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  • 1.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att förbättra analytiskt tänkande hos studenter2013In: Universitetspedagogik i praktiken: Sexton lärartexter om pedagogisk utveckling, Kalmar: Universitetspedagogiska enheten, Linnéuniversitetet , 2013, , p. 5-11p. 5-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Consumer research on tweens: putting the pieces together2011In: Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, ISSN 1747-3616, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 326-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically review Scandinavian research on tweens as consumers from the years 1990-2007.

    Design/methodology/approach – In total, 35 studies were examined. Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological perspective was used to depict what parts of children's lives had been investigated. The theory highlights different contexts and analytical levels in children's environments that may influence their consumer behavior.

    Findings – Scandinavian research has mainly focused on the individual child as a consumer and on interpersonal relations. The societal transformations that gradually changes the Scandinavian countries seem to have been less investigated. In addition, there is a lack of Scandinavian consumer research on interaction between different contexts, such as parents and school, which may influence children's consumer behavior.

    Research limitations/implications – This article has not critically reviewed each specific investigation in the field, but focused on the spread of aggregated Scandinavian research on tweens as consumers.

    Practical implications – A more composite picture of consumption patterns among Scandinavian tweens is provided, which may be used as a guideline for educators, marketers and other professionals that interact with this age group.

    Originality/value – Few attempts have been made to obtain a composite picture of Scandinavian consumer research on tweens. This question is of particular importance in times when the discourse of children's role in consumer society is changing, in order to understand the implications for future theoretical and empirical development in this dynamic field.

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  • 3.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Consuming for friendship: Children´s perceptions of relational consumption2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish children have, from a historical perspective and compared with many other countries, greater economic resources and a higher material living standard. However, there is a widening gap between affluent and vulnerable households in Sweden. At the same time, children are targets for significant pressure to consume in order to gain inclusion among peers. This thesis aims to investigate how children, between the ages of 9 and 12, perceive consumption, as part of their social life among peers. Children’s own perspectives are central throughout the thesis. Therefore, an additional aim is to make a contribution to the debate concerning how to interpret children in their roles as consumers. A research overview of Nordic consumer research relating to tweens was carried out. Thereafter, empirical data was collected through projective focus group interviews and drawings. In total, 101 children, from four different schools, participated in the study. The location and prestige of the schools confirms that the selected children were mixed in terms of class and ethnicity. The results are presented in four articles that provide different segments in the understanding of how children perceive consumption in their social life among peers. In the summary chapters, a synthesized analysis shows, among other things, that most children perceived consumption as a useful tool to enhance social relationships with peers. However, some children expressed moral values concerning consumption, where they emphasised that it felt “wrong to buy friends”. Moreover, the children’s perceptions of consumption varied depending on age, gender and neighbourhood. The analysis suggests that we need to address children both as competent and dependent individuals, in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of children as consumers. Additionally, a new concept, relational consumption, is developed from the children’s perceptions of consumption, principally referring to consumption used to create, strengthen and maintain social relationships. In summary: the work presented in this thesis contributes to increase the knowledge about 9 to 12 year old children’s perceptions of consumption in today’s Swedish society and demonstrates the importance for social work to address the aspect of relational consumption.

  • 4.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Hur handlar unga?: – en studie om ungas konsumtion 20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomars konsumtion akan betraktas som en process. En process som något grovt kan delas in i tre delar, före köp, inköp och efter köp. Den undersökning Konsumentverket har låtit initiera har fokuserat på dessa tre delar, samt ungdomars köp via internet. Nedan presenteras på ett övergripande sätt de mest centrala resultaten från undersökningen.

    Ungdomar mellan 15-17 år är idag aktiva konsumenter inom en rad olika köpområden. Cirka 90 procent uppger att de har handlat kläder och skor under de senaste tre månaderna. De flesta ungdomar har också gjort inköp av livsmedel, restaurang/café, nöjesupplevelser, samt hygienprodukter och kosmetika. Många är nöjda med sina inköp. Samtidigt finns en del missnöje, vanligtvis på grund av bristande kvalitet. Relativt få missnöjda ungdomar har klagat eller lämnat tillbaka en produkt.

