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  • 1.
    Eklund, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Brand experience and brand image: the mediating impact of brand passion and brand image in the context of car brands2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry encounters fierce competition, in which distinguishing from competitive brands is imperative to ensure a positive brand image. Due that consumers are overwhelmed with car brands to select from, manufacturers need to consider how to make them loyal next time when purchasing a car. This paper examines the parallel meditation of brand passion and brand image between brand experience and brand loyalty for car brands. A questionnaire was distributed online through a car magazine among car consumers (n = 897). The parallel mediation was examined using Hayes PROCESS. Results show that brand passion and brand image positively mediate the relationship between brand experience and brand loyalty. These results allude that forward-thinking managers and researches not only need to consider the relationship between brand experience and brand loyalty but also that consumer’s brand passion and brand image mediate the linkage. Hence, brand experience can be tailor-made with brand-related stimuli to facilitate consumers brand passion and brand image, which will positively impact brand loyalty and make consumers intermittently purchase the same car brand again. Future research is encouraged to compare premium vs. non-premium brand with another with the parallel meditation effect to identify differences and similarities.

  • 2.
    Eklund, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Seeing through touch: a conceptual framework of visual-tactile interplay2018In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 498-513Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of visual-tactile interplay and consumer responses in brand, product and servicescape contexts. Design/methodology/approach - This paper performs a literature review of visual-tactile interplay by reviewing prior research in marketing and psychology. Findings - The review reveals that visual-tactile interplay provokes various consumer responses depending on whether brands, products or servicescapes are used. The paper develops a comprehensive conceptual framework mapping out visual-tactile interplay and the relationship with consumers' cognition, emotions and behaviors. Research limitations/implications - A conceptual model was developed with a novel view on how visual and tactile cues can together influence consumer responses. Practical implications - This paper shows how visual-tactile interplay is successful in brand, product and servicescape contexts and provides practical insight for firms into how to provoke consumers' cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. Originality/value - This paper contributes to existing literature by developing a conceptual framework and model of visual-tactile interplay and consumer responses by drawing on research in marketing and psychology.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Visual-Tactile Multisensory Interplay: Literature Review and Research Directions2017In: Proceedings of the 12th Global Brand Conference of the Academy of Marketing, 2017, p. 179-191Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on gamification: mechanics, psychological mediators and outcomes2019In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As gamification literature has matured, the gap between how different domains apply the theory has widened. This has positioned gamification as being more dependent on context, rather than being an independent theory per se. To address this notion, three concepts are identified as being central for how the designergamifies a process. These are mechanics, psychologicalmediators and desired outcomes. Following this logic, a review was conducted using 79(n) articles across seven disciplines, namely health and wellness, crowdsourcing, sustainability, computer science, software development, business, and tourism. The findings highlighted potential relationships between several concepts when gamifying a situation, context, service or/and process.This research presents an alternative and uniform perspective on the broad gamification research to better understand how gamification functions and can be employed to impact various outcomes. Furthermore, this research contributes to this rather eclectic domain, presenting a more categorized view in showing domain-specific mechanics and how these can be employed for empirical testing.Lastly, the conceptual model can be modified, employed and adjusted to investigate various effects of gamification on outcomes.

  • 5.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Browsing behaviour as a mediator: the impact of multi-sensory cues on purchasing2019In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to examine how multi-sensory cues, when store-congruent, influence consumer browsing behaviour and its subsequent effect on purchasing. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were used with a field experimental design in a furnishing retail store to examine browsing behaviour and purchasing in a visual, auditory, olfactory and a multi-sensory treatment group. Data were gathered over 12 weeks. This study was a set of studies comprising my dissertation thesis (Helmefalk, 2017). Findings Findings show that multi-sensory cues in a retail atmosphere are evidently influencing purchasing via browsing behaviour as a mediator. Originality/value The findings evidence browsing behaviour as a mediator and predictor for purchasing, which emphasizes its conceptual and empirical contribution in terms of modifying retail atmospheres. The work contributes to the field of retailing, sensory marketing and consumer behaviour, a novel view on the linkages between multi-sensory cues, browsing behaviour and purchasing.

