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  • 1.
    Reinap, Ausra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Dry deposition of NaCl aerosols: theory and method for a modified leaf-washing technique2010In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, ISSN 1867-8610, E-ISSN 1867-8610, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 3851-3876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of aerosol deposition to vegetation we present a specially designed leaf wash-off method used in a wind-tunnel based study, where leaves of Quercus robur L. were exposed to NaCl aerosols. We summarise the principles and illustrate the method for two types of substances, the chloride ion and the sodium ion, and for two levels of aerosol exposure prior to leaf washing. On the average, in the low-exposure experiments (S1), the 1st (2nd) wash-off step provided 90% (96%) of the amount of Cl− on the leaves. In the high-exposure experiments (S2) the corresponding values were 96% and 99%. For sodium, the general dynamics resembles that of chloride, but the amounts washed off were, in both series, on the average below what would be expected if the equivalent ratio in the tunnel aerosol were to be preserved. Na+ showed adsorption and/or absorption at the leaf surfaces. The difference between the mean values of the amounts of chloride and of sodium washed off in S1 was not statistically significant, the mean Na+ to Cl− difference as a fraction of Cl− being minus 18%±27%; corresponding values for S2 were minus 16%±9%, however (p<0.05). In the latter case, 101±57 μequiv Na+ per m2 of leaf area were missing for the equivalent relationship 1:1 with Cl− to be met. Although uncertainties are thus large, this indicates the magnitude of the Na+-retention. The method is suitable not only for chloride, an inexpensive and easy-to-handle tracer, but also for sodium under exposure at high aerosol concentrations. Our findings will help design further studies of aerosol/forest interactions.

  • 2.
    Reinap, Ausra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forest-edge effects on sea-salt aerosol deposition: a wind-tunnel study using living oak leaves2012In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 193-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape patchiness creates aerodynamic transitions zones that affect the exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the atmosphere and vegetation. Using an artificially generated NaCl aerosol, with its mass-versus-particle-size distribution characterised by an aerodynamic mean particle diameter of 1.6 µm and a geometrical standard deviation of 1.9, we investigate the forest-edge effect on aerosol deposition within a model oak (Quercus robur L.) canopy in a wind tunnel with a smooth up-wind surface, and provide quantitative estimates of deposition rates within the emulated beach-to-forest transition. The deposition rate is maximal around the forest edge with an enhancement factor in relation to the beach deposition of 2.4 for Cl- and 2.0 for Na+. Results are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from deposition models, field studies, and other wind-tunnel based investigations. We find a tendency towards an edge effect also at the downwind forest end, which is in support of model predictions. Estimates of deposition velocities at the edge are 0.06 cms-1 and 0.05 cms-1 for Cl- and Na+, respectively. Because of the edge effect the model forest’s deposition velocity is enhanced, being 1.4 times higher around the edge in comparison with the entire forest. This suggests that field measurements of deposition in the interior of a forest “island” in an otherwise open landscape would underestimate the deposition to the entire forest. Our results can help improve estimates of aerosol-borne inputs of nutrients or pollutants to forests that would experience shifts in meteorological regimes due to changes in climate and forestry practices, in particular with respect to deciduous species in coastal environments where forest-edge effects might be substantial.

     

  • 3.
    Reinap, Ausra
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Oak leaves as aerosol collectors2009In: Proceedings of the Nordic Society for Aerosol Research (NOSA) Symposium, Lund, November 12-13, 2009, Lund, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Reinap, Ausra
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wiman, Bo L. B.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Oak leaves as aerosol collectors: relationships with wind velocity and particle size distribution. Experimental results and their implications2009In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1263-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancing the understanding of the aerosol-capture efficiencies of forest components such as leaves and needles, and of the mechanisms that underpin these efficiencies, is essential to the many related issues of forest turnover of nutrients and pollutants. For idealized collectors (such as artificial plates or cylinders) aerosol-mechanics offers a means for calculating capture efficiencies. For living collectors, in particular deciduous leaves, experimental investigations become necessary to assist in formulating the sub-models of capture efficiency that are fundamental to the modelling of fluxes of aerosol-borne substances to forests. We here present wind-tunnel based methods and results for leaves of Quercus robur L. exposed to an aerosol whose mass versus aerodynamic particle size distribution is characterised by a geometric mean aerodynamic particle diameter around 1.2 mu m and a geometric standard deviation around 1.8. With respect to that distribution, and founded on a specially designed leaf wash-off method, we obtained average oak-leaf capture efficiencies ranging from 0.006% of the approaching aerosol mass flux at wind-speed 2 ms(-1) to 0.012% of the flux at wind-speeds 10 ms(-1), respectively. These values can be translated into deposition velocities (V (d) ) for a leaf ensemble with a given leaf area index (LAI). With LAI in the range 2-5 (commonly found in the field) and for wind-speeds 2, 5 and 10 ms(-1), resulting V (d) -values would be 0.02-0.05, 0.05-0.13, and 0.2-0.6 cm/s, respectively. To the extent comparisons are possible, our capture efficiency values are at the low end of the range of values reported by other researchers. The strong wind-speed sensitivity of V (d) has implications for the deposition of aerosol-borne substances to forests for which wind regimes may shift as a result of climatic and land-use changes.

  • 5.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Lindegård, Boel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 536, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADI(veg)), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites - and contaminated sites in general - contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk.

  • 6.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindegård, Boel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elevated arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables for residents in glassworks villages.2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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