    De flesta ungdomar upplever sig generellt vara självständiga konsumenter som på egen hand beslutar över sina pengar. Det är vanligt att man planerar sina inköp ibland och impulshandlar ibland. Det är också ganska vanligt att man undersöker om det finns billigare alternativ innan man köper en produkt.

    De flesta ungdomar föreställer sig att de inför ett köp mest tänker på pris och kvalitet. Ibland funderar de på trender och märken. Mer sällan tänker de på vad vänner eller föräldrar ska tycka om inköpet. Få ungdomar menar att de brukar tänka på vilken konsekvens deras köp medför på människor, djur eller natur. Det är bara cirka 10 procent som svarar att de alltid eller ofta tar hänsyn till miljöpåverkan eller etisk påverkan när de står inför ett köpbeslut.

    Många ungdomar är aktiva konsumenter på internet. De flesta använder nätet för att söka information om produkter. Ungefär hälften har gjort ett inköp där de senaste tre månaderna. Det stora utbudet av produkter är ett vanligt skäl till att ungdomar väljer att handla på internet. Dessvärre har nästan 10 procent av ungdomarna minst en gång köpt något som de trodde var gratis.

    Fler intressanta resultat är som följer:

    • Det är 22 ungdomar (2 procent) av det totala urvalet på 1 010 ungdomar, som inte har haft några egna pengar alls de senaste tre månaderna.

    • Det finns en stor spridning i de ekonomiska förutsättningarna hos ungdomar som haft tillgång till egna pengar. 43 procent uppskattar att de har under 1 000 kronor att röra sig med per månad, medan 37 procent har mellan 1 000 – 1 499 kronor per månad och 16 procent svarar att de har över 1499 kronor att röra sig med per månad.

    • Pengarna kommer vanligtvis från barn/studiebidrag, från regelbundna fickpengar eller från lön för arbete utanför hemmet.

    • Ungdomar som har en eller två föräldrar som inte är i arbete har lägre tillgång till egen lön, jämfört med ungdomar som har två föräldrar som är i arbete.

    • Många ungdomar menar att de har möjlighet att få extra pengar vid behov men betydligt färre har faktiskt fått extra pengar från föräldrarna de senaste tre månaderna.

    • Det är vanligt att ungdomar sparar pengar, men de flesta gör detta på oregelbunden basis.

    • Mer än en femtedel av de ungdomar som köpt kläder och skor under de senaste tre månaderna har varit missnöjda med minst ett av dessa köp.

    • Resultatet visar indikationer på att kläder och skor, samt accessoarer, ibland prioriteras bort i samband med en knapp ekonomisk situation.

    • Vid informationssökning på internet använder ungdomar många olika sorters sajter. Vanligast är generella sökmotorer såsom Google.

    • Nästan hälften av alla ungdomar som köpt dataspel/musik/filmer under de senaste tre månaderna har gjort minst ett av dessa köp via internet.

    • Mer än en tredjedel av alla ungdomar som har gjort köp via internet pratade alltid med sina föräldrar innan de handlade.

    • Betalning vid köp på internet sker oftast med betal-, bank-, eller kreditkort. Det är också vanligt att förälder/målsman betalar.

    • De flesta ungdomar som inte handat på internet framhåller betydelsen av att kunna känna eller se på en produkt.

    Slutligen bidrar undersökningen med en omfångsrik bild av hur det är att vara ung konsument 2011. Några specifika problemområden har uppdagats i resultatet som det finns behov av att arbeta vidare med.

  • 5.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    “If you have money, you can be kinder to them”: Possessions and economic resources in children's peer groups2012In: Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, ISSN 1747-3616, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 136-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the functions of material possessions and economic resources in peer relationships among third grade children.

    Design/methodology/approach – In total, 48 Swedish children aged nine were interviewed in focus groups, using a projective vignette technique and pictures. The children were asked if and how children in general could gain new friends through material possessions and money.

    Findings – The findings indicate that children perceive possessions as multi-functional tools in peer relationships. The ability to fit into the peer group, by the use of different possessions, was perceived as especially important. Additionally, children perceived money as an altruistic tool to demonstrate kindness.

