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  • 1.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Norway.
    Christophersen, Olav Albert
    Norwegian Government Scholarship Holder, Norway.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Italy.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway ; Hedmark Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 156, p. 526-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States.

  • 2.
    Buck, Brenda J.
    et al.
    Univ Nevada, USA.
    Londono, Sandra C.
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    McLaurin, Brett T.
    Bloomsburg Univ Penn, USA.
    Metcalf, Rodney
    Univ Nevada, USA.
    Mouri, Hassina
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Shelembe, Refilwe
    Univ Johannesburg, South Africa.
    The emerging field of medical geology in brief: some examples2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 6, article id 449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging medical problems present medical practitioners with many difficult challenges. Emergent disciplines may offer the medical community new opportunities to address a range of these diseases. One such emerging discipline is medical geology, a science that is dealing with the influence of natural environmental factors on the geographical distribution of health in humans and animals. It involves the study of the processes and causes of diseases and also the use research findings to present solutions to health problems.

  • 3.
    Centeno, Jose A.
    et al.
    US FDA, USA.
    Finkelman, Robert B.
    Univ Texas Dallas, USA.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Medical Geology: Impacts of the Natural Environment on Public Health2016In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 6, no 1, article id UNSP 8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Davies, Brian E.
    et al.
    Bowman, Charlotte
    University of Victoria, Canada.
    Davies, Theo C.
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Medical geology: Perspectives and prospects2013In: Essentials of Medical Geology: Revised Edition / [ed] Olle Selinus, Springer, 2013, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is a brief history of medical geology—the study of health problems related to ‘place.’ This overview is not exhaustive; instead, it highlights some important cases that have arisen during the development of the science of medical geology. An excess, deficiency or imbalance of inorganic elements originating from geological sources can affect human and animal well-being either directly (e.g., a lack of dietary iodine leading to goitre) or indirectly (e.g., effect on metabolic processes such as the supposed protective effect of selenium in cardiovascular disease). Such links have long been known but were unexplained until alchemy evolved into chemistry in the seventeenth century, when medicine ceased to be the art of monks versed in homeopathic remedies and experimental explanations of disease was sought rather than relying on the writings of the Classical Greek philosophers, and modern geology was forged by Lyell and Hutton. In addition, the exploitation of mineral resources gathered pace in the seventeenth century and brought in its train the widespread release of toxic elements to the environment. New sciences of public health and industrial hygiene emerged and their studies have helped inform our understanding of the health implications of the natural occurrence of these elements.

  • 5.
    Finkelman, Robert B.
    et al.
    University of Texas at Dallas, USA.
    Orem, William H.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.
    U.S. Geological Survey, USA.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Applications of geochemistry to medical geology2018In: Environmental geochemistry: site characterization, data analysis and case histories / [ed] Benedetto De Vivo, Harvey E. Belkin & Annamaria Lima, Elsevier, 2018, 2nd ed., p. 435-465Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of geochemistry provides insights into how the natural environment impacts animal and human health and is the basis for the important subdiscipline of medical geochemistry. Among the more important contributions of medical geochemistry are the maps illustrating the distribution, on various scales, of potentially toxic trace elements. Chemical analyses of surface water and groundwater, stream sediments, and soil horizons have been published by numerous countries covering large geographic regions. Among the most comprehensive compilations is the Geochemical Atlas of Europe containing analytical data on more than 50 elements from stream water, stream sediment, and three soil horizons in 26 countries. Geochemical processes play a variety of important roles in controlling how humans are exposed to potential toxicants in a wide range of geogenic or anthropogenic materials. Once taken up by the body, geogenic materials such as dusts, soils, and water and their contained toxicants can react chemically with the body's fluids, and these chemical interactions can play key roles in toxicity. In addition to the harmful effects of some geogenic materials, certain clays have demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial properties when applied to open wounds with bacterial infections. Numerous case studies illustrate the potential human health impacts of organic compounds from geogenic sources, and especially those from fossil energy deposits. This is a challenging area of study since disease(s) resulting from exposures may be chronic rather than acute, and involve complex mixtures of substances. Medical geochemistry can play a key role in helping to protect the safety of drinking water by identifying the sources, concentrations, and forms of potentially harmful elements such as arsenic, mercury, and fluorine in natural waters. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of coals has helped to identify the sources of health problems afflicting millions of people worldwide.

  • 6.
    Kozisek, Frantisek
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Czech Republic.
    Rosborg, Ingegerd
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ferrante, Margeritha
    Catania University, Italy.
    Jovanovic, Dragana
    Background2015In: Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions / [ed] Ingegerd Rosborg, Springer, 2015, p. 1-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water plays an important role in the body. Normal–weight adults need 2.0–2.5 L/day of water for proper hydration, and it is known for centuries that minerals from the water are important for humans and animals. Different minerals are important in different ranges for different organs and functions. Due to the mass–related need for the minerals, they are labeled macro and micro elements, respectively. Weathering of rocks is responsible for most of the minerals appearing in water. The importance of minerals from drinking water have been denied for some time. However, in districts of Norway, high frequencies of softening of bone tissue among domestic animals, later identified as phosphorous-deficient soils and water, was known hundreds of years ago, and parts of China had increased levels of heart failure, nowadays identified as low selenium. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, well–off people in Europe went to health resorts to drink their specific water, water chosen with mineral content expected to be good for a specific complaint.

  • 7.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Essentials of medical geology: Revised edition2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essentials of Medical Geology reviews the essential concepts and practical tools required to tackle environmental and public health problems. It is organized into four main sections. The first section deals with the fundamentals of environmental biology, the natural and anthropogenic sources of health elements that impact health and illustrate key biogeochemical transformations. The second section looks at the geological processes influencing human exposure to specific elements, such as radon, arsenic, fluorine, selenium and iodine. The third section presents the concepts and techniques of pathology, toxicology and epidemiology that underpin investigations into the human health effects of exposure to naturally occurring elements. The last section provides a toolbox of analytical approaches to environmental research and medical geology investigations. Essentials of Medical Geology was first published in 2005 and has since won three prestigious rewards. The book has been recognized as a key book in both medical and geology fields and is widely used as textbook and reference book in these fields. For this revised edition, editors and authors have updated the content that evolved a lot during 2005 and added two new chapters, on public health, and agriculture and health. This updated volume can now continue to be used as a textbook and reference book for all who are interested in this important topic and its impacts the health and wellbeing of many millions of people all over the world. Addresses key topics at the intersection of environmental science and human health. Developed by 60 international experts from 20 countries and edited by professionals from the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA). Written in non-technical language for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from students and professional researchers to policymakers and the general public. Includes color illustrations throughout, references for further investigation and other aids to the reader.

  • 8. Zhang, Chaosheng
    et al.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hursthouse, Andrew S.
    Xia, Xinghui
    Ding, Shiming
    Preface: selected papers from SESEH 2012 Sino-European Symposium on Environment and Health2013In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 551-552Article in journal (Other academic)
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