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  • 1. Amman, B.
    et al.
    Birks, H.J.B.
    Brooks, S.J.
    Eicher, U.
    von Grafenstein, U.
    Hofmann, W.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Schwander, J.
    Tobolski, K.
    Wick, L.
    Quantification of biotic responses to rapid climatic changes around the Younger Dryas – a synthesis.2000In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 159, no 3-4, p. 313-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the presence or absence of lags in biotic responses to rapid climatic changes, we: (1) assume that the delta(18)O in biogenically precipitated carbonates record global or hemispheric climatic change at the beginning and at the end of the Younger Dryas without any lag at our two study sites of Gerzensee and Leysin, Switzerland; (2) derive a time scale by correlating the delta(18)O record from these two sites with the delta(18)O record of the GRIP ice core; (3) measure delta(18)O records in ostracods and molluscs to check the record in the bulk samples and to detect possible hydrological changes; (4) analyse at Gerzensee and Leysin as well as at two additional sites (that lack carbonates and hence a delta(18)O record) pollen, plant macrofossils, chironomids, beetles and other insects, and Cladocera; (5) estimate our sampling resolution using the GRIP time scale for the isotope stratigraphies and the biostratigraphies; and (6) summarise the major patterns of compositional change in the biostratigraphies by principal component analysis or correspondence analysis. We conclude that, at the major climatic shifts at the beginning and end of the Younger Dryas, hardly any biotic lags occur (within the sampling resolution of 8-30 years) and that upland vegetation responded as fast as aquatic invertebrates. We suggest that the minor climatic changes associated with the Gerzensee and Preboreal oscillations were weakly recorded in the biostratigraphies at the lowland site, but were more distinct at higher altitudes. Individualistic responses of plant and animal species to climatic change may reflect processes in individuals (e.g. productivity and phenology), in populations (e.g. population dynamics), in spatial distributions (e.g. migrations), and in ecosystems (e.g. trophic state). We suggest that biotic responses may be telescoped together into relatively short periods (50 to 150 years), perhaps disrupting functional interactions among species and thus destabilising ecosystems.

  • 2. Behre, K E
    et al.
    Holzer, A
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Botanical macro-remains and insects from the Eemian and Weichselian site of Oerel (northwest Germany) and their evidence for the history of climate2005In: Vegetation history and archaeobotany, Vol. 14 (1), p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bennike, Ole
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Colgan, William
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heiri, Oliver
    Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wiberg-Larsen, Peter
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Ribeiro, Sofia
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Pronzato, Roberto
    Univ Genoa, Italy.
    Manconi, Renata
    Univ Sassari, Italy.
    Bjork, Anders A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An Early Pleistocene interglacial deposit at Pingorsuit, North-West Greenland2023In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 27-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Pingorsuit Glacier in North-West Greenland, an organic-rich deposit that had recently emerged from the retreating ice cap was discovered at an elevation of 480 m above sea level. This paper reports on macrofossil analyses of a coarse detritus gyttja and peaty soil, which occurred beneath a thin cover of till and glacifluvial deposits. The sediments contained remains of vascular plants, mosses, beetles, caddisflies, midges, bryozoans, sponges and other invertebrates. The flora includes black spruce, tree birch, boreal shrubs and wetland and aquatic taxa, which shows that mires, lakes and ponds were present in the area. We describe a new extinct waterwort species Elatine odgaardii. The fossils were deposited in a boreal environment with a mean July air temperature that was at least 9 degrees C higher than at present. The fossil assemblages show strong similarities with others from Greenland that have been assigned an Early Pleistocene age, and we suggest a similar age for the sediments found at the margin of the Pingorsuit Glacier. At the Pingorsuit Glacier in North-West Greenland, an organic-rich deposit was discovered at an elevation of 480 m above sea level. The sediments contained remains of vascular plants, mosses, beetles, caddisflies, midges, bryozoans, sponges and other invertebrates. The fossils were deposited in a boreal environment with a mean July air temperature that was at least 9 degrees C higher than at present.

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  • 4.
    Bennike, Ole
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Hedenas, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wiberg-Larsen, Peter
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    A multiproxy macrofossil record of Eemian palaeoenvironments from Klaksvik, the Faroe Islands2018In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of interglacial successions are critical to our understanding of the environmental history of an area. Analyses of macrofossil remains of plants and invertebrates from Eemian sediments exposed in a coastal cliff section at Borooyarvik near Klaksvik, Bordoy, northeastern Faroe Islands, indicate that the sediments accumulated in a coastal lagoon. The fossil flora comprises tree birch Betula sect. Albae and we suggest that birch forests were found locally at sheltered sites in the area. Tree birch also occurred on the islands during the mid-Holocene. The only other woody plant recovered from the Eemian deposit is the dwarf-shrub Empetrum nigrum, which is common on the islands today. Remains of herbaceous plants are rare but include Viola, Ajuga, Myosotis, Urtica dioica and Ranunculus. The bryophyte flora is species-rich and most of the fragments belong either to stream species or to species of humid or wet habitats. The fossil flora and fauna also comprise a number of freshwater species that probably lived in an oligotrophic lake and in streams in the catchment of the lagoon. The climate during deposition of the lagoonal sediments was similar to the Holocene oceanic climate of the Faroe Islands. The study adds to our understanding of Eemian environments in the North Atlantic region and helps to fill a knowledge gap about the history of the flora and fauna of the Faroe Islands, which is of biogeographical importance.