  • 6.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Congruency as a mediator in an IKEA retail setting: products, services and store image in relation to sensory cues2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 956-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss how sensory cues are preferred in relation to products, service and store image in a retail context and why retailers should consider the importance of congruence in a retail setting.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four qualitative focus group discussions were conducted, following a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 24 participants discussed how and why a lighting department in an IKEA store in Sweden could be regarded as more appealing than the traditional layout.

    Findings

    The findings indicate that congruency works as a mediator between a retail setting, sensory cues, products, service and store image. Consumers prefer, compare and categorize sensory cues in relation to the specific product in the department, the service offered by the firm and the store image.

    Originality/value

    A model is developed that conceptualizes congruency as a mediator in a retail setting, which provides an opportunity to further explore external influences on congruency in retail settings, both conceptually and empirically.

  • 7.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Marknadsföring riktad till våra sinnen ökar köplusten i butik2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Helmefalk, Miralem
    Multi-sensory cues in interplay and congruency in a retail store context: Consumer emotions and purchase behaviors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research has shown the positive impact of sensory cues and cue- congruency on emotion and behavior in retail store atmospheres, these cues have primarily been investigated in isolation or in pairs. Consequently, little is known on how multi-sensory cues in interplay impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors. In addition, research has not yet provided any clear conceptualization of congruency in marketing when designing retail store atmospheres, other than stating that some cues are expected to match, therefore become pleasantly perceived. Thus, the main purpose of this research is to examine and show how multi-sensory cues in interplay and congruency can be utilized in creating a retail store atmosphere to enhance consumer emotions and purchase behaviors.

    To address the purpose, a sequential method was adopted with four essays. The first essay explores multi-sensory interplay in marketing contexts with a literature review that forms the basis for a research agenda. The second essay employs focus groups to highlight the congruency between cues, products and the retail setting, and identifies which category of cues is in need of investigation. The third essay uses field experiments to investigate two congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues (six cues in total) in a retail setting, and their impact on consumer emotion and purchase behavior. The final essay, also use field experiments to examine and duplicate one cue from each sense, and employs these together in interplay, to show how multi-sensory cues in interplay impacts emotions and purchase behaviors.

    This research concludes that multi-sensory cues in interplay in a retail store atmosphere have a greater impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors than single visual, auditory and olfactory setting-congruent sensory cues. Among single sensory cues, those perceived as complementary in the atmosphere, specifically auditory and olfactory in an already visual dominated atmosphere, have the largest impact on consumer emotions and purchase behaviors. Overall, this research signifies that congruent multi-sensory cues in interplay emerge as reliable predictors for the influence on consumer arousal, valence, time spent, touching, browsing and purchasing Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. 

  • 9.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shedding light on the use of single and multisensory cues and their effect on consumer behaviours2018In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 1077-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Retail stores are required to provide a stimulating in-store experience for customers and do this by developing various strategies. One strategy implemented by retailers is the use of sensory cues to encourage consumers to engage with the environment and the products on display and available for purchase. Conducted in a lighting department, the purpose of this paper is to consider how retailers can employ a multisensory cue, which is formed by combining three single cues to positively impact consumer behaviours - specifically time spent, touching and purchase. Design/methodology/approach The study comprised an experimental design, which implemented single congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues that formed a multisensory cue. Consumer behaviour outcomes of these cues were measured using objective measures. Findings The results show that a multisensory cue impacts time spent and purchasing, but no evidence of it affecting touching was noted. In the case of the single cues, auditory and scent cues impacted time spent, but their effect was not to the extent of the multisensory cue, which was superior. Research limitations/implications The study focussed on one product category within a general furnishing store, thus limiting the extent to which the findings can be generalised. Practical implications The effect of a multisensory cue exceeded that of single cues, emphasising the need for retailers to consider and develop a multisensory retail environment. Originality/value While research into the effect of single cues on consumer behaviours has shown positive effects, research into a multisensory cue, especially in a real-retail setting, is relatively scarce.

