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  • 1.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Yang, Jingjing
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gas measurements and characterization of wood combustion in a traveling grate boiler2013In: Proceedings for 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2013, p. 591-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental tests have been carried out on a moving grate boiler at a 4 MW heating plant located at a sawing mill in south of Sweden. In order to investigate the performance of the combustion chamber, the local concentrations of O2, NO and CO are determined in the region above the grate using two water-cooled stainless steel probes of different lengths and diameters. The fuel used was sawmill waste consisting of bark, sawdust and shavings. The results of the study provided valuable insights into the combustion process.

  • 2.
    Strand, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Yang, Jingjing
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    High-Temperature extraction of aerosol particles from biomass combustion and gasification2011In: European Aerosol Conference 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gebremedhin, A.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Particle characterization at high temperature in a 5 MW moving grate biomass boiler2013In: Proceedings for 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2013, p. 1132-1135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The particles and inorganic gaseous compounds from a 5 MW moving grate biomass boiler were characterized at two sampling positions at 1100 °C and 800 °C respectivly. Samples were extracted with high temperature sampling method with primary dilution ratio of 20. For both sampling positions a biomodal mass size distributions were observed, with ultrafine mode at around 70-100 nm and fine mode at 10-30 nm. The increasing concentration of ultrafine particle over time indicates that the alkali deposits in the inner wall of dilution probe re-evaporates and condenses on the ultrafine particles. The elemental analysis and ion ratio of (K+Na)/(Cl+2S) and 4S/O indicates that at 1100°C the main species composted of particulate matter are not only alkali chlorides and alkali sulfates.

  • 4.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Characterization of Particles and Inorganic Vapors through High-Temperature Extraction in a Biomass-Fired Grate Boiler2013In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 5915-5922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a method for sampling particles and inorganic vapors in hot flue gases was examined in laboratory studies and then applied in field measurements. The method included a hot dilution probe, where the dilution ratio can be controlled. The laboratory results indicated that applied flow rates and dilution ratios can be optimized to produce two distinct particle modes in the particle size distribution: one from the original particles and one from the condensing vapors. The field measurements were performed in a moving grate biomass boiler, and the probe was used for sampling at two positions, at 800 and 1100 degrees C. The size distributions and the size-resolved elemental composition of the samples showed that, at 800 degrees C, alkali sulfates had formed a fine particle mass mode at around 100 nm and that alkali chlorides condensed in the probe to form an additional ultrafine mode in the 10-30 nm range. At 1100 degrees C, a similar bimodal size distribution was obtained as for 800 degrees C; however, the particle diameter of the fine mode was lower and the particle mass concentration was about one-third of the mass at 800 degrees C. The elemental analysis of the ultrafine mode sampled at 1100 degrees C indicated that it was formed mainly from condensing alkali sulfates. In addition, the sample contained detectable amounts of Zn. The suggested interpretation of these results was that, at 1100 degrees C, Zn had oxidized to form ZnO particles and that the formation and condensing of alkali sulfates was in progress, while alkali chlorides were present as vapor.

  • 5.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Gjövik Univ Coll, Norway.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Gjövik Univ Coll, Norway.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    High-Temperature Characterization of Inorganic Particles and Vapors in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Cofiring Wood and Rubber Waste2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of varying fuel mixtures and using a lime additive were studied in a 125-MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. A high-temperature aerosol measurement method using a hot-dilution probe was used to characterize the particles and condensing inorganic vapors upstream from the superheater. The particle size distributions of the extracted samples indicate that when high-sulfur rubber waste, waste wood, and forest fuel were cocombusted, the hot flue gas contained no substantial amount of particulate matter in the fine (<0.3 mu m) particle size range, although the SO2 concentration exceeded 70 ppm. Only a nucleation mode was observed, which was presumably formed from inorganic vapors that condensed in the sampling probe. The size-segregated elemental analysis of the extracted samples indicated that when lime was added, the nucleation mode mainly comprised condensed alkali chlorides, while the sulfates dominated the mode when no lime was added. The presumed explanation for the sulfates in the nucleation mode was the sulfation of the alkali chlorides inside the sampling system. When only the wood fuels and no rubber fuel were cocombusted, the SO2 concentration in the gas was approximately 5 ppm. In this case, an alkali sulfate particle mode formed at approximately 70 nm in the hot flue gas. In addition, vapors of alkali chlorides and lead formed particulate matter inside the sampling probe when using low dilution ratios.

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