  • 5.
    Bennike, Ole
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Denmark.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    High, Kirsty
    Univ York, UK.
    Korshoj, Joakim S.
    GEO, Denmark.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Penkman, Kirsty
    Univ York, UK.
    Preece, Richard C.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Rosenlund, Knud
    Zool Museum, Denmark.
    Viehberg, Finn A.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    New interglacial deposits from Copenhagen, Denmark: marine Isotope Stage 72019In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a pre-site survey and construction of a new metro route and station in Copenhagen, fossiliferous organic-rich sediments were encountered. This paper reports on multidisciplinary investigations of these organic sediments, which occurred beneath a sediment succession with a lower till, glacifluvial sand and gravel, an upper till and glacifluvial sand. The organic sediments were underlain by glacifluvial sand and gravel. The organic-rich sediments, which were up to 0.5 m thick, accumulated in a low-energy environment, possibly an oxbow lake. They were rich in plant fossils, which included warmth-demanding trees and other species, such as Najas minor, indicating slightly higher summer temperatures than at present. Freshwater shells were also frequent. Bithynia opercula allowed the sediments to be put into an aminostratigraphical framework. The amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios indicate that the organic sediments formed during Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7), which is consistent with optically stimulated luminescence dating that gave ages of 206 and 248 ka from the underlying minerogenic deposit. The assemblages from Trianglen are similar to interglacial deposits from the former Free Port (1.4 km away) in Copenhagen, except that Corbicula and Pisidium clessini were not found at Trianglen. The presence of these bivalves at the Free Port and the ostracod Scottia tumida at Trianglen indicates a pre-Eemian age. AAR data from archived Bithynia opercula from the Free Port were almost identical to those from Trianglen, indicating that the two sites are contemporary. We suggest the Trianglen interglacial be used as a local name for the MIS 7 interglacial deposits in Copenhagen. MIS 7 deposits have rarely been documented from the region, but MIS 7 deposits may have been mistaken for other ages. The use of AAR ratios in Bithynia opercula has a great potential for correlation of interglacial non-marine deposits in mainland northern Europe.

  • 6. Berglund, B.E.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liedberg-Jönsson, B.
    Persson, T.
    Biotic responce to climatic changes during the time span 13 000 - 10 000 BP. - A case study from SW Sweden.1984In: Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis / [ed] A. Mörner and W. Karlén, D. Reidel Publishing Group, 1984, p. 25-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berglund, Björn E.
    et al.
    Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Tornavägen 13, S-223 63 Lund, Sweden.
    Björck, Svante
    Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Tornavägen 13, S-223 63 Lund, Sweden.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Tornavägen 13, S-223 63 Lund, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Helena
    Department of Oceanography, University of Göteborg, P.O. Boc 4038, S-400 40 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Department of Oceanography, University of Göteborg, P.O. Boc 4038, S-400 40 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kolstrup, Else
    Mosevej 12, Blans, DK-6400 Sønderborg, Denmark.
    Late Weichselian environmental change in southern Sweden and Denmark1994In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A synthesis is presented of the envronmental and climatic variations that are inferred to have occurred in southern Sweden (up to latitude 59°N) and Denmark during the Weichselian Late-glacial (14-9 ka BP). The chronology and characteristics of the main phases of deglaciation, sea-level change, periglacial activity, soil development, vegetation cover and climate change are summarised. A curve representing the main changes in temperature, including quantitative estimates based upon beetle data and using the ‘mutual climatic range’ method, is presented.

  • 8. Birks, H.H.
    et al.
    Battarbee, R.W.
    Beerling, D.J.
    Birks, H.J.B.
    Brooks, S.J.
    Duigan, C.A.
    Gulliksen, S.
    Haflidason, H.
    Hauge, F.
    Jones, V.J.
    Jonsgard, B.
    Kårevik, M.
    Larsen, E.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Løvlie, R.
    Mangerud, J.
    Peglar, S.M.
    Possnert, G.
    Smol, J.P.
    Solem, J.O.
    Solhøj, I.
    Solhøj, T.
    Sønstergaard, E.
    Wright, H.E.
    The Kråkenes Late-glacial Palaeoenvironmental Project.1996In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Krakenes is the site of a small lake on the west coast of Norway that contains a long sequence of late-glacial sediments. The Younger Dryas is well represented, as a cirque glacier developed in the catchment at this time. This site offers unique opportunities to reconstruct late-glacial environments from independent sources of evidence; physical evidence (glacial geomorphology, sedimentology, palaeomagnetism, radiocarbon dating), and biological evidence from the remains of animals and plants derived from both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This report describes the background to the site, and the international multidisciplinary project to reconstruct late-glacial and early Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Krakenes.

  • 9. Birks, H.H.
    et al.
    Battarbee, R.W.
    Birks, H.J.B.
    Bradshaw, E.G.
    Brooks, S.J.
    Duigan, C.A.
    Jones, V.J.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peglar, S.M.
    Solem, J.O.
    Solhøy, I.W.
    Solhøy, T.
    Stalsberg, M.K.
    The development of the aquatic ecosytem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late glacial and early Holocene - a synthesis.2000In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 91-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper synthesises the palaeoecological reconstructions, including palaeoclimatic inferences, based on the available fossil record of plants (pollen, macrofossils, mosses, diatoms) and animals (chironomids, Cladocera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, oribatid mites) in the late-glacial and early-Holocene sediments of Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, with special emphasis on changes in the aquatic ecosystem. New percentage and influx pollen diagrams for selected taxa provide insights into the terrestrial setting. The information from all the proxies is collated in a stratigraphical chart, and the inferred changes in the lake and its catchment are discussed. The individual fossil sequences are summarised by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and sample scores on the first DCA axes are plotted against an estimated calendar-year timescale for comparison of the timing and magnitude of changes in assemblage composition. The DCA plots show that the large late-glacial biotic changes were synchronous, and were driven by the overriding forcing factor of temperature. During the early Holocene, however, the changes in different groups were more gradual and were independent of each other, showing that other factors were important and interactive, such as the inwash of dissolved and particulate material from the catchment, the base and nutrient status of the lake-water, and the internal processes of ecosystem succession and sediment accumulation. This multi-disciplinary study, with proxies for changes in the lake and in the catchment, highlights the dependence of lake biota and processes not only on regional climatic changes but also on changes in the lake catchment and on internal processes within the lake. Rates of change for each group are also estimated and compared. The reaction times to the sharp temperature changes at the start and end of the Younger Dryas were very rapid and occurred within a decade of the temperature change. Aquatic organisms tracked the temperature and environmental changes very closely, and are probably the best recorders of late-glacial climatic change in the fossil record.

