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  • 1.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Building international business networks in the baltic sea region: A comparison of small and medium sized exporters from emerging and mature European markets2009In: Baltic Business and Socio-Economic Development 2009 / [ed] Gunnar Prause, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Escaping the trap of low-cost production and high dependency: a case study of the internationalization networks of small subcontractors from the Baltic States2009In: Research on Knowledge, Innovation and Internationalization / [ed] Larimo, J. & Viisak, T., Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 225-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the major problem faced by exporting subcontractors from emerging markets on how to leap over the barrier of low technology and high dependency. The second purpose is to develop a theoretical framework for this analysis.

    Methodology – The paper builds on a holistic multiple case study of eight internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Interviews were performed with managers of four West European SMEs and four East European SMEs all crossing the Baltic Sea. In addition, interviews were performed with each firm's intermediaries/customers on foreign soil.

    Findings – The study identifies two main international business marketing strategies for small subcontractors in emerging country markets enabling such firms to escape the trap of low-cost production and high dependency. The first is a traditional subcontractor strategy of integrating more into the contractors' production process. The second strategy is labeled the marketing route. Here, the subcontractor becomes more independent by moving further upstream in the value chain or the vertical customer network to develop its own products.

    Practical implications – How a small subcontractor in a low-cost country can learn from more experienced exporters on how to develop their international business marketing network capabilities.

    Originality – The study is unique in that it applies the perspective of the low-cost country subcontractors. Traditionally subcontracting is studied from the contractors' point of view.

  • 3.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    International Network Extension Processes to Institutionally Different Markets: Entry Nodes and Processes of Exporting SMEs2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 682-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about how SMEs reduce their liability of network outsidership in the process of establishing a network insider position in foreign business networks. By examining how SMEs establish insidership positions in institutionally different business networks, the authors contributes to the network approach to firm internationalization. From a detailed longitudinal and retrospective case study of four SMEs from mature market entering emerging country markets and four SMEs from such immature markets entering mature markets, the authors develop propositions based on intra-group and inter-group analysis. The propositions concern the parties to which the exporter initiates and develops relationships when plugging into the foreign network (the entry node), and how the firm reaches an insider position in this network (the entry process). Three distinct network types are identified along this entry process: the exposure network, the formation network and the sustenance network.

  • 4.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Reducing Uncertainty in the Emerging Market Entry Process: On the Relationship Among International Experiential Knowledge, Institutional Distance, and Uncertainty2012In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 96-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In three institutional environments, this study examines the uncertainty-reducing effects of experiential knowledge of varying specificity in the market entry process. The goal of the study is to answer the research question: What is the uncertainty-reducing effect of experiential knowledge of varying specificity in markets with different institutional distances from a firm's home base? The authors develop a theoretical model using the most recent developments in internationalization process theory. They test the model with a data set collected on-site at 203 small and medium-sized enterprises with entry experience into the new Eastern European Union member-states, Russia and China. The analysis shows no support for the claim that internationalization knowledge reduces uncertainty in the market entry process. Rather, the analysis reveals that societal knowledge of the entering firm has an uncertainty-reducing effect in markets that are relatively less distant from its home market. The analysis also shows that international experiential knowledge of high specificity, an important type of marketing knowledge, provides the greatest uncertainty-reducing effect.

  • 5.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Experiential knowledge profiles in internationalizing SMEs: The ability to sustain market positions in the new turbulent era of global business2011In: Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm: / [ed] Verbeke, van Tulder and Tavares, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2011, p. 77-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study sets out to establish experiential knowledge profiles of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) entering emerging markets and to examine how the different abilities contained in these profiles impact the sustainability of market positions in the new turbulent era of global business.

    Methodology – We analyse a sample of 203 entries into emerging markets by Swedish SMEs. The data collected on site at all sample firms is analysed in two sequential stages. First, an exploratory factor analysis is performed to derive four types of experiential knowledge. Second, a cluster analysis is performed to establish experiential knowledge profiles among the entering SMEs.

