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  • 1. Albertazz, S.
    et al.
    Basile, F.
    Brandin, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Fornasar, G.
    Hulteberg, C.
    Sanati, M.
    Trifir, F.
    Vaccari, A.
    Pt/Rh/MgAl(O) Catalyst for the Upgrading of Biomass-Generated synthesis gases.2009In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Albertazzi, Simone
    et al.
    Basile, Francesco
    Barbera, Davide
    Benito, Patricia
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Fornasari, Giuseppe
    Trifirò, Ferruccio
    Vaccari, Angelo
    Deactivation of a Ni-Based Reforming Catalyst During the Upgrading of the Producer Gas, from Simulated to Real Conditions2011In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a nickel reforming catalyst during the upgrading of the producer gas obtained by gasification of lignocellulosic biomass was studied. The research involved several steps: the selective deactivation of the catalyst in a laboratory scale; the streaming of the catalyst with the producer gas of a downdraft and an oxygen/steam circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier; and tests in a reformer placed in a slipstream of the CFB gasifier. The information obtained allowed to elucidate the catalyst deactivation mechanisms taking place during the reforming of the producer gas: physical deactivation by deposition of fine ashes, aerosol particulate or carbon; poisoning by H2S and HCl present in the gas phase and thermal sintering because of the high operation temperatures required to avoid the chemical deactivation. These physical and chemical effects depended on the composition of the biomass fuel.

  • 3.
    Basile, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Bologna.
    Albertazzi, Simone
    University of Bologna.
    Barbera, David
    University of Bologna.
    Benito, Patricia
    University of Bologna.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Fornasari, G.
    University of Bologna.
    Trifiro, Ferrucio
    University of Bologna.
    Vaccari, A.
    University of Bologna.
    Steam reforming of hot gas from gasified wood types and miscanthus biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. S116-S122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reforming of hot gas generated from biomass gasification and high temperature gas filtration was studied in order to reach the goal of the CHRISGAS project: a 60% of synthesis gas (as x(H2)+ x(CO) on a N2 and dry basis) in the exit gas, which can be converted either into H2 or fuels. A Ni-MgAl2O4 commercial-like catalyst was tested downstream the gasification of clean wood made of saw dust, waste wood and miscanthus as herbaceous biomass. The effect of the temperature and contact time on the hydrocarbon conversion as well as the characterization of the used catalysts was studied. Low (<600 °C), medium (750°C–900 °C) and high temperature (900°C–1050 °C) tests were carried out in order to study, respectively, the tar cracking, the lowest operating reformer temperature for clean biomass, the methane conversion achievable as function of the temperature and the catalyst deactivation. The results demonstrate the possibility to produce an enriched syngas by the upgrading of the gasification stream of woody biomass with low sulphur content. However, for miscanthusthe development of catalysts with an enhanced resistance to sulphur poison will be the key point in the process development.

  • 4. Bengtsson, Sune
    et al.
    Brandin, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Production of syngas by thermochemical conversion of lignocelluloses biomass2007In: Italic4, Science & Technology of biomasses: advances and challenges, 2007, p. 125-128Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Biomass to liquid fuels via gasification process: The CHRISGAS project2008In: The 14th International Congress on Catalysis: Catalysis as the Pivotal Technology for the Future Society, 2008, p. 122-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Effect of fly ash and H2S on a Ni-based catalyst for the upgrading of a biomass-generated gas2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Effects of fly ashes on Pt-Rh/MgAl(O) catalyst for the upgrading of the product gas from biomass gasification2007In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 2007, p. 1197-1200Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Effects of H2S and fly ash on Ni based catalyst for the reforming of a product gas from biomass gasification:2007In: Europacat VIII, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Study of the deactivation of a Ni based catalyst for the reforming of a product gas from biomass gasification2007In: Europacat VIII, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sanati, Mehri
    The technical feasibility of biomass gasification for hydrogen production2005In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 106, no 1-4, p. 297-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification for energy or hydrogen production is a field in continuous evolution, due to the fact that biomass is a renewable and CO2 neutral source. The ability to produce biomass-derived vehicle fuel on a large scale will help to reduce greenhouse gas and pollution, increase the security of European energy supplies, and enhance the use of renewable energy. The Värnamo Biomass Gassification Centre in Sweden is a unique plant and an important site for the development of innovative technologies for biomass transformation. At the moment, the Värnamo plant is the heart of the CHRISGAS European project, that aims to convert the produced gas for further upgrading to liquid fuels as dimethyl ether (DME), methanol or Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) derived diesel. The present work is an attempt to highlight the conditions for the reforming unit and the problems related to working with streams having high contents of sulphur and alkali metals.