  • 10. Birks, H.H.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Svendsen, J.I.
    Landvik, J.Y.
    Palaeoecology of a late-Alleröd peat bed at Godoy, western Norway.1993In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 8, p. 147-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Björck, S.
    et al.
    Kromer, B.
    Johnsen, S.
    Bennike, O.
    Hammarlund, D.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Possnert, G.
    Rasmussen, T.L.
    Wohlfarth, B.
    Hammer, C.U.
    Spurk, M.
    Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic.1996In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 274, no 5290, p. 1155-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of synchronization of three carbon-14 (C-14)-dated lacustrine sequences from Sweden With tree ring and ice core records, the absolute age of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal climatic shift was determined to be 11,450 to 11,390 +/- 80 years before the present. A 150-year-long cooling in the early Preboreal, associated with rising Delta(14)C values, is evident in all records and indicates an ocean ventilation change. This cooling is similar to earlier deglacial coolings, and box-model calculations suggest that they all may have been the result of increased freshwater forcing that inhibited the strength of the North Atlantic heat conveyor, although the Younger Dryas may have begun as an anomalous meltwater event.

  • 12. Björck, S.
    et al.
    Walker, M.J.C.
    Cwynar, L.C.
    Johnsen, S.
    Knudsen, K.-L.
    Lowe, J.J.
    Wohlfarth, B.
    INTIMATE Members (incl. Lemdahl, Geoffrey.),
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland Ice-core record: a proposal by the INTIMATE group.1998In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is suggested that the GRIP Greenland ice-core should constitute the stratotype for the Last Termination. Based on the oxygen isotope signal in that core, a new event stratigraphy spanning the time interval from ca. 22.0 to 11.5 k GRIP yr BP (ca. 19.0-10.0 k C-14 yr BP) is proposed for the North Atlantic region. This covers the period from the Last Glacial Maximum, through Termination 1 of the deep-ocean record, to the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, and encompasses the Last Glacial Late-glacial of the traditional northwest European stratigraphy. The isotopic record for this period is divided into two stadial episodes, Greenland Stadials 1 (GS-1) and 2 (GS-2), and two interstadial events, Greenland Interstadials 1 (GI-1) and 2 (GI-2). In addition, GI-1 and GS-2 are further subdivided into shorter episodes. The event stratigraphy is equally applicable to ice-core, marine and terrestrial records and is considered to be a more appropriate classificatory scheme than the terrestrially based radiocarbon-dated chronostratigraphy that has been used hitherto.

  • 13. Bondestam, K.
    et al.
    Vasari, A.
    Vasari, Y.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eskonen, K.
    Younger Dryas and Preboreal in Salpausselkä foreland, Finnish Karelia.1994In: Dissertationes Botanicae, ISSN 0070-6728, Vol. 234, p. 161-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Borzenkova, Irena
    et al.
    Zorita, Eduardo
    Borisova, Olga
    Kalnina, Laimdota
    Kisieliene, Dalia
    Koff, Tiiu
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Kuznetsov, Denis
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Sapelko, Tatyana
    Stancikaite, Migle
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Subetto, Dimitry
    Climate Change During the Holocene (Past 12,000 Years)2015In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] The BACC II Author team, Springer, 2015, p. 25-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarises the climatic and environmental information that can be inferred from proxy archives over the past 12,000 years. The proxy archives from continental and lake sediments include pollen, insect remnants and isotopic data. Over the Holocene, the Baltic Sea area underwent major changes due to two interrelated factors—melting of the Fennoscandian ice sheet (causing interplay between global sea-level rise due to the meltwater and regional isostatic rebound of the earth’s crust causing a drop in relative sea level ) and changes in the orbital configuration of the Earth (triggering the glacial to interglacial transition and affecting incoming solar radiation and so controlling the regional energy balance). The Holocene climate history showed three stages of natural climate oscillations in the Baltic Sea region: short-term cold episodes related to deglaciation during a stable positive temperature trend (11,000–8000 cal year BP); a warm and stable climate with air temperature 1.0–3.5 °C above modern levels (8000–4500 cal year BP), a decreasing temperature trend; and increased climatic instability (last 5000–4500 years). The climatic variation during the Lateglacial and Holocene is reflected in the changing lake levels and vegetation , and in the formation of a complex hydrographical network that set the stage for the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age of the past millennium.

  • 15. Coope, G.R.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Regional differences in the Lateglacial climate of northern Europe based on coleopteran analysis.1995In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 391-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The termination of the Last Glaciation, the Lateglacial period, was characterised by highly unstable climates which, in northern Europe, oscillated between warm temperate and arctic conditions. Different indicators of past climate have provided contrasting views an the timing and intensity of these climatic changes. Here we present preliminary reconstructions of the thermal climate interpreted from subfossil coleopteran assemblages from Britain, Norway, Sweden and Poland, in which regional differences can be ascribed to the varying influence of, (a) the North Atlantic surface water temperatures, (b) the proximity of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and (c) the ice free continent. Quantification of the thermal climate enables these local differences to be resolved.