    Findings – The result of the analysis shows that experiential knowledge is a multi-dimensional construct consisting of four main types. Moreover, emerging market entering SMEs are shown to develop different knowledge profiles. We suggest that Masters are well prepared for such periods. Learners most probably will experience high levels of uncertainty, whereas Country and Customer Experts face less uncertainty due to their specialisation on either host market or customer knowledge.

    Originality – The chapter shows that the experiential knowledge base of emerging market entering SMEs is an important indicator of the readiness for turbulent times. Firms will be able to sustain market positions differently depending on which type of knowledge profile they belong to.

  • 6.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Timlon, Joachim
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Collective Internationalization Processes of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises from China2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "Building an International Business Marketing Model for Emerging Country Markets"2007In: IMP Conference, Manchester, U.K., September, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "Changing Government Strategy of Multinational Corporations in Transition Countries: The Case of Volvo Truck Corporation in India"2002In: Crtical Perspectives on Internationalisation / [ed] Virpi Havila & Mats Forsgren & Håkan Håkansson, Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "From Industrial Marketing to Business-to-Business Marketing and Relationship Marketing"2006In: Marketing. Broadening the Horizons / [ed] Stefan Lagrosen & Göran Svensson, Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "Gaining Societal Advantages in Emerging Markets: International Stakeholder Management in Malaysia"2006In: Emerging Multiplicity. Integration and Responsiveness in Asian Business Development / [ed] Sten Söderman, Basingstoke, U.K.; New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Palgrave-McMillan , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Industrial Products. A Guide to the International Marketing Economics Model1994Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    International Business Marketing2009In: Glocal Marketing: Think Globally and Act Locally / [ed] Svante Andersson, Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2009, p. 159-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    International Business Marketing in Emerging Country Markets: The Third Wave of Internationalization of Firms2007 (ed. Paperback edition in 2009)Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    International Business Strategy in Emerging Country Markets: The Institutional Network Approach2007 (ed. Paperback edition in 2008)Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization Processes in the New EU:: Market Growth, Relocation, and Outsourcing2005In: Paper to be presented at the 7 th Annual Conference on European Integration, Mölle, May 24- 27, 2005, organized by the Swedish Network for European Studies in Economics and Business (SNEE)., 2005, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of emerging country markets and their integration into the world economy

    creates a double effect of a strong global pull from growing demand and a push from growing

    competition. This double effect seems to lead to a third wave of internationalization involving

    market growth, re-location and outsourcing of production as well as shifting of supplier bases

    from Western Europe eastwards. This is seen as a main factor behind the erosion of the

    industrial base of the Swedish economy and an increasing separation between firm-specific

    competitive advantages and country-specific comparative advantages. The responses differ

    between key types of firms: the domestic firm, the internationalizing firm and the fully

    internationalized firm. The latter type is divided into the Ethnocentric MNC, the Polycentric

    MNC and the Geocentric MNC. These types are mainly developed from internationalization

    process theory through a methodology based on abduction. Illustrations are given of responses

    in the form of internationalization processes of internationalizing firms and Ethnocentric

    MNCs to the new Eastern part of the EU and of restructuring of production of Polycentric and

    Geocentric MNCs.

