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  • 1.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mufunda, Esther
    Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe.
    Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study2010In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 10, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health-care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe.

    Methods: consecutive sample from diabetes clinic. Semistructured interviews with 21 persons aged 19-65 yrs. Data analysis with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Health expressed as freedom from disease and well-being. Individual factors such as compliance with advice and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM stated, mainly individual factors as heredity, overweight and wrong diet combined with supernatural factors as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most did not recognize DM symptoms when falling ill but related health problems to other diseases. Limited knowledge about the disease and body was indicated. Poor economy was claimed harmful to health and a consequence of DM due to the need of buying expensive drugs, food, attending check-ups etc.

    Conclusions: Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to influence of supernatural forces were found, these affected self-care and care-seeking behaviour. Strained economy was claimed as of utmost importance affecting management of the disease and health. Systemic and structural conditions need to be considered toghether with educational efforts to promote health and prevent DM-complications. 

  • 2.
    Mufunda, Esther
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Albin, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Differences in health and illness beliefs in Zimbabwean men and women with diabetes (Open Access)2012In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 6, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care and health-seeking behaviours in Zimbabwean men and women with diabetes. Gender differences were indicated in a previous study but their extent has not been studied. The present study used a qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomena. The sample consisted of 21 participants, 11 females aged 19-61 years (Median 44 years) and 10 males aged 22-65 years (Median 52 years). Qualitative content analysis was used. Health was described as freedom from diseases and enjoying well-being. Both males and females displayed limited knowledge about diabetes and dissimilarities in health-seeking behaviours. Women, in contrast to men, were more active in self-care and used various measures besides drugs as they related to a higher extent the cause of diabetes to supernatural factors like gods and witches. They sought information from self-help groups and help from outside the professional health sector like healers in the folk sector. Prolonged economic disruption also had negative effects towards maintenance of healthy life-styles as both men and women struggled to get money for food and drugs. Thus, the study highlighted that knowledge about diabetes and its management are important for self-care. There is therefore need to develop acceptable and affordable gender- sensitive diabetes care programmes that enhance patient participation, empowerment and promotion of health

  • 3.
    Mufunda, Esther
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wikby, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Albin, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Level and determinants of diabetesknowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study (Open Access)2012In: Pan-african medical journal, ISSN 0031-0565, Vol. 13, p. Article ID: 78-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about DM affecting self-management and care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with DM, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and DM-related determinants predict DM awareness and self-management.

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using a standardized self-report Diabetes Knowledge Test questionnaire (DKT) of 58 respondents. Results were analysed with  statistical methods.The majority of the respondents scored average knowledge on the sub-scales: general knowledge, insulin use and total knowledge, with an overall score of 63.1± 14, 2%. Major knowledge gaps were found concerning diet, insulin use and glycaemic control. No significant differences in mean scores were detected in the DM knowledge sub-scales when comparingb mean knowledge scores in relation to socio-demographic and DM characteristics. However, DM -related complications were significantly associated with lower total and general DM knowledge, and female gender was an independent determinant of low general knowledge. In conclusion, knowledge gaps were evident regarding insulin use, diet and glycaemic control. Low DM knowledge was associated with being a female and could be a risk factor for development of DM-related complications. Knowledge gaps need to be addressed in diabetes education to prevent development of complications.

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