  • 16. Coope, G.R.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Validations for the use of beetle remains as reliable indicators of Quaternary climates: a reply to the criticisms by Johan Andersen.1996In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 115-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Coope, G.R.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lowe, J.J.
    Walkling, A.
    Temperature gradients in northern Europe during the last glacial-Holocene transition (14-9 14C kyr BP) interpreted from coleopteran assemblages.1998In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 419-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late-glacial and early Holocene climatic conditions have been reconstructed for northern Europe using the mutual climatic range (MCR) palaeoclimate method based on fossil coleopteran assemblages. Altogether, beetle faunas from 77 sites have been analysed ranging from Ireland in the west to Poland and Finland in the east, and MCR estimates calculated. The results are plotted on 16 maps, each representative of a selected time-slice covering the period from 14.5 C-14 kyr BP to 9.0 C-14 kyr BP. Eight of the maps show the MCR estimates of T-max (mean temperature of the warmest month) derived from each site for which data are available, while the remainder show estimated T-max isotherms interpolated from these values. It can be demonstrated that at times the thermal climate was fairly uniform throughout the study area, whereas at others temperature gradients were much steeper than they are in the region today. There also appears to be a distinct contrast between cold periods, when contours trended NW-SE, and warmer periods, when contours trend W-E or even NE-SW. The pattern of climatic changes that emerges is shown to be very different from the traditional view that has been used up to now as a template for classifying Late-glacial climatic events on a wide, even global, scale. The suddenness and intensity of changes in the thermal climate may have been partially responsible for an apparent lack of equilibrium between the flora and fauna of the time and the physical environment in which they lived.

  • 18.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Holocene local forest history at two sites in Småland, southern Sweden: Insights from quantitative reconstruction using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stenberg, Li
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Zernova, Ganna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity2014In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3555-3570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles).

  • 20.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University.
    Greisman, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jacobson, George
    The University of Malne.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University.
    The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1747-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a quantitative reconstruction of local forest history at two sites, Stavsåkra (hemiboreal zone) and Storasjö (southern boreal zone), in southern Sweden (province of Småland) to evaluate possible causes of contrasting Holocene fire histories in mid- and late Holocene. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to evaluate between-site differences in the relative abundance of deciduous trees and Pinus (pine) and landscape/woodland openness during the Holocene. The LRA estimates of local vegetation abundance are compared with other proxies of local vegetation, that is, plant and beetle remains. The LRA results suggest that Pinus was a major tree taxon in the woodlands of Storasjö during mid- and late Holocene, while Tilia(linden) and Betula (birch) were dominant at Stavsåkra. The contrasting fire histories are shown to be strongly related to between-site differences in tree composition during mid-Holocene, 4000–2000 BC in particular. The archaeological/historical and beetle data indicate contrasting land uses from c. 1000BC (late Bronze Age/early Iron Age), grazing in open Calluna heaths at Stavsåkra and woodland grazing at Storasjö. Between-site differences in fire historyduring late Holocene were likely due to different land-use practices. Between-site differences in tree composition in mid-Holocene are best explainedby local climatic and geological/geomorphological differences between the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of Småland, which might also be the primary cause of between-site differences in land-use histories during late Holocene. Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape scale in the studyarea requires that existing old pine woodlands and Calluna heath are managed with fire and cattle grazing. Further climate warming might lead to higherprobabilities of climate-induces fire, in particular in pine-dominated woodlands.

  • 21.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Greisman, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Zernova, Ganna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A case study of the role of climate, humans, and ecological setting in Holocene fire history of northwestern Europe2015In: Science China. Earth Sciences, ISSN 1674-7313, E-ISSN 1869-1897, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the major results from studies of fire history over the last 11000 years (Holocene) in southern Sweden, on the basis of palaeoecological analyses of peat sequences from three small peat bogs. The main objective is to emphasize the value of multiple, continuous sedimentary records of macroscopic charcoal (macro-C) for the reconstruction of local to regional past changes in fire regimes, the importance of multi-proxy studies, and the advantage of model-based estimates of plant cover from pollen data to assess the role of tree composition and human impact in fire history. The chronologies at the three study sites are based on a large number of C-14 dates from terrestrial plant remains and age-depth models are achieved using Bayesian statistics. Fire history is inferred from continuous records of macro-C and microscopic charcoal counts on pollen slides. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of local vegetation cover is applied on the three pollen records for plant cover reconstruction over the entire Holocene. The results are as follows: (1) the long-term trends in fire regimes are similar between sites, i.e., frequent fires during the early Holocene until ca. 9 ka BP, low fire frequency during the mid-Holocene, and higher fire frequency from ca. 2.5 ka BP; (2) this broad trend agrees with the overall fire history of northwestern and western Europe north of the Mediterranean area, and is due to climate forcing in the early and mid-Holocene, and to anthropogenic land-use in the late Holocene; (3) the LRA estimates of plant cover at the three sites demonstrate that the relative abundance of pine played a primordial role in the early and mid-Holocene fire history; and (4) the between-site differences in the charcoal records and inferred fire history are due to local factors (i.e., relative abundance of pine, geomorphological setting, and anthropogenic land-use) and taphonomy of charcoal deposition in the small peat bogs. It is shown that continuous macro-C records are most useful to disentangle local from regional-subcontinental fire history, and climate-induced from human-induced fire regimes, and that pollen-based LRA estimates of local plant cover are more adequate than pollen percentages for the assessment of the role of plant composition on fire history.