  • 16.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Positioning and Upgrading IMP Theory as a Marketing Theory2008In: 24th IMP Conference, Uppsala University, September 4-6, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The Institutional Network Approach to Markets and Business Marketing Practice2008In: 24th IMP Conference, Uppsala University, September 4-6, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "The Struggle over Singapore's Soul. Western Modernization and Asian Culture"1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 223-225Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Towards an International Relationship Marketing Theory for Emerging Markets2005In: Paper presented at the 18th Scandinavian Academy of Management Meeting (NFF): Aarhus School of Business, Denmark, 18-20 August, 2005 Nordisk företagsekonomisk forskning (NFF), Århus, Danmark, August, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Transnational Corporations in Southeast Asia. An Institutional Approach to Industrial Organization1994Book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Boye, Petter
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    "Developing Regional Export Competence Platforms in the Southern Baltic Region"2004In:  , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Boye, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Increased Internationalization for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises through Joint Export Networks2011In: Network strategies for regional growth / [ed] Johansson, Martin & Lundberg, Helene, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p. 207-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Boye, Petter
    The Internationalization of Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Companies to the East Baltic Region2004In: International Business in Transition Economies, Riga, Lativa, September, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Harryson, Sigvald
    Kliknaité, Sandra
    "Networked Innovation Across Multiple Levels - From Knowledge Creation to Business Implementation"2007In: IMP Conference, Manchester, U.K. September, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Building and Sustaining International Business Networks in the Baltic Sea Region. A Comparison of Small and Medium-sized Exporters from Emerging and Mature European Markets2008In: IMP Conference, Uppsala University, September 4-6, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The New Catch-up Phase: How do Small International Subcontractors from the Baltic States get out of the Trap of Low-cost Production and High Depedency?2008In: EIBA Annual Conference, Tallinn, December11-13, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Collective Internationalization Processes of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises from China2008In: Proceedings of the 50 th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business  "Knowledge Development and Exchange in International Business Network", Milan, Italy, June 30 - July 3, 2008 / [ed] Cantwell, J and Kiyak, T, Academy of International Business , 2008, p. 127-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Experiential knowledge profiles of internationalizing SMEs: The ability to sustain market positions in the new turbulent era of global business2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The perceived institutional distance in the internationalization process of firms. A proposed model for measuring managerial pereceptions in emerging country markets2009In: Academy of International Business, San Diego, June, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Timlon, Joachim
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
     The Chinese are Coming: Entry into Europe of Firms from the P.R.C.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to describe and explain the internationalization processes of Chinese firms in Europe, studying the on-going increase in the international business activities by firms from the P.R.C. This is a consequence of the rapid growth of emerging country markets and their integration into the world economy, implying a third wave of globalization of firms from emerging markets like China. The following major aspects are taken up:i) The establishment of Chinese firms in Europe and the development of their business in this area. ii) The internationalization process of these firms, especially focusing on adaptations to local markets in the EU.iii) Major impact on the internationalization process by the changing institutional conditions of the various country markets, where the foreign firms operate, and from where they originate.The study is based on research on firms from the P.R.C. and their internationalization as well as relevant research on differences between European and overseas Chinese firms. The more common Chinese investments in manufacturing industry will be compared with the more recent investments in service industries, mainly in retailing. The research strategy is abductive, using a broad case-study approach. Collecting primary data from interviews and observations is the main source of information. Research on the Chinese international firms is mainly qualitative, and based on case studies of selected companies as well as EU countries. The study is founded on the institutional network approach to internationalization processes, which are seen to be knowledge-based, and governed by institutional developments in markets. A Five/Five stages model is established that consist of a number of relationship development stages and a number of internationalization stages. New stages are established with the firm extending its business from one major type of market to another major type or from one type of foreign environment to another. Since these foreign country market contexts are defined as institutional settings, the internationalization process is determined by the institutional distance between country markets. Establishment points in foreign market networks are defined as entry nodes.

  • 31.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden ; Mid Sweden university ,Sweden.
    Ramström, Joachim
    Sydväst University of Applied Science, Finland.
    Institutions and business networks: A comparative analysis of the Chinese, Russian, and West European markets2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 955-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses business networks originating from three markets: Chinese, Russian, and West European. So far, little attention has been given to the fact that business networks in particular markets may be dissimilar because of differences among institutions. The paper advances a model where institutions are assumed to influence five major characteristics of business; (1) the processual aspects of the network, (2) the structural aspects of the network, (3) the function of firms and relationships in the network, (4) the meaning of strategy and planning, and (5) social relationships in the context of inter-firm relationships. The analysis builds on three types of substances of institutions — cognitive, normative, and regulative, which in turn are specified according to different aspects. The cognitive substance of business networks is explored through the aspects of self, time, and causality. The normative substance is explored through the aspects of achieved versus ascribed status, inner versus outer direction, universalism versus particularism, and trust. The regulative substance is specified as an authority system and a sanction system. The analysis demonstrates that, as institutions differ in these three markets, the business among them also differs in terms of the five characteristics, and this variation calls for different strategies for firms operating in these markets.

