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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Increase of biomarkers after the Kalmar Ironman in male and female non-elite triathletes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage.

    We present the data of 29 (15 male, 14 female) non-elite participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, 42 km running). Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, aspartataminotransferas, creatinine and leucocytes returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days. In 100% of male and 93% of female participants’ troponin T increase was compatible with the diagnosis of minor myocardial infarction. Some results are shown in the table (* denotes level of significance between male and female results).

                                               Before race         Directly after race        5-8 days after race

    CK [µkat/L]                                      

    male                                                 3.7 ± 2.1**       48,1 ± 44.1                4.5 ± 4.0

    female                                   1.5 ± 0.7          30.5 ± 41.5                3.1 ± 3.6

    Myoglobin [µg/L

    male                                      58.3 ± 35.9        2449 ± 1923             51.3 ± 38.5

    female                                    30.6 ± 11.0         1134 ± 756*             50.4 ± 67.7

    Creatinine [µmol/L]

    male                                       87.4 ± 11.4         119.9 ± 23.4           85.1 ± 12.1

    female                                     73.0 ± 13.4         84.1 ± 14.1***        69.6 ± 6.3

    p-NT-proBNP [ng/L]

    male                                        60.1 ± 25.2          658.7 ± 354.9        61.9 ± 22.7

    female                                      95.5 ± 69.5          907.9 ± 433.1        76.9 ± 26.9

    Troponin T [ng/L]

    male                                         8.5 ± 4.3             68.1 ± 41.1           7.4 ± 4.4

    female                                       7.1 ± 4.9             54.3 ± 49.5           5.8 ± 1.7

    The results will be discussed in the light of the current literature and the so far unanswered question about the long-term significance of repetitive organ damage due to strenuous exercise. Long-term follow-up of these athletes is needed.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital; Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Germany.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Therése
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schreyer, Hendrik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Breyne, Antonia
    Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Germany.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hjärtmarkörer ökar efter intensiv motion - oklar klinisk betydelse: Data från förstudie av Kalmar IronWoman-studien visar på troponin T-värden som vid hjärtinfarkt2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 31-33, article id D3CRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemical changes after strenuous exercise - data from the Kalmar Ironman

    Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage. We present the data of 30 (15 men, 15 women) participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015. Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and creatinine returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days. In all but one participant the troponin T pattern was compatible with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is an up-to-date unanswered question whether the increase of troponin represents myocardial damage or just is a benign consequence of an intermittent change of the permeability of myocardial cell membranes.

  • 3.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schreyer, Hendrik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-9, article id e0179324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.

    METHODS: A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3).

    RESULTS: Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.

    CONCLUSION: Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.

  • 4.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Effekterna av djupa explosiva knäböjningar på löpekonomin hos långdistanslöpare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows a positive link between strength training and running economics. In the present study, the effect of deep power squats on the running economics of long distance runners was investigated. The study included eleven participants, six were in the intervention group and five in the control group. The strength training would be time efficient, max 20 min and then only one exercise. We chose the basic exercise squats with the barbell behind the neck. The majority of all squats exercises during a period eight week with a load of 60% of 1RM 2-6 reps in 2-6 sets and then focused high speed in both the eccentric and concentric phase and about 1 min rest between the sets. At the end of the training period, we could see a significant improvement in maximal 1RM and maximum Power. All participants in the intervention group received a positive increase in strength, with an average of 14.5%. The study also shows a tendency for improved running economics in the intervention group.

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