  • 22.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Chinese Acad Sci, China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vanniere, Boris
    Univ Franche Comte, France.
    Colombaroli, Daniele
    Royal Holloway Univ London RHUL, UK.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Benito, Blas
    Univ Alicante, Spain.
    Zhao, Yan
    Chinese Acad Sci, China.
    Evaluating fossil charcoal representation in small peat bogs: Detailed Holocene fire records from southern Sweden2020In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1540-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assess how representative a single charcoal record from a peat profile in small bogs (1.5-2 ha in area) is for the reconstruction of Holocene fire history. We use high-resolution macrocharcoal (>250 mu m) analysis of continuous series of 2 cm(3)samples from two small bogs in southern Sweden. We compare (1) duplicate charcoal records from the same core, (2) duplicate charcoal records from profiles in the same site (10 m apart), and (3) charcoal records from two sites within the same region (15 km apart). Comparisons are made for charcoal counts and area expressed as accumulation rates. The results suggest that (a) charcoal counts and area are highly correlated in all records; (b) duplicate charcoal records within the same core are very similar, although some charcoal peaks are found in only one of the two records; (c) although long-term trends in fire regimes are similar between duplicate charcoal records from nearby profiles within the same site and between charcoal records from sites within the same region, some individual charcoal peaks/fire events are asynchronous between records. The known historical fires of the town of Vaxjo (1570 and 1612 CE) are recorded at the two study sites, which indicates a macrocharcoal source area of minimum 15 km in diameter. The 2 cm(3)peat samples contained relatively low amounts of macrocharcoal; we therefore recommend to analyse larger samples from small peat bogs with comparable peat accumulation rates. This will improve the reliability of the macrocharcoal record and its interpretation.

  • 23.
    Dendievel, Andre-Marie
    et al.
    Univ Lyon, France;Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Argant, Jacqueline
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Dietre, Benjamin
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Delrieu, Fabien
    DRAC, France.
    Jouannic, Gwenole
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, France.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mennessier-Jouannet, Christine
    Ecole Normale Super, France.
    Mille, Pierre
    Univ Lyon, France;INRAP Rhone Alpes Auvergne, France.
    Haas, Jean Nicolas
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Cubizolle, Herve
    Univ Lyon, France.
    Multi-proxy study of the Pialeloup Bog (SE Massif Central, France) reveals long-term human environmental changes affecting peat ecosystems during the Holocene2022In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 636, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reconstruct local environmental changes affecting wetlands in middle mountain ranges, this study presents a multi-proxy analysis of the Pialeloup peat record on the Beage Plateau (South-Eastern Massif Central, France). It combines macrofossil, beetle, palynological, and geochemical data. The results are compared with other palaeoecological studies and archaeological data from the Massif Central, Jura Mountains and Alpine regions to discuss the links between local environmental changes and socio-economical dynamics at larger scales. Based on this approach, early environmental changes were highlighted between 6500 and 4800 BC, most certainly due to animal trampling on the Pialeloup bog. These events seem synchronous with human presence from the Late Mesolithic to Early Neolithic. It suggested that wild animals and human/livestock might have frequented the Beage Plateau wetlands. Then, long-term landscape management was documented for the last 3000 years. Local palaeoecological insights (synanthropic plants, beech-forest clearings, increasing erosion) and archaeological evidence for human settlements (pottery, millstones, and anthropogenic soils) were revealed to start during the Iron Age (400-200 BC). From the Late Iron Age to the Early Medieval period (150 BC-AD 725), human activities combined livestock pasture and local cereal cultivation (such as rye, Secale cereale, as a winter crop). This long-term management produced an open landscape where only small beech/fir woods persisted (Fagus sylvatica/Abies alba). This step was essential for the further development of extensive livestock grazing since the Medieval period in this region.

  • 24.
    Fägerström, C.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Buckland, P. I.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karsten, P.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lagerås, P.
    National Historical Museums, Sweden.
    Manhag, A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Insects and other invertebrate remains from the coffin of a 17th century bishop in Lund Minster, S Sweden2020In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, Vol. 31, article id 102299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extraordinarily diverse and well-preserved material, including the remains of 47 insect taxa and 12 taxa of other invertebrates, extracted from the 17th century burial of Bishop Peder Winstrup in Lund Minster, is presented and discussed in terms of the treatment of the body, activities connected with the burial and faunal significance. The invertebrate assemblages include species from gardens, insects feeding on living plants as well as dried or decaying plant matter. Many of the species are regarded as closely associated with humans (synanthropic), and a number of these are associated with outbuildings, such as stables and cellars. The absence of species associated with cadavers (necrophilous taxa) in the studied insect material is significant. The most plausible explanation is that the bishop died, and was buried during the winter, when such species are inactive, and thus precluded from colonising the body. A number of species were recorded which are today rare or very rare in southern Sweden. This is a strong indication that they once were more common and widespread, perhaps due to a greater prevalence of their preferred habitats. Sweden's earliest fossil bedbug is also amongst the finds.

