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  • 1. Falk, Helena
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öländsk alunskiffer – en kadmiumkälla?2002Report (Other academic)
  • 2. Falk, Helena
    et al.
    Lavergren, Ulf
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metal mobility in alum shale from Öland, Sweden2006In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 90, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lavergren, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Falk, Helena
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metal dispersion in groundwater in an area with natural and processed black shale - Nationwide prespective and comparison with acid sulfate soils2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black shale is often rich in sulfides and trace elements, and is thus a potential environmental threat in a manner similar to acid sulfate soils and active or abandoned sulfide mines. This study aims at characterising how exposed and processed (mined and burnt) black shale (alum shale) in Degerhamn, SE Sweden, affects the chemistry (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Si, Na, Sr, S, U, V and Zn) of the groundwater. There were large variations in groundwater chemistry between nearby sampling points, while the temporal variations generally were small. Acidic groundwater (around pH 4), found in deposits of burnt and carbonate-poor shale where the conditions for sulfide oxidation were favourable, was strongly elevated in Al, U and several chalcophilic metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn). Cadmium and U were also, together with Mo, abundant in many of the near-neutral waters, both in the non-mined black shale bedrock and in the deposits of burnt shale. An extrapolation to a national level suggests that the dispersion of Ni from naturally occurring black shale is similar to that from anthropogenic point sources, while for Cd and As it is assessed to be approximately one tenth of that from point sources. The processed shale was, however, a much larger source of metals than the black shale bedrock itself, showing this material's potential as a massive supplier of metals to the aquatic environment. A comparison of waters in contact with the processed Cambrian-Ordovician black shale in Degerhamn and acid sulfate soils of the region shows that these two sulfide-bearing materials, in many respects very different, delivers basically the same suite of trace elements to the aquatic environment. This has implications for environmental planning and protection in areas where these types of materials exist.

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