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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Determination of diffusion characteristics of ion exchanged float glass by use of a Surface Ablation Cell (SAC)2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Glass strengthening and ion exchange phenomena2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Ion exchange of monovalent ions in float glass2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Ion exchange processes on float glass surfaces2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass can be strengthened by ion exchange and this process is presently used inspecial applications e.g. aircraft windshields, displays and spectacle lenses allowinga higher production cost. Chemically strengthened float glass is moreexpensive than thermally strengthenened, but will likely find applications in futurebuilding and interior constructions where strength demands, design andshape prevent the use of thermal strengthening. The aim of this work is tostudy ion exchange on float glass surfaces. In longer terms, the chemicalstrengthening is planned to be applied to specific critical area e.g. around adrilled hole which without treatment deteriorates the overall strength of theglass.Strengthening the glass through ion exchange can be done in several ways butis most often referred to as the replacement of smaller ions in the glass structureby larger ions from the salt used for treatment. By determining concentrationvs. depth profiles of ion exchanged float glasses, it is possible to calculate thediffusion coefficients and activation energy for different ions. In this study, theless frequently studied approach single-side ion exchange of different ions ofcommercial float glass is described. The concentration vs. depth profiles weredetermined either by the use of the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), which allowsthe continuous removal of the material from a flat glass surface by slow controlledisotropic dissolution or SEM-EDX.The results of the work are that similar diffusivities and concentration vs. depthprofiles are achieved with single-side ion exchange as from the traditional wayof immersing glass in molten salt bath. Ion exchange of Ag+ stains the floatglass on both sides giving it a yellow or amber-brownish colour. Unlike Ag+ ionexchange of Cu+ stains the float glass on the tin-side only, giving it a yellow,red or red-brown colour. Determining the concentration vs. depth profiles ofion exchanged float glasses with the SAC was convenient except for Ag+ whichwas determined with SEM-EDX. The work confirms that the procedure andequipment of the SAC are very cheap, easy to use and gives data similar tothose gained by much more expensive equipment. Calculated diffusion coefficientsof K+, Ag+ and Rb+ are in accordance with literature data while Cu+ and Cs+ diffusion coefficients were slightly lower. The diffusion coefficients of the different ions follow the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+ and ranges between9.4E-10 and 4.8E-13 cm2s-1. The calculated activation energies for diffusion of K+, Ag+ and Cu+ corresponds with reported literature data and were calculated to: Ag+(air-side) 152 kJ/mol, Ag+(tin-side) 185 kJ/mol, K+ 108 kJ/mol and Cu+115 kJ/mol.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is a common material in each person’s life, e.g. drinking vessels, windows, displays, insulation and optical fibres. By modifying the glass surface it is possible to change the performance of the entire glass object, generally known as Surface Engineering. Ion exchange is a convenient technique to modify the glass surface composition and its properties, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, without ruining the surface finish of the glass.

     

    This thesis reports the findings of two different research tasks; characterisation of the single-side ion exchange process and the novel properties induced. The characterisation of the ion exchange process was mainly performed by utilising a novel analytical equipment: the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), allowing continuous removal of the flat glass surface by controlled isotropic dissolution. SAC-AAS has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of float glass ion exchanged with K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. In addition, SEM-EDX has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of Ag+ ion exchanged samples and validation of a copper concentration vs. depth profile. From the concentration vs. depth profiles, the effective diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the ion exchange processes have been calculated. Depending on the treatment time and treatment temperature, penetration depths in the range of 5-10 μm (Rb+, Cs+), 20-30 μm (K+, Cu+) and 80-100 μm (Ag+) can be readily obtained. The effective diffusion coefficients followed the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+. This is in accordance with the ionic radii for the alkali ions (K+<Rb+<Cs+) but reverse for the noble metal ions (Cu+<Ag+).

     

