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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Are religious people more prosocial?: A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009Ingår i: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 368-374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this article examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies that identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy to the behavior of other students in a public goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Breeding Bin Ladens: America, Islam and the future of Europe2008Ingår i: Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 640-641Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior? Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008Ingår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 298-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Conditional reciprocity in the investment game2011Ingår i: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 404-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether people are conditional reciprocators in an investment game experiment, in the sense that the more they are trusted, the more they reciprocate. The results show that the majority of participants are conditional reciprocators but that they can be classified into three types: (1) exploitative reciprocators who do not reciprocate and exploit trust; (2) egoistic reciprocators who neither exploit nor reward trust; and (3) generous reciprocators who reward trusting behavior.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och Statistik.
    Decisions under unpredictable losses: An examination of the restated diversification principle2007Ingår i: Judgment and Decision Making, ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 312-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the restated diversification principle is presented. The principle

    postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about

    the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results

    of the experiment support the principle.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 324-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how group identity, social distance and intergroup bias may aVect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Muslim discrimination:: Evidence from two lost letter experiments2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 888-898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Vad säger ett efternamn? En experimentell studie av etnisk diskriminering2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 2715-2723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    What’s in a Name? An Experimental Study of How Information about Ethnicity can Affect Economic Behavior2004Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: Evidence from Come Dine with Me2011Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1099-1101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 12. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013Ingår i: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 565-585Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013Ingår i: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 249-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 14. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: Evidence from Swedish register data2013Ingår i: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 83-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthlyearnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay malesare at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of whichearnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when wecompare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, thedisadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however,earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerablysmaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earningsadvantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documentedregardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing betterthan female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate thatgay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching toplevelpositions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians islikely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work thanheterosexual females.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Are homosexuals discriminated against in the hiring process?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008Ingår i: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 234-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination against lesbians in the rental housing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided.

     

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010Ingår i: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 79-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [no]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicantsaffects discrimination in the rental housing market. We letfour fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim namesand two with typical Swedish names, use application letterscontaining different amounts of information to apply for apartmentsover the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants receivedfewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants.All of the applicants gained by providing more information aboutthemselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslimapplicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing theamount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Diskriminering mot -icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 403-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Earnings differentials due to sexual orientation: A look at some possible explanations2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented earnings differentials due to sexual orientation. In this paper we take a closer look at such differentials and the explanations for them. By studying yearly earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings, we are able to observe the extent to which the earnings disadvantage that is often observed for homosexual males and the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females remain when we control for factors such as their number of hours worked. Our results suggest that male homosexuals are also at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals after controlling for number of hours worked. This disadvantage is larger at the top than at the bottom of the earnings distribution. However, for females the earnings differential is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly earnings than when we study yearly earnings. Thus, the results indicate that male homosexuals face obstacles on the labour market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings levels; the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females in previous research is more likely to stem from the fact that female homosexuals devote more time to market labour than heterosexual females do.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009Ingår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 3050-3058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Homosexuella diskrimineras i traditionella yrken2011Ingår i: Svenska Dagbladet (Opinion), ISSN 1101-2412, nr 20 marsArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples2011Ingår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, nr s2, s. s258-s278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. More than 1,000 participants were asked to read one out of eight possible fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships and subsequently respond to a questionnaire. Sexual orientation, victims’ and batterers’ gender, and severity of the violence varied across the different scenarios. The clearest result of this study was that participants perceived domestic violence to be significantly more serious when a man battered his wife than in any other case (i.e., when a woman battered her husband, when a gay man battered his husband, or when a lesbian woman battered her wife). In all types of relationships, participants matched their perceptions of domestic violence to the level of severity of the violence and participants with more negative attitudes toward women perceived domestic violence as less serious. Female participants were more concerned about lesbian domestic violence than male participants. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians mattered little for the perceptions of domestic violence.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011Ingår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 2422-2433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    The Swedish Elderly Care2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden: Bidrag, kritik och framtid2008Ingår i: Efterfrågad arbetskraft? / [ed] Svante Lundberg och Ellinor Platzer, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2008, s. 101-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009Ingår i: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 105-122Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006Ingår i: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning / [ed] Katarina Hjelm, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2006, s. 45-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 72-77Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering. Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Bostadssökande invandrare nobbas åtta gånger av tio2007Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter: DN Debatt, Vol. 11, nr 76, s. 6-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009Ingår i: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, nr 303, s. 588-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the Internet2008Ingår i: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 362-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rental housing market.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, nr 8, s. 31-40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: Effekten av att heta Mohammed2007Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 35, nr 34-41Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 835-849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [nb]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011Ingår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 900-910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Essays on the Behavioral Economics of Discrimination2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Cooperación y confianza: Análisis comparativo en economía experimental2007Ingår i: Revista CIFE, Vol. 12, nr 9, s. 9-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implicit influences of Christian religious representations on dictator and prisoner’s dilemma game decisions2011Ingår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 242-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how implicit influences of Christian religious representations affect prosociality. We examine the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on prosocial behavior. We do so by priming participants with religious words in a scrambled sentence task before they make a dictator game and a prisoner's dilemma game decision. Priming religious words significantly increased prosocial behavior in both games: participants in the treatment group were more generous and cooperative than participants in the control group. The priming effect was present regardless of participants’ self-reported religiosity. Self-reported religiosity was not correlated with generosity or cooperation.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Is the hand of God involved in human cooperation?2009Ingår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 36, nr 1/2, s. 70-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the supernatural punishment theory. The theory postulates that religion increases cooperation because religious people fear the retributions that may follow if they do not follow the rules and norms provided by the religion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports results for a public goods experiment conducted in India, Mexico, and Sweden. By asking participants whether they are religious or not, one can study whether religiosity has an effect on voluntary cooperation in the public goods game. Findings – No significant behavioral differences were found between religious and nonreligious participants in the experiment. Originality/value – This paper differs from the previous limited experimental literature, studying religiosity and cooperation, in the sense that it uses a public goods game rather than a prisoner's dilemma game. The public goods game is more interesting since many real life problems are multilateral rather than bilateral. Further, the study was conducted in three different countries: India, Mexico, and Sweden; with three different types of potentialy religious people: Hindus, Catholics, and Protestants.