    Research limitations/implications – This is a qualitative study and the results are based solely on ten focus groups.

    Practical implications – This study implies that children's ability to fit into the peer group seems to be more important than the need to express individuality. Thus, it may be a challenge for social marketers, teachers, parents, and others to address children's consumption behavior as a factor strongly influenced by the peer group.

    Originality/value – Previous research indicated that material possessions were important for children in order to gain popularity among peers. However, few studies have tried to investigate how children perceive the functions of material possessions and economic resources.

  • 6.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    ’If you have money, you can be more kind to them’.: Possessions and Economic Resources in Children’s Peer Groups2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to explore the functions of material possessions and economic resources in peer relationships among children. In total, 48 Swedish children aged 9, were interviewed in focus groups, using a projective vignette technique and pictures. The findings indicate that children perceive possessions as multi-functional tools in peer relationships. The ability to fit into the peer group, by the use of different possessions, was perceived as especially important. Additionally, children perceived money as an altruistic tool to demonstrate kindness.

  • 7.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Kompisar är gratis men... Konsumtionens betydelse för barns relationer med jämnåriga. Paper presenterat på Kultursociologisk konferens 20-21/9 2010, Linnéuniversitetet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta paper syftar till att fördjupa kunskapen om vilken betydelse pengar och konsumtion har för barns relationer med jämnåriga. Mer specifikt så undersöks hur barn resonerar omkring användning av pengar när det gäller att få nya vänner i skolan. Trots att intresset för liknande frågor har ökat inom konsumtionsforskningen så finns det fortfarande ett begränsat antal studier som studerar vänskap i relation till ekonomiska resurser. Sådan kunskap är viktig av två anledningar. För det första bidrar den med information om konsumtionens roll i barns relationer. För det andra ger den, genom att belysa normer kring konsumtion, också en bild av vilken betydelse det kan ha att växa upp med knapp ekonomi i ett samhälle där de flesta får det allt bättre. Papret är baserat på en undersökning som genomfördes våren 2010 där 50 teckningar samlades in från barn mellan 12 och 13 år. Materialet systematiserades i tabeller och analyserades med hjälp av ett kvalitativt och tematisk förhållningssätt. Resultatet visade att fem teman var särskilt återkommande i teckningarna. Dessa var sociala aktiviteter, pengar kan inte köpa vänner, utseende, ny teknologi och mat och godis. I det här papret fokuseras främst på de resultat som berör pengar kan inte köpa vänner. I analysen var det tydligt att detta tema innehöll en tvetydighet mellan pengar som oväsentliga och pengar som mycket nödvändiga, i barns relationer med jämnåriga.

  • 8.
    Lundby, Erika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Konsumtion i barns gemenskaper2009In: "Allt blir en vara": Barn, kultur och konsumtion, Stockholm: Centrum för barnkulturforskning vid Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet , 2009, p. 115-127Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns konsumtion syftar dels till att öppna upp för att ingå i olika gemenskaper och dels till att framhäva den egna identiteten i ett paradoxalt samspel. Det krävs ekonomiska resurser för att tillgodose barns konsumtion. För barn som lever under knappa ekonomiska förhållanden kan detta innebära svårigheter att delta i olika aktiviteter och att träda in i den kommersiella symbolvärlden.

  • 9.
    Lundby, Erika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Kunskapsöversikt över barns konsumtionsmönster2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a compilation and an analyse of Nordic research concerning 7 to 12 year old childrens consumption patterns. The report also identifies gaps within the research.

    The material that is presented in the report has been collected through (1) scientific databases, (2) reference lists in books and articles and (3) contact with researchers. The material consists of published research results, public reports and investigations, and workingpapers. Furthermore, the material reaches 10 years back in time, and includes a relative large number of different disciplines. In total 50 different works has been included in the report.

    In the result, various factors that influence children's consumption are addressed, such as friends, gender, age, the media, commercials, economic scarcity and parent's attitude towards consumption. Furthermore, research concerning children's access to economic resources, how children spend the resources, and the children's influence on their parent's consumption is also discussed in the result.