  • 11.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Albertazzi, Simone
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Catator AB.
    Malik, Azhar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Basile, Francesco
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Brandin, Jan
    Catator AB.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Investigation of reforming catalyst deactivation by exposure to fly ash from biomass gasification in laboratory scale2007In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 2481-2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of synthesis gas by catalytic reforming of product gas from biomass gasification can lead to catalyst deactivation by the exposure to ash compounds present in the flue gas. The impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on reforming catalysts was studied at the laboratory scale. The investigated catalyst was Pt/Rh based, and it was exposed to generated K2SO4 aerosol particles and to aerosol particles produced from the water-soluble part of biomass fly ash, originating from a commercial biomass combustion plant. The noble metal catalyst was also compared with a commercial Ni-based catalyst, exposed to aerosol particles of the same fashion. To investigate the deactivation by aerosol particles, a flow containing submicrometer-size selected aerosol particles was led through the catalyst bed. The particle size of the poison was measured prior to the catalytic reactor system. Fresh and aerosol particle exposed catalysts were characterized using BET surface area, XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction), and H2 chemisorption. The Pt/Rh catalyst was also investigated for activity in the steam methane reforming reaction. It was found that the method to deposit generated aerosol particles on reforming catalysts could be a useful procedure to investigate the impact of different compounds possibly present in the product gas from the gasifier, acting as potential catalyst poisons. The catalytic deactivation procedure by exposure to aerosol particles is somehow similar to what happens in a real plant, when a catalyst bed is located subsequent to a biomass gasifier or a combustion boiler. Using different environments (oxidizing, reducing, steam present, etc.) in the aerosol generation adds further flexibility to the suggested aerosol deactivation method. It is essential to investigate the deactivating effect at the laboratory scale before a full-scale plant is taken into operation to avoid operational problems.

  • 12.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Benito, Patricia
    University of Bologna.
    Basile, Francesco
    University of Bologna.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    High temperature water-gas shift step in the production of clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. S123-S131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of using the water-gas shift (WGS) step for tuning the H2/CO-ratio in synthesis gas produced from gasified biomass has been investigated in the CHRISGAS (Clean Hydrogen Rich Synthesis Gas) project. The synthesis gas produced will contain contaminants such as H2S, NH3 and chloride components. As the most promising candidate FeCr catalyst, prepared in the laboratory, was tested. One part of the work was conducted in a laboratory set up with simulated gases and another part in real gases in the 100 kW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) gasifier at Delft University of Technology. Used catalysts from both tests have been characterized by XRD and N2 adsoption/desorption at −196 °C.

    In the first part of the laboratory investigation a laboratory set up was built. The main gas mixture consisted of CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2 with the possibility to add gas or water-soluble contaminants, like H2S, NH3 and HCl, in low concentration (0–3 dm3 m−3). The set up can be operated up to 2 MPa pressure at 200–600 °C and run un-attendant for 100 h or more. For the second part of the work a catalytic probe was developed that allowed exposure of the catalyst by inserting the probe into the flowing gas from gasified biomass.

    The catalyst deactivates by two different causes. The initial deactivation is caused by the growth of the crystals in the active phase (magnetite) and the higher crystallinity the lower specific surface area. The second deactivation is caused by the presence of catalytic poisons in the gas, such as H2S, NH3 and chloride that block the active surface.

    The catalyst subjected to sulphur poisoning shows decreased but stable activity. The activity shows strong decrease for the ammonia and HCl poisoned catalysts. It seems important to investigate the levels of these compounds before putting a FeCr based shift step in industrial operation. The activity also decreased after the catalysts had been exposed to gas from gasified biomass. The exposed catalysts are not re-activated by time on stream in the laboratory set up, which indicates that the decrease in CO2-ratio must be attributed to irreversible poisoning from compounds present in the gas from the gasifier.

    It is most likely that the FeCr catalyst is suitable to be used in a high temperature shift step, for industrial production of synthesis gas from gasified biomass if sulphur is the only poison needed to be taken into account. The ammonia should be decomposed in the previous catalytic reformer step but the levels of volatile chloride in the gas at the shift step position are not known.