  • 32.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Johanson, Martin
    Ramström, Joachim
    "Institutions and Networks. Business Networks in the Chinese, Russian, and West-European Institutional Contexts"2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 955-967Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Ramström, Joachim
    Facing the Chinese Business Network in Southeast Asian Markets - Overcoming the Duality between Nordic and Chinese Business Networks2005In: IMP Conference, Rotterdam, Holland, September, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region2008In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    We integrate internationalization process theory with industrial network theory to explain SME entry in emerging markets. We show that entry modes are complemented by entry nodes and entry processes. We develop a Five/Five Stages Model to consider the dynamic interaction between these factors. We undertook a survey of 116 SMEs in Southern Sweden trading with the Baltic States, Poland and Russia, as complemented by a case study of ten SMEs trading with Poland and an analysis of trade statistics of SMEs in Southern Sweden.

    We find that relationships are critical for entry as most firms rely on direct relationships with customers or dyads. The involvement of subsidiaries is uncommon, suggesting a low degree of FDI. Meanwhile, triads or indirect relationships through distributors or agents are more important. This low cost entry node creates a paradox in that the insufficient learning it provides about local markets obstructs further internationalization. By relating entries to the global internationalization process, we find that most SMEs trade with few countries in the region, indicating a low degree of regional internationalization.

     

  • 35.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region2008In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate internationalization process theory with industrial network theory to explain SME entry in emerging markets. We show that entry modes are complemented by entry nodes and entry processes. We develop a Five/Five Stages Model to consider the dynamic interaction between these factors. We undertook a survey of 116 SMEs in Southern Sweden trading with the Baltic States, Poland and Russia, as complemented by a case study of ten SMEs trading with Poland and an analysis of trade statistics of SMEs in Southern Sweden.

    We find that relationships are critical for entry as most firms rely on direct relationships with customers or dyads. The involvement of subsidiaries is uncommon, suggesting a low degree of FDI. Meanwhile, triads or indirect relationships through distributors or agents are more important. This low cost entry node creates a paradox in that the insufficient learning it provides about local markets obstructs further internationalization. By relating entries to the global internationalization process, we find that most SMEs trade with few countries in the region, indicating a low degree of regional internationalization.

  • 36.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Local adaptation of international business-to-business marketing in emerging markets: the case of Swedish firms in China2014In: Proceedings of The 56th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "Local Contexts in Global Business": Vancouver, Canada, June 23-26, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the major role taken in the global economy by emerging markets, a key issue in contemporary international marketing research is how multinational corporations adapt their marketing to these markets. This paper researches this issue for Swedish firms established in China through a case study of nine subsidiaries in Shanghai, interviewing European and Chinese managers at each firm. The comparative conceptual framework derived from business-to-business marketing theory and institutional theory was operationalized into a standardized questionnaire in order to compare European and Chinese types of network marketing. The analysis shows that the European network marketing type largely prevails among Swedish subsidiaries in China. Adaptations have been made, as also a mixture between European and Chinese network marketing types can be seen. However, a limited number of adaptations into a Chinese network marketing type were identified. European managers tend to perceive the firm to hold a view closer to a Chinese network marketing type more often than the Chinese managers do, which indicates that they regard the Swedish subsidiaries to have adapted to the Chinese market to a higher extent than the Chinese managers do.

  • 37.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Mixing Chinese and Western leadership styles: Swedish firms in China2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The mixture of network marketing types in emerging markets: ­the case of Swedish MNCs in China2016In: Marketing challenges in a turbulent business environment: proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress / [ed] Mark D. Groza & Charles B. Ragland, Springer, 2016, p. 389-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the major role taken in the global economy by emerging markets, a key issue in contemporary marketing research is the relevance of Western marketing ideas, both from a theoretical and practical perspective. This paper researches this issue for China, being the fastest growing emerging market in the world and therefore becoming a role model for marketing in such markets. The purpose is to specify a network marketing theory relevant for Western MNCs in emerging markets. In order to do so, an integrative framework was developed based on network marketing theory and institutional network marketing theory. From the latter four basic rules are pinpointed and thereafter applied to European and Chinese business networks respectively. The thought styles are based on symbols such as words, signs and gestures. Norms and values influence how business marketers think and act. Enforcement mechanisms concern how to construct the sanction and incentive system in order to reward or punish individuals and groups within the firm together with establishing surveillance and assessment system to control the enforcement of marketing practice.

