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  • 1.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Characterization of hot gas in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler2014In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 124, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas concentration and temperature information from the combustion of biomass offer significant advantages to enhance the understanding of an industrial-scale biomass heating plant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the gas composition and temperature in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler. An extensive series of measurements was carried out, and the samples, which were drawn through different ports by means of a water-cooled stainless steel suction pyrometer, were analyzed for temperature and for O2, CO, and NO concentrations. The results showed that the averaged NO, CO, and O2 concentrations in the gas phase during fuel combustion in the primary chamber were 40 ppm, 3.5 and 6.5 vol.%, respectively, while the values were 80 ppm, 1.1 and 6 vol.% in the secondary chamber. Detailed gas species and temperature distributions are discussed, which provide good possibilities for the control of emissions.

  • 2.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Experimental investigation of fuel bed combustion in an industrial grate boiler2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about distributions of temperature and gas species within the fuel bed is of great importance in studying the formation of pollutants in an industrial-scale biomass boiler. The main objective of this study was to investigate the gas composition and temperature in some available sections of the fuel bed of a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler. The results showed that the temperature profiles of the grate bars and the fuel bed suggest significant temperature gradients versus the height of the fuel bed. The averaged NO, CO, CO2, and O2 concentrations measured in the fuel bed were about 80 ppm, 21, 11 and 1 vol. %, respectively.

  • 3.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Measurements of temperature and gas composition within the burning bed of wet woody residues in a 4 MW moving grate boiler2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 152, p. 438-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving grate firing systems are widely used for biomass combustion. The characteristics of the fuel bed combustion in moving grate boilers are of practical interest as they are directly related to the release of pollutants and affect the furnace efficiency. Measurements of temperature and gas species concentrations inside the fuel bed are necessary to improve our understanding of the highly complex processes involved in biomass combustion.There have been few experimental studies of the fuel bed of industrial scale grate furnaces. The present study measured temperature and gas species concentrations within a thick burning bed of wet woody biomass, in a  4 MW reciprocating grate boiler. Measurements were carried out under three different operating conditions through ports located in the wall of the furnace using a stainless steel probe incorporating a thermocouple. Temperatures of about 1000 °C were measured close to the grate, indicating intense combustion at the bottom of the fuel bed. The temperature distribution along the bed height showed that different stages of the combustion process take place in horizontally adjacent layers along the grate. Higher flow rates of the primary air resulted in relatively higher CO and lower CO2 and NO concentrations in the fuel bed.

  • 4.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Yang, Jingjing
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gas measurements and characterization of wood combustion in a traveling grate boiler2013In: Proceedings for 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2013, p. 591-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental tests have been carried out on a moving grate boiler at a 4 MW heating plant located at a sawing mill in south of Sweden. In order to investigate the performance of the combustion chamber, the local concentrations of O2, NO and CO are determined in the region above the grate using two water-cooled stainless steel probes of different lengths and diameters. The fuel used was sawmill waste consisting of bark, sawdust and shavings. The results of the study provided valuable insights into the combustion process.

  • 5.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    An experimental study of combustion and emissions of two types of woody biomass in a 12-MW reciprocating-grate boiler2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 135, p. 120-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gaseous emissions of primary concern from biomass combustion are nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide, and various unburned gaseous components. Detailed characterization of the gas in the hot reaction zones is necessary to study the release, formation, and evolution of the gas components. In the present study, gas temperature and concentration were measured in a 12-MWth biomass-fired reciprocating-grate boiler operated with over-fire air and flue-gas recirculation. Temperature measurement was combined with flue gas quenching and sample gas extraction using two water-cooled stainless-steel suction pyrometers. The concentration profiles of O2, NO, and CO were experimentally determined throughout the furnace, and the profile gas temperature was measured in several positions inside the furnace for the two types of woody biomass studied. For both fuels, the gas temperature varied between approximately 450 °C (average primary chamber temperature) and 1200 °C (average secondary chamber temperature). The concentration profiles of CO and O2 suggested no conclusive difference between the two types of biomass. However, the local mean concentrations of NO and NOX emission factors (measured in the stack) were higher for Greenery fuel due to its higher nitrogen content than that of Standard fuel.

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