  • 25. Gabus, J-H.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Weidmann, M.
    Sur l'âge des terrasses lémaniques au SW de Lausanne1987In: Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des sciences naturelles, Vol. 293, p. 419-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Coope, G.R.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, S.
    Summary of Working Group B deliberations: Ecosystem dynamics under changing climate – some illustrative cases from the past.2004In: The ESS Bulletin: Special Issue: Climate risk and vulnerability: vol 2, iss. 2 / [ed] Eva Lövbrand och Bo L.B. Wiman, 2004, p. 89-93Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Göransson, H.
    Håkansson, H.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The palaeoenvironment at Järavallen-Skateholm (South Sweden) during Atlantic and Early Subboreal time on basis of pollen-, macrofossil-, diatom- and insect- analyses.1988In:  The Skateholm Project. 1. Man and environment: interdisciplinary studies / [ed] Larsson, Lars, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1988, Vol. LXXIX, p. 52-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Göransson, H
    Håkansson, H
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The Palaeoenvironment at Skateholm-Järavallen (Southern Sweden) During Atlantic and Subboreal Time on the Basis of Pollen-, Macrofossil-, Diatom- and Insect-Analyses1988Other (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Early Holocene coastal environments and climate in southeast Sweden: a reconstruction based on macrofossils from submarine deposits1994In: The Holocene, Vol. 4, p. 53-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Environmental and climatic changes at the transition Lateglacial/Holocene in South Sweden based on pollen-, plant macrofossil-, and insect analyses: the example of Ängdala, southern Scania1993In: Palynonytt, Vol. 22, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lateglacial insect assemblages from Grand-Marais, southwestern Switzerland - climatic implications and comparison with pollen and plant macrofossil data1994In: Dissertationes botanicae, Vol. 234, p. 287-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Plant macrofossil analysis  - a lagoonal landscape during Atlantic and Early Subboreal time.1988In: The Skateholm project. 1. Man and environment : interdisciplinary studies / [ed] Larsson, Lars, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1988, Vol. LXXIX, p. 34-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Plant-Macrofossil Analysis (Seeds and Fruits) at Skateholm-Järavallen, Southern Sweden. A Lagoonal Landscape During Atlantic and Early Subboreal Time1988In: The Skateholm project. 1, Man and environment: interdisciplinary studies, Acta Regiae Societatis Humanorium Litterarum Lundensis LXXIX , 1988, p. 34-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    University of Plymouth, UK.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre.
    Sugita, Shinya
    University of Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    From land cover-climate relationships at the subcontinental scale to land cover-environment relationships at the regional and local spatial scale – the contribution of pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm approach2014In: Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past: Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions University of Leuven, Belgium 3-7 February 2014, 2014, p. 25-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (Sugita 2007a,b) includes two models, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) that estimates vegetation abundance (% cover) within an area of ca. 100 km x 100 km, and LOVE (LOcal Vegetation Estimates) that estimates vegetation abundance at the local spatial scale, i.e. within the Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP sensu Sugita, 2004) that is the smallest area around the study site for which the reconstruction is valid. The RSAP is estimated by the LOVE model and varies between sites and vegetation settings; so far, it was estimated to vary between < 1 - < 10 km in most ecological settings of the Holocene in NW Europe. We used the REVEALS model and over 600 pollen records from pollen data bases and individual researchers to reconstruct land-cover in NW Europe N of the Alps for key time windows of the Holocene in order to assess model-based reconstructions of anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) (e.g. Kaplan et al., 2009) and model (LPJ-GUESS) simulations of past potential (climate-induced vegetation), and to study past land cover – climate interactions using a regional climate model (RCA3). We used the REVEALS model and the complete LRA approach (REVEALS + LOVE models) along with two pollen records from large lakes and three pollen records from small bogs to reconstruct the local-scale land-cover in central Småland, southern Sweden, to study the relationship between vegetation composition, fire, climate and human impact at the regional and local spatial scales with the objective to discuss biodiversity issues. Our results suggest that i) past subcontinental to regional ALCC did influence regional climate through biogeophysical processes at the landatmosphere interface (Strandberg et al., submitted), and ii) local land-cover change, both natural and anthropogenic, govern environmental changes such as fire and biodiversity (Cui et al., 2013; Cui et al., submitted).

  • 35. Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Cui, Qiao-Yu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The potential of pollen-based quantitative vegetation reconstructions in studies of past human settlements and use of resources – examples from Europe2015In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a long tradition of collaboration between palaeoecologists and archaeologists in many parts of the world with the purpose of reconstructing the environment of humans through time and the study of the interactions between humans and their environment. Vegetation (i.e. vegetated landscapes and plants) has long been one of the most important parts of the environment for humans’ resources. Thanks to the interpretation of palaeoecological data such as pollen and plant macrofossils, it is well known that humans have used plants for their subsistence and formed many landscapes of the Earth through their activities over many millennia. Pollen analysis in particular has been used to reconstruct the landscapes of humans in order i) to learn something on their use of the landscape for building material, grazing and food (e.g. woods, grazed land, cultivated fields), and ii) to understand their influence on the landscape through deforestation in particular. Pollen data as proxy records of vegetation have been very useful to provide qualitative descriptions of cultural landscapes through time in terms of the presence of major tree, shrub and herb species, and the character of the landscape, wooded, “half-wooded” (or partly wooded), and primarily open (poorly wooded) (1). Efforts to calibrate pollen onto land-use in the 1990ies has made possible to provide more precise and detailed interpretation of pollen records in terms of land-use type (2). However, when it came to questions related to the size of cultivated land or grazed land in relation to wooded land, interpretation of pollen records has been problematic until recently. The non-linear relationship between pollen and vegetation due to inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and pollen dispersion and deposition characteristics of plant taxa has long hampered estimation of the percentage cover of plant taxa or landscape units in the past. Thanks torecent developments in pollen-vegetation modelling, a new approach - the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) (3, 4) - makes it possible to estimate the cover of plant taxa or landscape units at both regional and local spatial scales using pollen records. The LRA has been tested and applied in various types of studies in Europe in particular. Examples from Europe and Scandinavia show that pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover, in combination with other palaeoecological records such as insect and plant macroremains, show the great potential of such studies to provide new insights on the use of landscapes and vegetation by humans in the past and its environmental consequences at both regional and local spatial scales (5, 6). These results provide a new environmental framework for the discussion and testing of hypotheses based on archaeological data.