    Based on the framework of the basic rules, a measurement instrument was developed and tested in a pilot study in spring 2013. For the standardized questionnaire the four theoretical basic rules were broken down into 15 sub-concepts and thereafter derived into 45 items. Altogether these constitute a basis of a comparative marketing framework. The items are formulated as statements on a six-point interval scale about Chinese and Western marketing. For the purpose of this paper, 24 items were selected to constitute the basis for analysis as they focus particularly on network marketing. A low number (1) expresses a wholly European perspective on network marketing and a high number (6) a wholly Chinese perspective. Two to five is a mix of these marketing types, where 3–4 represents the most even mixture of network marketing types in the emerging market. In the pilot study nine Swedish MNCs were visited at their subsidiaries in the Shanghai area. The primary data was collected through structured face-to-face interviews with two managers—one of Swedish and one of Chinese origin—per case interviewed separately, so in total 18 interviews were conducted. The interviews were undertaken in English, sitting side by side with the managers, discussing their answers while they were filling out the questionnaire. It was followed by an interview with the respondent based on a semi-structured interview guide in order to have as good control as possible of primarily the reliability, but also the validity, of the questionnaire.

    The results and analysis show that in subsidiaries of Swedish MNCs in China, the European network marketing type still prevails. Some adaptations have been made though, as also a mixture between European and Chinese network marketing types can be seen. A limited number of adaptations into a Chinese network marketing type were identified, even if the managers themselves perceive that they have made adaptations when working in Swedish subsidiaries in China. When comparing European versus Chinese manager groups, the European managers tend to perceive the firm to hold a view closer to a Chinese network marketing type more often than the Chinese managers do. This indicates that the European managers regard that the Swedish subsidiaries have adapted more to the Chinese market than the Chinese mangers regard them to have done.

  • 39.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Saqib, Mohammed
    Sharma, D. Deo
    The State and Transnational Corporations. A Network Approach to Industrial Policy in India1995Book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sharma, D. Deo
    "Industrial Policy Liberlization and TNCs: The Indian Experience"1993In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 129-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a number of host governments have declared their intention to liberalize their industrial policies toward transnational corporations (TNCs). Taking India as an example. economic liberalization is defined here as an industrial policy implementation issue, and is studied with reference to licensing procedures between 1984 and 1990. Liberalization is effected through a Government-TNC network. The four dimensions used to measure the results of liberalization show that this network has remained more or less intact during the period, so that it is still time- and resource-consuming to obtain licences. A study of changes in the number of controls and the efficiency of the executive bodies also indicates that policies towards TNCs have been only partially liberalized. This result is explained by an institutional organization theory.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stockholm University.
    A typology of market-seeking investments: Swedish firms in China2019In: International Journal of Emerging Markets, ISSN 1746-8809, E-ISSN 1746-8817, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Regarding globalization trends, it is essential for multinational corporations (MNCs) to operate in China if they are to succeed in the international business environment. It is therefore vital to study how those MNCs investing in China have fared. The purpose of this paper is to devise a robust conceptual framework for the evolvement of market-seeking investments in emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach The typology is based on a network approach to internationalization processes, where a case study is made of Swedish MNCs' experience of the Chinese market. Findings The case study contributes to the mostly static foreign direct investment (FDI) theory as well as the entry mode approach, both of which have paid little attention to the FDI carried out by MNCs in emerging markets 5-15 years after initial entry. Originality/value The case study also contributes to the mostly static FDI theory as well as the entry mode approach, both of which have paid little attention to the various types of FDI carried out by MNCs in emerging markets 5-15 years after initial entry.

  • 42.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stockholms universitet.
    How large Chinese companies establish international competitiveness in other BRICS: The case of Brazil2013In: Asian Business & Management, ISSN 1472-4782, E-ISSN 1476-9328, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 539-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an abductive approach, a case study is performed on two Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the construction equipment industry. These firms do not yet compete directly with major global firms. The reason for this is that Chinese firms have mainly built up international competitive strength in the low-price segment. A major result is a theory on the initial internationalisation strategy of Chinese firms. The main strategic counter-move by European MNC and other major incumbents seems to be to enter the low-price segment in emerging markets, for example, by acquiring local Chinese brands.

