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  • 1.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 5, article id e10880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  • 2.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karpestam, Einat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rapid evolution of fire melanism in replicated populations of pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 2530-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts an interactive process whereby spatiotemporal environmental heterogeneity will maintain genetic variation, while genetic and phenotypic diversity will buffer populations against stress and allow for fast adaptive evolution in rapidly changing environments. Here, we study color polymorphism patterns in pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) and show that the frequency of the melanistic (black) color variant was higher in areas that had been ravaged by fires the previous year than in nonburned habitats, that, in burned areas, the frequency of melanistic grasshoppers dropped from ca. 50% one year after a fire to 30% after four years, and that the variation in frequencies of melanistic individuals among and within populations was genetically based on and represented evolutionary modifications. Dark coloration may confer a selective benefit mediated by enhanced camouflage in recently fire-ravaged areas characterized by blackened visual backgrounds before vegetation has recovered. These findings provide rare evidence for unusually large, extremely rapid adaptive contemporary evolution in replicated natural populations in response to divergent and fluctuating selection associated with spatiotemporal environmental changes.

  • 4.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Variation in founder groups promotes establishment success in the wild2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1739, p. 2800-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes currently pose severe threats to biodiversity, and reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to protect declining populations and species from extinction. Theory predicts that establishment success should be higher for more variable groups of dissimilar individuals. To test this ‘diversity promotes establishment’ hypothesis, we introduced colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) to different sites in the wild. The number of descendants found at the release sites the subsequent year increased with increasing number of colour morphs in the founder group, and variation in founder groups also positively affected colour morph diversity in the established populations. Since colour morphs differ in morphology, physiology, behaviour, reproductive life history and types of niche used, these findings demonstrate that variation among individuals in functionally important traits promotes establishment success under natural conditions, and further indicate that founder diversity may contribute to evolutionary rescue and increased population persistence.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Evolution in changing environments revealed by fire melanism in pygmy grasshopper2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to theory, genetic diversity can be maintained by environmental variation and the degree of genetic and phenotypic polymorphism may enhance the ability of populations to endure stress imposed by changing environments. In my thesis I used colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) as a model system to explore how environmental variation influenced genetic diversity. I compared population colour morph frequencies between populations in burnt and non-burnt areas and performed experiments to investigate to what extent colour patterns in these insects are determined by genes and influenced by phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental effects experienced during development. My results showed that the frequency of black individuals on average was much higher in recently fire ravaged areas, a condition known as fire melanism. The highest proportion of black individuals was reached within the first year after a fire. After the initial increase, the proportion of black individuals declined again and the distribution among alternative colour morphs became more even. Data for individuals raised in captivity revealed a high correspondence between maternal and offspring colour patterns, indicating a strong genetic influence on colour. Additional experiments demonstrated that the development of colour patterns in pygmy grasshoppers was not influenced by burnt material or high population densities, two environmental cues associated with post fire environments.

    To test if reduced competition among alternative colour morphs may contribute to the maintenance of colour pattern polymorphism in these insects I examined if average survival was higher in diverse compared to homogeneous groups of individuals. I found that survival increased with colour pattern diversity, presumably due to reduced competition among alternative colour morphs. Relaxation of competition may explain why the distribution among alternative colour patterns changed and became more even after the initial evolution of fire melanism. My results demonstrate that environmental change may cause extremely rapid and reversible evolution, indicate that fluctuating selection may preserve genetic variation and support the notion that polymorphism may increase average individual success and enable populations to withstand environmental change.

     

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Dynamics of colour polymorphism in a changing environment: Fire melanism and then what?2008In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 154, no 4, p. 715-724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Is melanism in pygmy grasshoppers induced by crowding?2010In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 975-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Color polymorphisms in animals may result from plasticity of the developmental system in response to genetic cues in the form of allelic variation at polymorphic loci, environmental cues, or a combination of genetic and environmental cues. An increased understanding of the evolution of color polymorphisms requires better knowledge of when we should expect genetic and environmental cues respectively to influence phenotype determination. Theory posits that the developmental systems of organisms should evolve sensitivity to such cues that most accurately predict coming selective conditions. Pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) vary in color pattern within and among populations and show fire melanism, i.e., an increased frequency of black and dark colored phenotypes in high density populations inhabiting fire-ravaged areas. We examined if the population density experienced by individuals during development influenced the phenotypic expression of color pattern in Tetrix subulata. Individuals were experimentally reared either in solitude, at intermediate density or under crowded conditions. We found that color patterns of experimental individuals were independent of rearing density but strongly influenced by maternal color pattern. High population density and crowding may not constitute reliable predictors of the selective regime that characterizes post-fire environments.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. University of Kalmar.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    No evidence for developmental plasticity of colour patterns in response to rearing substrate in pygmy grasshoppers2009In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 87, no 11, p. 1044-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Color polymorphisms in animals may result from genetic polymorphisms, developmental plasticity, or a combination where some phenotypic components are under strong genetic control and other aspects are influenced by developmental plasticity. Understanding how color polymorphisms evolve demands knowledge of how genetic and epigenetic environmental cues influence the development and phenotypic expression of organisms. Pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) vary in color pattern within and among populations. Color morphs differ in morphology, behavior, and life history, suggesting that they represent alternative ecological strategies. Pygmy grasshoppers also show fire melanism, a rapid increase in the frequency of black and dark-colored phenotypes in populations inhabiting fire-ravaged areas. We examined the influence of plasticity on color polymorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (L., 1761) using a split-brood design. Individuals were experimentally raised in solitude on either crushed charcoal or white aquarium gravel. Our analyses uncovered no plasticity of either color pattern or overall darkness of coloration in response to rearing substrate. Instead, we find a strong resemblance between maternal and offspring color patterns. We conclude that pygmy grasshopper color morphs are strongly influenced by genetic cues or maternal effects, and that there is no evidence for developmental plasticity of coloration in response to rearing conditions in these insects.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Vesterbacka, Mark
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    A non-overlapping two-phase clock generator with adjustable duty cycle2003In: Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings ISSN 1650-3740, poster Nr. 2, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Vesterbacka, Mark
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    A robust non-overlapping two-phase clock generator2003In: Swedish System-on-Chip Conference 2003, SSoCC'03, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Vesterbacka, Mark
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Design of Digit-Serial Pipelines with Merged Logic and Latches2003In: Proc of IEEE conf. Norchip'03, Riga, Latvia pp. 68-71, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Vesterbacka, Mark
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Ripple-Carry versus Carry-Look-Ahead Digit-Serial Adders2003In: IEEE proc. of Norchip'03, Riga, Latvia, pp. 264-267, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lapid, Einat
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Rapid parallel evolution of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Johansson, Bengt
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Measurement Data Processing for Audio Surround Compensation2001In: Proceeding of Symposium on Virtual and real Tools for Education in Measurement, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Cross correlation Function and Matched Filter Comparison and Implementation2001In: Scientific Bulletin of Lodz Technical University, ISSN 0374-4817, Vol. 98Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    The Cross-Correlation Function and Matched Filter Comparison and Implementation2001In: Scientific Bulletin of Lodz Technical University, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Wirandi, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Human Machine Interaction in Disassembly Process2000Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wirandi, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Rosengren, A
    de Petris, L
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    The Impact of HMI on the Design of a Disassembly System2001In: Proceedings of 6th IFAC Symposium on Cost Oriented Automation, Berlin, Germany, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 18 of 18
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