  • 36.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, Annica
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hellman, Sofie
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    van Geel, B
    Late Holocene climate change in southern Sweden: Do land-cover changes during the last 3000 calendar years matter?2005In: Extended abstract, HOLIVAR Workshop, University of Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, Annica
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Skoglund, Peter
    The role of climate, human impact and fire on forestdynamics, landscape development and biodiversity during the last 10,500 calendar years in southern Sweden: a synthesis ofthe multiproxy study of Stavsåkra bogManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the contribution of a multi-proxy approach to the study of long-term forest dynamics and biodiversity (at the species to landscape levels), using the records from a palaeoecological investigation at Stavsåkra, province of Småland, southern Sweden. The results from all the proxies, i.e. beetles, pollen, plant macrofossils, charred plant remains, andmicroscopical and macroscopical charcoal, are compared. The study of all charred material has the advantage of providing valuable information on the local plants that burnt (charred plant remains) and a more robust reconstruction of the local fire history and its regional representativeness. The plant macrofossil analysis allows specifying the origin of pollen from plants that may grow either on the coring site (fen or bog) or in the surrounding vegetation on dry land. This is particularly crucial for the interpretation of pollen types such as Gramineae, Cyperaceae, and Ericaceae (Calluna, Empetrum and Vaccinium species). The origin of Calluna pollen (bog, forest floor or open heaths) is often difficult to establish with certainty. In this study, the total absence of Calluna remains in the plant macrofossil record, and theoccurrence of beetle species dependant on Calluna heath ecosystems from the Late Neolithic (ca. 2000 BC) suggest that Calluna pollen originated from the surrounding vegetation, probably from the under-storey of the pine forests in early Holocene, and from the Calluna heaths during late Holocene. The beetle record further strengthens the inferred fire history by providing findings of species dependant on fire and, therefore, confirms the existence ofrelatively large burnt areas. Moreover, the insect analysis provides information on vegetation characteristics that cannot be inferred from pollen and plant macrofossil with certainty - or cannot be inferred at all - such as the forest structure in terms of openness, sun exposure, occurrence of dead wood and old trees. The results at Stavsåkra demonstrate that disturbances such as fire, forest clearance, and grazing can have both positive and negative impacts onbiodiversity, depending on the character and intensity of the disturbance in both time and space, and on the type of biota concerned, in this case plants and beetles.

  • 38.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, Annica
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wäglind, J.
    The role of fire and other disturbances in the Holocene forest dynamics and ecosystem diversity of southern Sweden – the combined effect of human impact and climate change2007In: Quaternary International 131, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mazier, F.
    The Holocene history of shallow lakes of the Great Alvar, Öland, Baltic Sea, southern Sweden.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40. Gedda, B
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lateglacial and Early Holocene environments inferred from a tufa deposit at Fyledalen, S. Sweden1999In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 121, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reinvestigation of a tufa deposit in Skane, including a number of biostratigraphical methods and chronology was carried out. The tufa was formed in a paludal environment during the time period c. 9,500 to 8,000 BP. This period is characterised by exceptional low lake levels and high summer temperatures in southern Sweden. This may suggest that optimal conditions for tufa formation at the site coincided with warm and dry climate conditions, a low groundwater table, and high evaporation. During periods with colder conditions and/or higher groundwater table pear was deposited. The changes in the local environment at and around the site were inferred from the biostratigraphical records of pollen, plant macrofossils, molluscs, and insects. The results demonstrate a development from a dwarf shrub tundra during the Late-glacial, which turned to an open birch/pine woodland around 10,000 BP. Atc. 9,000 BP hazel and birch were probably the dominant tree species in the woodland. The mollusc record suggests that the woodland remained relatively open until c. 8,500 BP when tree taxa such as alder, oak and elm became established in the Fyledalen valley. The site remained a marsh throughout the studied period, however, the results indicate a succession of different marsh plant communities.

  • 41.
    Gustavsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Abrupt forest ecosystem change in SW Sweden during the late Holocene2009In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 691-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A peat profile from a small raised bog, situated in Sweden was studied for insect, pollen and charcoal analyses in order to reconstruct the late-Holocene forest history of the area. The palaeoecological records cover the last 3700 cal. years. The results were compared with archaeological data, historical documents and palaeoclimate reconstructions from the region. From 1650 cal. yr BC to AD 1310 cal. yr, the study area was characterized by deciduous woodland with a diverse invertebrate fauna. The recorded insects indicate a relatively open or mosaic forest environment with abundance of dead wood. This forest environment was probably maintained by disturbances such as cattle grazing, fire, wood coppicing and small-scale cultivation. At around AD 1310, a major and rapid change in the forest ecosystem occurred, ie, species-rich deciduous woodland was replaced by a species-poor beech forest. The data indicate that a change in land use was the likely reason for the shift in forest type. Grazing and fire ceased, while tree cutting increased. The shift in land use correlates well with political-societal changes in the region during Mediaeval time. Climate changes seem to have influenced the wetland environment, but there is no obvious correlation between major or minor shifts in forest ecosystem and reconstructed climate changes. Today, nature conservationists regard the beech forests of Halland as remains of primeval forests hosting a unique flora and fauna. Our results give new insights and challenge that view.

  • 42. Hadorn, P.
    et al.
    Thew, N.
    Coope, G.R.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hajdas, I.
    Late-Glacial and Early Holocene environment and climate history of the Neuchâtel region, Switzerland.2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43. Hadorn, P.
    et al.
    Thew, N.
    Russell Coope, G.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hajdas, I.
    Bonani, G.
    A Late-Glacial and Early Holocene environment and climate history for the Neuchâtel region (CH)2002In: Équilibres et ruptures dans les ecosystemes depuis 20 000 ans en Europe de l’Ouest / [ed] Richard, H. & Vignot, A., Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2002, Vol. 3, p. 75-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44. Hajdas, I.
    et al.
    Bonani, G.
    Hadorn, P.
    Thew, N.
    Coope, G.R.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Radiocarbon and absolute chronology of the Late-Glacial record from Hauterive/Rouges-Terres, Lake Neuchdtel (CH)2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 223, p. 308-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiocarbon ages of 87 samples made up of terrestrial macrofossils (mainly twigs of Salix sp.) were washed out from sediments sampled at Hauterive/Rouges-Terres, Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland, and measured using the AMS dating technique. These radiocarbon ages, which range from 8000 to 14,500 BP, were used to construct an absolute chronology of the record. A model of a sequence with known calendar ages for the period between 9000 to 17,500 cal BP was used to calibrate the 14 C ages. Three known calendar ages were set by pollen based dating (biozones) of palaeoclimatic events at 11,450 cal BP (Younger Dryas/Preboreal), 13,450 cal BP (Gerzensee Oscillation) and 14,650 cal BP (Oldest Dryas/ Bolling; see figure). This study shows that high resolution radiocarbon dating combined with such a calibration approach provides a powerful tool for dating stratigraphic sections by minimizing effects such as inversions in calendar ages and large errors caused by wiggles and plateaus in the radiocarbon time-scale.