  • 13.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on deactivation of reforming catalyst2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 132-133Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Andersson, Arne
    Lund University.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Physical and chemical characterisation of potassium deactivation of a SCR catalyst for biomass combustion2007In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 45, no 1-4, p. 149-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a commercial Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst, of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 type, has been studied through comparisons with results from a full-scale biomass combustion plant to that with laboratory experiments. In the latter, the catalyst was exposed to KCl and K2SO4 by both wet impregnation with diluted salt solutions and deposition of generated submicrometer aerosol particles by means of an electrostatic field. The reactivity of fresh and deactivated samples was examined in the SCR reaction. Chemical and physical characterizations were focusing on internal structures and chemical composition. Deposition of submicrometer sized particles on the monolithic SCR catalyst was shown to induce deactivation with characteristics resembling those obtained in a commercial biomass combustion plant.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Andersson, Arne
    Lund University.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Targeting by Comparison with Laboratory Experiments the SCR Catalyst Deactivation Process by Potassium and Zinc Salts in a Large-Scale Biomass Combustion Boiler2006In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst of type V2O5−WO3/TiO2 has been studied in this work through comparisons of results from a full-scale biomass combustion plant with those from laboratory experiments. In the latter, the catalyst was exposed to KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 by both wet impregnation with diluted salt solutions and deposition of generated submicrometer aerosol particles by means of an electrostatic field. The reactivity of freshly prepared and deactivated catalyst samples was examined in the SCR reaction, for which the influence of the different salts and the method of exposure were explored. Chemical and physical characterizations of the catalyst samples were carried out focusing on surface area, pore volume, pore size, chemical composition, and the penetration profiles of potassium and zinc. Particle-deposition deactivation as well as commercially exposed catalyst samples were shown to impact surface area and catalyst activity similarly and to have penetration profiles with pronounced peaks. Salt impregnation influenced pore sizes and catalyst activity more strongly and showed flat penetration profiles. Deposition of submicrometer-sized particles on the monolithic SCR catalyst has been shown to induce deactivation of the catalyst with characteristics resembling those obtained in a commercial biomass combustion plant; the laboratory process can be used to further assess the deactivation mechanism by biomass combustion.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Deactivation of SCR Catalysts by Exposure to Aerosol Particles of Potassium and Zinc Salts2007In: Aerosol Science and Technology, ISSN 0278-6826, E-ISSN 1521-7388, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generated aerosol particle deposition has been applied in laboratory scale to induce deactivation of commercial Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts Of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 monolithic type. The monolithic catalyst has been exposed to the generated submicrometer particle of inorganic salts, KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 at 200 degrees C in a tubular reactor. The generated particles have been deposited on the catalytic surfaces by utilization of an electrostatic field. Physical characterization of the generated aerosol particles were conducted by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with and without catalyst in order to investigate the magnitude of the particle deposition. Particle charge distribution was also evaluated with a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) set up.

    SCR is the most common method to commercially reduce NOx emissions from combustion processes. Catalyst lifetime is important for process economics and extending catalyst life can allow future strengthened emission legislation and diminished NOx emissions.

    Verification of particle deposition has been conducted through comparison with catalyst samples exposed to commercial biomass combustion condition.

    The reactivity of both fresh and exposed catalyst samples as well as commercially used samples was examined in SCR reaction and the methods of deposition as well as the influence of the different salts on catalytic performance have been explored.

    Catalyst samples have been evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with respect to surface morphology of the catalyst material. The laboratory deactivated catalyst samples showed resemblance with the commercially exposed catalyst sample with respect to salts concentration and deposition of the salts particles. The obtained influence on catalyst activity was comparable with commercially obtained catalyst activity reductions at comparable potassium concentration levels.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Physical and Chemical Characterisation of Potassium Deactivation of an SCR Catalyst for Biomass Combustion2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 198-199Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Scale-up and Assessment of Water Gas Shifts2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis gas consists of a mixture between hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water. This gas is normally generated by gasification of a carbon containing fuel, to be used as a feedstock for various synthesis processes. The actual composition of the gas depends on many different factors such as type of fuel, type of gasifier, mode of operation of the gasifier etc. The producer gas, i.e. the gas after the gasification step, usually need upgrading since it contains lower hydrocarbons and tars that needs to be converted. This upgrading, from producer gas into synthesis gas is done in the reformer step. The resulting synthesis gas is not necessarily suited for the subsequent synthesis step; it might need to be processed further. For instance the carbon dioxide level might need to be decreased and/or the hydrogen-carbon dioxide ratio to be adjusted. The water gas shift (WGS) process is the process where the ratio between hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas can be tuned.

  • 19.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Benito, Patricia
    Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Bologna University, Italy.
    Albertazzi, Simone
    Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Bologna University, Italy.
    Basile, Francesco
    Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Bologna University, Italy.
    Trifiró, Ferruccio
    Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Bologna University, Italy.
    Siedlecki, Marcin
    Delft University of Technology, Process&Energy Department, the Netherlands.
    de Jong, Wiebren
    Delft University of Technology, Process&Energy Department, the Netherlands.
    Effect on Catalytic Activity and Stability of the Gas Coming from a Gasifier2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable contains both laboratory experiments and experiments where the watergas-shift catalyst has been exposed to gas and particles generated by biomass gasification.The gasification experiments took place in the 100 kWth CFB gasifier at Delft University of Technology in Delft in July 2008 and in February and August 2009.

1 - 19 of 19
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