    The glass properties modified by single-side ion exchange have mainly been characterised by UV-VIS spectroscopy and flexural strength measurements. Cu+ and Ag+ ion exchange give rise to surface colouration, Cu+ copper-ruby and Ag+ yellow/amber. The surface-ruby colouration was found to depend on the residual tin ions in the tin-side of the float glass. The flexural strength was studied using the coaxial double ring-test method which also was suitable for holed specimens. The flexural strength of K+ ion exchanged float glass samples was found to substantially increase compared to untreated.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Diffusion and ion exchange of float glass: Na+ substitution by Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, single-side ion exchange on commercial float glass of the monovalent cations Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+ is described. Data on the concentration profiles and calculations on thediffusion coefficients as well as activation energies are reported. The ion exchange of sodiumfor copper or silver is complex, since it is affected by the distribution of the element indifferent oxidation states. Anyhow, it was possible to determine the Cu+ diffusion coefficientsto be in the range 8.0E-12 to 3.4E-11 cm2s-1 and the activation energy 115 kJ/mol. Thepenetration depth of Cu+ exceeds 25 μm. The average diffusion coefficients of silver werecalculated to be in the range 2.1E-10 to 9.9E-10 cm2s-1 and the activation energies for samplestreated at temperatures higher than 470 ºC to 152 kJ/mol and 185 kJ/mol for air-side and tinsiderespectively. The Ag+ penetration depth is beyond 150 μm for the highest temperatures.Rb+-Na+ ion exchange reaches a penetration depth of approximately 10 μm with diffusioncoefficients ranging from 1.7E-12 to 8.6E-13 cm2s-1 while Cs+-Na+ ion exchange reaches apenetration depth of approximately 7 μm with diffusion coefficients ranging from 6.2E-13 to3.8E-13 cm2s-1.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Single-Side Ion Exchange Strengthening of Holed Float Glass2012In: Nordic Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture strength of oxide glasses is to a large degree influenced by other factors than the inherent strength of the bonds in the vitreous network such as surface defects. Due to the brittle nature of glass, mechanical processing decreases the strength substantially. The aim of this study was to investigate ion exchange strengthening also known as chemical strengthening of commercially available mechanically processed soda-lime-silicate float glass and to compare it with as-received float glass by means of flexural fracture load. The dimensions of the samples were 66±2 x 66±2 mm and two series had 7 mm diamond drilled holes in the centre of each sample while one series was as-received. Ion exchange of sodium ions by larger potassium ions were performed by treating the air-side of a series of samples with a KNO3:KCl mixture at 450 °C. The flexural fracture load of both untreated and ion exchanged holed samples was measured by means of the coaxial double ring test. The ion exchanged samples showed an arithmetic mean fracture load increase of approximately 140% compared to untreated holed float glass. The drilled hole decreases the arithmetic mean fracture load to approximately 25% of as-received float glass whilst the strengthening effect of the ion exchange improves it to around 65% of as-received float glass.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain and holed float glass containing a drilled hole2013In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of single-side ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ~110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ~180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness. 

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Reibstein, Sindy
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange2013In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda lime silicate float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration vs. depth profiles, absorbance vs. depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra  and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of colouration is achieved after ion exchange at 520 °C for 10 h, or at 500 °C for 20 h, respectively. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the value of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The latter indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ~0.25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    Glafo AB.
    The technology of chemical glass strengthening - a review.2010In: Glass Technology, ISSN 0017-1050, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 41-54Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods of chemical strengthening for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses are reviewed. Chemical strengthening in compared with thermal strengthening and different methods of measuring strength are discussed. Different ions, salts and other related methods for improving the ion exchange process and mechanical properties are described as well as applications of strengthening.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sundberg, Peter
    Glafo AB.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    Glafo AB.
    Surface Analysis of float glass using Surface Ablation Cell (SAC) Part 2: Determination of the diffusion characteristics of K+-Na+ ion exchange2010In: Glass Technology, ISSN 0017-1050, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), a laboratory equipment for determining surface concentration profiles, has been utilised to characterise float glass surface ion exchange processes. In this paper, single-side ion exchange is reported. Data on the ion concentration profiles were used to calculate diffusion coefficients as well as the activation energy for K+-Na+ ion exchange. The air-sides of float glass samples were treated with two different salt mixtures, I) KNO3:KCl, 2:1 and II) KNO3:KCl, 1:2, and heated to different temperatures under Tg, 460-520 °C. The diffusion coefficients calculated with Green’s function were in the range I) 1.4x10-11 to 6.8x10-11 and II) 1.8x10-11 to 6.0x10-11 cm2/s while calculated according to Boltzmann-Matano I) 5.7x10-12 to 1.4x10-11 and II) 3.4x10-12 to 6.0x10-12 cm2/s. Average values of the activation energies obtained through Green’s function were I) 111.0 kJ/mol and II) 99.8 kJ/mol for the different salt mixtures.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg .
    Colouration of float glass by copper ion exchange2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg .
    Copper colouration of the surface of float glass by ion exchange2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg.
    Copper, silver, rubidium and caesium ion exchange in soda-lime-silicate float glass by direct deposition and in line melting of salt pastes2012In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the change of surface composition on commercial soda-lime-silica (SLS) float glass which results from single-side exchange of Na+ by Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+, respectively. Ion exchange is achieved by in line melting of a directly deposited salt paste in a prolonged annealing procedure. Concentration profiles obtained and computed effective diffusion coefficients, as well as apparent activation energies for diffusion, are reported. Depending on exchange species, treatment time and treatment temperature, the penetration depths are in the range of 10-20 μm for K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. A penetration depth of >100 μm can readily be obtained for Ag+.

  • 15.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    Glafo AB.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Brochot, Dominique
    Corning SAS.
    Simons, Jose
    INISMa.
    Strubel, Christine
    Schott AG.
    Surface Analysis of float glass using Surface Ablation Cell (SAC) Part 1: Initial collaboration and comparison with SIMS.2010In: Glass Technology, ISSN 0017-1050, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 15 of 15
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