material flows from different life cycle phases of the building versions, designed to meet the energy performance of the Swedish building code (BBR) and passive house criteria. The CLT and modular buildings were found to result in lower production primary energy use and higher biomass residues compared to the concrete alternative. The heating value of the recoverable biomass residues from the production phase of the CLT building is significantly larger than the primary energy required for its production. Primary energy use for production and construction constitutes 20-30% and 36-47% of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for the BBR and passive buildings, respectively. Space heating with combined heat and power (CHP) and ventilation electricity for the BBR and passive building versions form 70-79% and 52-63%, respectively, of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for a lifespan of 80 years. The CLT and modular buildings give 20-37% and 9-17% lower total life cycle primary energy use, respectively, than the concrete alternative when space heating is from CHP. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effects of different insulation materials on primary energy and CO2 emission of a multi-storey residential building2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 369-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyzed the implications of various insulation materials on the primary energy and CO2emission for material production of a residential building. We modeled changes to the original design ofthe building to achieve reference buildings to energy-efficiency levels of the Swedish building code of2012 or the Swedish Passivhus 2012 criteria. We varied the insulation materials in different parts of thereference buildings from mineral rock wool to glass wool, cellulose fiber, expanded polystyrene or foamglass. We compared the primary energy use and CO2emission from material production of functionallyequivalent reference and optimum versions of the building. The results showed a reduction of about 6–7%in primary energy use and 6–8% in CO2emission when the insulation material in the reference buildingsis changed from rock wool to cellulose fiber in the optimum versions. Also, the total fossil fuel use for onlyinsulation material production was reduced by about 39%. This study suggests that enhancing materialproduction technologies by reducing fossil fuel-use and increasing renewable energy sources, as wellas careful material choice with renewable-based raw materials can contribute significantly in reducingprimary energy use and GHG emission in the building sector.

  • 19.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, p. 846-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climate change on the final and primary energy use of versions of a multi-storey residential building have been analysed. The building versions are designed to the Swedish building code (BBR 2015) and passive house criteria (Passive 2012) with different design and overheating control strategies under different climate scenarios. Future climate datasets are based on Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099. The analysis showed that strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the Passive 2012 building version remained the same under all climate scenarios. In contrast, strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the BBR 2015 version varied, as cooling demand became more significant under future climate scenarios. Cooling demand was more dominant than heating for the Passive 2012 building version under future climate scenarios. Household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology gave the biggest reduction in total primary energy use among considered strategies. Overall, annual total operation primary energy decreased by 37–54% for the building versions when all strategies are implemented under the considered climate scenarios. This study shows that appropriate design strategies could result in significant primary energy savings for low-energy buildings under changing climates.

  • 20.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Impacts of parameter values interactions on simulated energy balance of residential buildings2017In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 132, p. 57-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we use dynamic simulation to explore the interactive impacts of different uncertain parameter values in energy balance modelling of existing and improved variants of a Swedish multi-storey residential building. We modelled variations as well as interactive influence of different simulation assumptions and parameters encompassing outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and technical installations including household equipment. The results indicate that the interactive influence of the parameters on calculated space heating of buildings seems to be small and relatively more evident for a low-energy building than for a conventional building. The influence of the interactions between the parameter combinations becomes more evident as several parameters are varied simultaneously. The results also indicate that calculated space heating demand of a building is noticeably influenced by how heat gains from household equipment and technical installations are modelled. The calculated final energy for space heating for the analysed building versions varied between 13-43% depending on the energy efficiency levels for household equipment and technical installations as well as their interactions with other parameter values variations. This study shows the importance of appropriate input parameters and assumptions for building energy balance calculation.

  • 21.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 104, p. 132-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment.

  • 22.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy implications of different wall insulation materials for buildings in a cold climate2014In: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 61, p. 1204-1207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the influence of different external wall insulation systems on the primary energy use of a case study building in southern Sweden. We vary the insulation material of the external walls from rock wool to glass wool or expanded polystyrene (EPS) to achieve different energy-efficiency standards of the building. We apply appropriate thicknesses of the different insulation materials to achieve similar thermal transmittance (U-value) of the external walls under the different energy-efficiency standards. The different options are based on the same architectural design. We calculate and compare the primary energy for production of the insulation materials and for operation of the buildings. Rock wool gives the lowest primary energy for production, followed by glass wool and EPS for each energy efficiency standard, although the difference between rock wool and glass wool is small.

  • 23.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy implications of different external wall configurations for residential buildings2014In: World Sustainable Building 2014, Barcelona Conference: Sustainable Building:Results ; Are We Moving as Quickly as We Should? It's up to us!, GBCe , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 23 of 23
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