  • 45. Hammarlund, D.
    et al.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Tornavägen 13, S-223 63 Lund.
    A Late  Weichselian stable isotope stratigraphy compared with biostratigraphic data. A case study from southern Sweden.1994In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 13-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Weichselian lake sediments from a site in southern Sweden, were analysed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, as well as plant macrofossils and insect remains. By comparison of independent data sets, general climatic changes were demonstrated. Lithological, chemical and stable isotope data reveal two significant climatic oscillations at ca. 12 200–12 000 and ca. 11 000–10 200 yr BP respectively. Continental climatic conditions, indicated by evaporative enrichment of 18O in lake marl, characterise parts of the early lake history, including the Older Dryas Stadial. Distinct variations of δ13C in organic material is discussed in terms of climatically induced changes in lake-water chemistry. Different types of photosynthetic assimilation of dissolved inorganic carbon is proposed as a contributing factor influencing lake marl δ13C. The universal application of a positive correlation between lake marl δ18O and mean annual air temperature is questioned.

    Quantifications of mean summer and winter temperatures based on beetle analysis show a climatic optimum around 12 000 yr BP, a marked cooling around 11 000 yr BP and a strong amelioration at ca. 10 200 yr BP. These climatic events were accompanied by distinct changes in aquatic vegetation. Plant macrofossil and insect analyses indicate an open vegetation during the entire period studied.

    Biostratigraphical data reflecting local limnic and terrestrial vegetation and regional climate facilitate the interpretation of stable isotope data.

  • 46.
    Hellqvist, M.
    et al.
    LUND UNIV,DEPT QUATERNARY GEOL,S-22363 LUND.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    LUND UNIV,DEPT QUATERNARY GEOL,S-22363 LUND.
    Insect assemblages and local environment in the medieval town of Uppsala, Sweden.1996In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 873-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insect remains from a mediaeval settlement in the town of Uppsala, S. Sweden, were analysed. Eighty-one insect taxa were identified from samples dating from the 12th to the 15th century. The insect assemblages are totally dominated by beetles. Only a few remains of butterflies, true flies and a bumble bee were found. The insects imply that the settlement was situated in open landscape. The settlement most likely consisted mainly of farm buildings throughout the studied period. Crops such as wheat, barley and cabbage were probably cultivated, particularly during the early settlement phases. Later, at the beginning of the 15th century, stock rearing seems to have dominated. The results suggest that the climate, during Mediaeval time in southern Sweden, was similar to the present or characterized by slightly higher summer temperatures. A number of currently very rare species were also recorded.

  • 47.
    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bennike, Ole
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Luethgens, Christopher
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Evidence of ameliorated Middle Weichselian climate and sub-arctic environment in the western Baltic region: coring lake sediments at Klintholm, MOn, Denmark2016In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coring through glaciotectonically stacked Quaternary sediments situated below sea level on the island of MOn, Denmark, recovered a succession of interstadial sediments of Middle Weichselian age. Plant and animal remains including insects found in laminated sand and mud indicate deposition in a lake surrounded by dwarf shrubs, herbs, mosses and rare trees. The insect fauna indicates a mean July temperature of 8-12 degrees C, suggesting an arctic to sub-arctic environment, while winter temperatures around -8 to -22 degrees C suggest periglacial conditions with permafrost. Luminescence dating of sediment samples gave ages from 48-29ka, and radiocarbon dating indicates deposition of plant fragments between 45 and 36ka BP. The fossil assemblage from MOn shows close resemblance to those from other sites with similar ages found in the vicinity of the western Baltic Basin.

  • 48. Ingolfsson, O.
    et al.
    Rögnvaldsson, F.
    Bergsten, H.
    Hedenäs, L.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lirio, J.M.
    Sejrup, H.P.
    Late Quaternary glacial- and environmental history of Kongsøya, Central northern Barents Sea, Svalbard.1995In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On western Kongsøya, Svalbard, three coarsening-upwards sequences of marine to littoral sediments, separated by tills, are recognised in sections at ca 50-92 m above present sea level. These sequences show major glaciations in the northern Barents Sea, resulting in substantial glacioisostatic downpressing of Kongsøya. Till fabrics indicate ice movements controlled by the local topography, while glaciotectonic deformations suggest that ice moved from an ice divide northeast of Kongsøya. independent of the local topography. The stratigraphical evidences show two pre-Holocene ice-free periods, when the climate was similar to or slightly warmer than at present. The age of these periods is not clear. It is suggested that the elder ice free interval is older than isotope stage 5e. The younger ice free interval could be of Eemian or Early Weichselian age. The uppermost succession of sublittoral-littoral sediments is of early Holocene age. It relates to the high (≥100 m) postglacial marine limit, dated to approximately 10,000 bp.

  • 49. Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Late Holocene history of a pine heath forest on northern Öland, S. Sweden2004Other (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mot en ny värld: Yngre stenålder i Sverige 4000-1700 f.KR2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok tar avstamp i den omvälvning som skedde för 6000 år sedan när människor övergick från att huvudsakligen ha varit jägare och fiskare till att bli bönder. I boken belyses och dsikuteras denna utveckling i ett långtidsperspektiv som sträcker sig från ca 4000 f.Kr. till ca 1700 f.Kr. Två kapitel i boken behandlar också natruvetenskapliga undersökningar och hur dessa på många avgörande sätt bidrar till förståelsen för hur månniksor levde och dog för många tusen år sedan.

12 1 - 50 of 86
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