  • 43.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Söderman, Sten
    School of Business, Stockholms universitet.
    How Large Chinese Corporations Establish Internatonal Competitiveness in Other BRICS: the Case of Brazil2011In: 28th EAMSA Annual Conference 2011 of the Euro-Asia Management Studies Association on November 23-26, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Initial Internationalization of Chinese Privately-Owned Enterprises – The Take-off Process2012In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first quarter of 2010, China showed the highest quarterly growth (12%) of any country ever. Although privately owned enterprises (POEs) are an important factor behind this immense growth, knowledge about how they have become key exporters is scarce and largely overlooked, especially regarding how they started to go abroad. Two major take-off processes from the domestic market to the foreign market are studied. The critical importance of the development of the local emerging market behind the possibilities of taking off is stressed, as well as how firms change between indirect and direct export modes. The research is based on an abductive case study research approach, where primary data is collected through interviews in the Yangtze River region. The case study involves six privately owned family firms run by strong and dominating entrepreneurs. Major empirical and theoretical conclusions, including nine propositions, summarize the article and indicate areas for further research.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stockholm University.
    International Strategic Management Hybrids in China2015In: International Journal of Emerging Markets, ISSN 1746-8809, E-ISSN 1746-8817, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 209-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to establish a comparative conceptual framework to analyze hybrids of western and Chinese strategic management types, where the foundation is an institutional strategic management theory.

    Design/methodology/approaeh - This framework is then applied to develop a research instrument that is used in a pilot study of 21 cases in China, primarily Swedish MNCs.

    Findings - In this study, a complex picture emerges of the various mixes of management types in international firms operating in China. The results demonstrate that the comparative institutional strategic management framework developed seems to work for studying such mixtures of management types.

    Researeh limitations/implieations - The discussion is based on the assumption of two dominating management types in international firms in China. The authors have found different mixtures among the firms. Besides strategic management, the theory and instrument might also be useful for human resource management issues like recruitment and talent management.

    Praetieal implieations - Practical implications include a potentially useful measurement tool for strategic management in international firms and for evaluating executives in existing and new positions. Moreover, a contribution is made to global management, since the framework is also useful for comparing strategic management types of international firms in and outside China.

    Originality/value - This paper contributes to this research in two ways. First, a comparative theory is specified to study the hybrids of strategic management types of international firms, especially for firms in China. Second, an instrument is developed for researching such management mixes and used on a pilot study of international firms operating in China.

  • 46.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. Lund Univ / Univ Gothenburg / Natl Univ Singapore.
    Söderman, Sten
    Stocklholm Univ / Luleå Univ Technol.
    Proposing a Relationship Marketing Theory for Sport Clubs2013In: Handbook of Reseach on Sport and Business / [ed] Söderman, Sten & Dolles, Harald, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 350-366Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Söderman, Sten
    School of Business, Stockholms universitet.
    The Mixture of Yin Yang Management and Western Management in Firms in China2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Söderman, Sten
    Zhang, Xianjin
    "The Take-off Process: Internationalization of Medium-Sized Enterprises from China2008In: EIBA Conference, Tallinn, Estonia, December11-13, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lundgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Developing international business knowledge through an appreciative inquiry learning network: Proposing a methodology for collaborative research2016In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 346-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for the need for methodological development within international business (IB) research. This need is born out of the dominance of positivistic research within the field which both marginalizes other scientific approaches and jeopardizes practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to consider collaborative research, almost non-existent within IB research, as a possible way forward. A performed collaborative research project and its methodology is described and lessons learned, challenges and possibilities are discussed. Our conclusion is that collaborative research may bridge the possible gap between scientifically valid and practically relevant results, but that this requires collaboration and interaction to permeate the whole research process, from planning, through execution to post-project activities.

  • 50.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Resilience of knowledge-based exporter profiles in the global economic recession: resource and network commitment of Swedish SMEs in emerging markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 52
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