  • 10.
    Lundby, Erika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Mellan sparsamhet och konsumtion2008In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 2, p. 3-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumtion betyder mycket för barns relationer. I skolan jämför kamrater ständigt sina ekonomiska resurser – omsatta i konsumtionsvaror – med varandra. Barn från hem med knappa resurser riskerar därför att uppleva maktlöshet, uteslutning och känsla av brist.

  • 11.
    Lundby, Erika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Recension: Barns arbete i välfärdens Sverige2009In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, Vol. 1, p. 76-82Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har barn och unga blivit mer eller mindre förskjutna från arbetsmarknaden och barns arbete har till stor del osynliggjorts. Författarna till antologin Barndom och arbete belyser och diskuterar det arbete som barn trots allt utför.

  • 12.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Tweens as Consumers in the Nordic Countries: Putting the Pieces Together2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tweens, children between 7-12 years old, is a relative new focus in the expanding field of consumer research in the Nordic countries. The relation between consumption and tweens has been studied extensively during the past ten years. However, depending on method and focus, every study has its own limitations: research necessarily involves keeping within reasonable bounds in order to gain specific knowledge. Consequently, earlier research has been studying different pieces in the complex area that constitutes tweens in relation to consumption. This article aims to put the pieces together in order to gain a more composite picture of the area: focus is on consumption patterns among Nordic tweens. Earlier research from various disciplines was collected trough (1) databases, (2) reference lists in books and articles and (3) contact with researchers. The sample was composed of 50 Nordic studies, from 1990 to 2007. By putting the pieces together it is clear that tweens and consumption is a complex area; and that consumption, to a high degree, intertwines with everyday life for children.

  • 13.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vänskap för pengar? Barns syn på konsumtion, i tre skilda bostadsområden2014In: Barn, ISSN 0800-1669, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to investigate children’s perception of the meaning of consumption, in differentsocial groups, and to what extent these perceptions vary. Such knowledge is highly important inorder to understand children’s social life in a consumption society and, more generally, for understandingcontemporary childhood. In total, 49 Swedish children aged 9, from three different schools, wereinterviewed in focus groups, using a projective vignette technique and pictures. The children were askedif and how children in general could gain new friends through material possessions and money. Theresult demonstrates that most children expressed a materialistic way of thinking where consumptionwas seen as useful in order to gain recognition, status and inclusion. However, besides the similarities,some minor local differences seemed to exist between the schools.

  • 14.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ‘‘You can’t buy friends, but . . . ’’ children’s perception of consumption and friendship2013In: Young Consumers, ISSN 1747-3616, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 360-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – This article aims to explore, and compare, the perceived association between economic

    resources and peer relationships among two age groups of Swedish tweens.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The data consist of 101 drawings by Swedish tweens, aged nine,

    and aged 12. The children were asked if and how children can attract friends through the use

    of money.

    Findings

    – Most children did perceive economic resources as a means to attract friends. However, both the kind of items that were found in the drawings, and the children’s perceptions of how

    to use the items, were relatively different between children aged nine and children aged 12.

    Research limitations/implications

    – Because of the small sample size, it is not possible to generalize

    results obtained in the current study to a population of children in general.

    Practical implications

    – If children believe that they can use material goods to become more popular

    and accepted, they may be highly vulnerable to the internalisation of materialistic values. In

    order to more deeply understand the meaning of consumption in children’s peer

    relationships, there is a need to gain more knowledge of the extent to which children

    themselves perceive money as a means of attracting friends.

    Originality/value

    – Previous research indicates that material possessions are important for children in

    order to gain popularity among peers. However, few studies have tried to investigate if and

    how children perceive economic resources as a means to attract friends, in different age

    groups.

    Keywords

    children, Consumption, Economic resources, Friendship, Peers, Tweens

    Paper type

    Research paper

  • 15.
    Lundby, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Social Work.
    Young Consumer in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the question of how economic resources influence children’s peer relations will be addressed, with focus on the Scandinavian setting. This question is of particularly importance in times of changing discourses surrounding children’s role in the consumer society.

1 - 15 of 15
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