  • 10.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Eklund, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Fun and function?: The impact of experiential learning styles on hedonic and utilitarian values in classrooms2018In: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, ISSN 2166-2681, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how components of experiential learning styles influencethe hedonic and utilitarian values of classrooms in higher education. Thesevalues are argued to impact on emotions and learning outcomes. A surveywas employed with university students in different universities. Findings showconcrete experience has a positive impact on both hedonic and utilitarianvalues. These findings emphasize that those students that score higher on theconcrete experience scale tend to consider classrooms as more importantregarding their utilitarian and hedonic values. These students are suggestedto be more influenced by experiential designed classrooms that impact theirlearning outcomes.

  • 11.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Eklund, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hultén, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The impact of olfactory congruent cues on consumer approach behavior2016In: Presented at 45th European Marketing Academy (EMAC): Marketing in the age of data, Oslo, Norway, May 24-27, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What impact do olfactory congruent cues exert on consumer approach behavior at point-of- purchase in a retail setting? This research depicts actual consumer behavior in relation to the introduction of olfactory congruent cues, as store atmospherics, in a fashion store. In the retailing and sensory marketing research, there is a gap with respect to how olfactory congruent cues, as retail atmospherics, impact on actual consumer behavior in terms of time spent, touching products and walking towards a particular in-store area. In the reported study, the authors find a difference between consumer approach behavior in a conventional store environment and that in a manipulated store environment. 

  • 12.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hultén, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Multi-sensory congruent cues in designing retail store atmosphere: Effects on shoppers’ emotions and purchase behavior2017In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 38, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the effects of multi-sensory congruent cues om shoppers’ emotions and purchase behavior in designing retail store atmosphere. Prior research suggests atmospheric stimuli to contribute to establish an appealing atmosphere and studies have confirmed that shoppers react to different stimuli. However, extant studies have not examined how multi-sensory congruent cues added to a visually dominant store atmosphere might impact shopper emotions and purchase behavior. The findings demonstrate a positive effect of multi-sensory congruent cues on shoppers’ emotions, through valence, and purchase behavior, through time spent and purchase. It is evident that shoppers perceive multi-sensory cues, such as auditory and olfactory ones, to be more effective in a dominant visual store atmosphere compared to only adding new visual stimuli. For retailers, a visually dominant store atmosphere should be designed more in the direction of a multi-sensory atmosphere in offering shoppers more appealing experiences of the retail setting.

  • 13.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Lundqvist, Siw
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Marcusson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The role of mechanics in gamification: an interdisciplinary perspective2019In: International Journal of Virtual and Augmented Reality, ISSN 2473-537X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 18-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With regard to the contemporary discussion of gamifying processes in various domains, it is obvious that there exists a naive notion that simply adding leaderboards/pins/points/badges would lead to success. Even though other instances of gamification mechanics could actually perform better. The literature has not yet managed to prove whether different domains require different mechanics in order to impact on engagement and motivation. To address these critical issues, a literature review was conducted across six domains that examined game mechanics, including their uniqueness for gamification research. Findings show a myriad of mechanics with different sharing properties, which are more or less domain-congruent. These mechanics can be separated into four levels: general, mostly similar, partly similar and unique. The findings enable a better understanding of how to employ situation-congruent mechanics to a given context, which is important for both research and practice.

  • 14.
    Helmefalk, Miralem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Marcusson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Gamification in a servicescape context: a conceptual framework2019In: International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, ISSN 1477-5212, E-ISSN 1741-8100, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 22-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While gamification has gained in popularity across different research domains, there is still scarce knowledge on gamification in a servicescape context. The little research that exists in this field does not point in any clear direction. However, further investigation of gamification can provide researchers and practitioners with opportunities to further understand, embed and implement gamification into their marketing activities. To solve these issues, this research reviews contemporary servicescape and gamification literature and conceptualises a framework showing how gamification and its mechanics are linked to the concept of servicescapes and its marketing outcomes. This review highlights gamified mechanics in servicescapes as visible, non-visible and platform dependent. These are shown to influence cognitive and affective responses such as engagement, motion, flow and emotions, which subsequently have impact on long and short-term marketing outcomes. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

  • 15.
    Kjørstad, Elise
    forskning.no.
    Slik får lukt og lyd oss til å kjøpe mer: Kunder brukte lengre tid og kjøpte mer når atmosfæren ble endret i butikken2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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