  • 44.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    The relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust: A cross-cultural study2009Ingår i: Review of social economy, ISSN 0034-6764, E-ISSN 1470-1162, Vol. 67, nr 4, s. 457-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between trust in an experiment and trust measured by means of popular survey items in different countries. Students from Chile, Colombia, India, Mexico and Sweden participate in a public goods game experiment and answer a set of standard attitudinal survey questions about trust. We find that behavioral trust and attitudinal trust significantly differ among countries. Behavioral trust is highest in Sweden, followed by Latin America, and lowest in India. Attitudinal trust is highest in Chile and Sweden, followed by India and Mexico, and lowest in Colombia. Further, the predictive power of survey items also differs among countries. Trust measured by survey items is significantly related to behavioral trust in some but not in all societies. No single survey item predicts actual trust across all countries. Plausible explanations of the inconsistent relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust across countries are discussed.

  • 45.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Trust in India and Sweden: An experimental examination of the Fukuyama conjecture2008Ingår i: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 420-429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors test the proposition, put forward by Francis Fukuyama, that the higher the level of trust in a country the less corrupt, the more developed, and wealthier its economy will be. They study trust and voluntary cooperation using a one-shot and three-person public goods game experiment in India and Sweden. The results, in line with the proposition, show that the average contribution is significantly larger in Sweden, implying a higher level of trust and cooperation in Sweden than in India. This article provides further evidence on the relationship between trust and economic development. This study differs from previous ones in that it uses a multilateral game experiment to study trust and cooperation rather than a bilateral game experiment. Furthermore, it provides evidence from two countries not studied before in this context.

  • 46.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi och Statistik.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköpings universitet.
    Choices at various levels of uncertainty: An experimental test of the restated diversification theorem2006Ingår i: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 183-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ``Restated diversification theorem'' (Skogh and Wu, 2005) says that risk-averse agents may pool risks efficiently without assignment of subjective probabilities to outcomes, also at genuine uncertainty. It suffices that the agents presume that they face equal risks. Here, the theorem is tested in an experiment where the probability of loss, and the information about this probability, varies. The result supports our theorem. Moreover, it tentatively supports an evolutionary theory of the insurance industry--starting with mutual pooling at uncertainty, turning into insurance priced ex ante when actuarial information is available.

  • 47.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians: Evidence from Sweden2015Ingår i: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 90-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a study of sexual prejudice and differentials in labor market outcomes due to sexual orientation. It uses data from a nationwide Swedish survey on public attitudes toward homosexuals, conducted in 1999, and combines them with register data for 2007, which include information about sexual orientation, employment status, and yearly earnings for the total population in Sweden. It finds that prejudice against homosexuals negatively affects the relative employment and relative earnings of gay men. Lesbians are affected negatively by prejudice against homosexuals in terms of employment, but the relationship is less clear in regard to earnings. Discrimination against homosexuals, as well as social norms, occupational sorting and self-selection in, geographic mobility are presented as explanations for the results.

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