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  • 1.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt ; Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand.
    McEntyre, Christopher
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lever, Michael
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Slow, Sandy
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    A Simple HPLC Method with Fluorescence Detection for Choline Quantification in Foods2015In: Food Analytical Methods, ISSN 1936-9751, E-ISSN 1936-976X, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2401-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed and validated for choline quantification in foods. Samples were extracted by homogenizing in chloroform/methanol/water and hydrolyzing in HCl-acetonitrile. Choline was derivatized using 1-naphthyl isocyanate and quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Average recovery using choline iodide as the standard (n = 6) ranged from 84 ± 6 % for whole-wheat flour to 106 ± 5 % for milk. Recovery after addition of dietary lecithin to two different food matrices faba beans and for whole-wheat flour (n = 6) was 83 ± 5 %. The precision of the analysis (coefficient of variation) ranged from 2 to 13 %. Accuracy was evaluated by analyzing dietary lecithin using HPLC-FLD, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance, which across the different methods agreed within 15 %. This method was applied to quantify the choline content in different food matrices, and provides a simple, inexpensive method that could be widely used.

  • 2.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt ; Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand.
    McEntyre, Christopher
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lever, Michael
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Slow, Sandy
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Validation of HPLC-UV Methods for the Quantification of Betaine in Foods by Comparison with LC-MS2016In: Food Analytical Methods, ISSN 1936-9751, E-ISSN 1936-976X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 292-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of dietary betaine is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to develop a simple high-performance liquid chromatography with standard ultraviolet spectrometric detection (HPLC-UV) method for betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) determination in foods after derivatization. Two methods were used for betaine derivatization. Thereafter, derivatized betaine was quantified using HPLC-UV, and the results were compared with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The established derivatizing agent 2′-naphthacyl triflate and a novel derivatizing agent 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone produced the same cationic derivative when they react with betaine. The calibration curves were linear up to 1000 μmol/L (R 2 = 0.9974 for 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 0.9995 for 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone). The limit of detection was 1 μmol/L for both methods (2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone), confirming sufficient sensitivity for betaine quantification in foods. The average recovery from different food matrices (wheat flour and spinach) (n = 12) was 99 ± 9 %, 95 ± 10 %, and 101 ± 8 % for LC-MS, 2′-naphthacyl triflate, and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone, respectively. Inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) in the control samples (whole wheat flour) were below 10 %. Quantitative results for foods analyzed using 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone were comparable to LC-MS (R 2 = 0.992 and 0.990), respectively. The highest betaine content (~160 mg/100 g) was found in spinach followed by faba bean, wheat flour, and beetroot. These methods can be widely used for betaine quantification because of the simplicity of the derivatization procedures, and the commercial availability of the derivatizing reagent (2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone) or through the relatively easy synthesis of 2-naphthacyl triflate.

  • 3.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Schaller, Franziska
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Betaine, choline and folate content in different cereal genotypes2018In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 80, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of dietary methyl donors, e.g. betaine, choline and folate, is increasingly being recognised. This study examined variations in methyl donor concentrations in different cereals grown in Sweden. Fourteen cereal samples, representing different genera and cultivars, were analysed using HPLC- UV/FLD. The content of methyl donors in the cereals varied significantly due to cereal genotype. Betaine content varied most, with 28 mg/100 g DM in oats and 176 mg/100 g DM in rye. Total choline varied less, with 67 mg/100 g DM in rye and 149 mg/100 g DM in naked barley. In wheat, the lowest concentration of folate with 36 mg/100 g DM was found, and the highest of 91 mg/100 g DM in barley. Esterified choline was the major contributor to total choline content (80e95%) in the cereals. Free choline was less abundant, ranging from 3 to 27mg/100g DM. 5-CHO-H4folate was the dominant folate form in all cereals, amounting to approx. 35e50% of the sum of folates, as determined after pre-column conversion. Due to the limited number of available cultivars, no interpretation regarding effects from cultivar can be made. In conclusion, the studied cereal genotypes are good sources of methyl donors, but concentrations show considerable variation between different cereals.

  • 4.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Shalaby, Mohamed T.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Mohamed, Rasha A.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Elwa, Ahmad M.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effect of a 12-Week Dietary Intervention with Folic Acid or Folate-Enhanced Foods on Folate Status in Healthy Egyptian Women2016In: Food and Nutrition Sciences, ISSN 2157-944X, E-ISSN 2157-9458, Vol. 7, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Egyptian government introduced wheat-flour fortification with iron and folic acid to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects, but suspended it for technical reasons. We previously developed novel legume foods with enhanced folate content. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of 12-week intervention with folate-en- hanced foods versus folic acid supplement in improving folate status in Egyptian women. A randomized, parallel intervention trial with two active groups (n = 19, n = 18) and one blinded control group (n = 20) was executed over 12 weeks. Volunteers received either germinated legume foods and orange juice (≈250 μg/d folate) or folic acid supplement (500 μg/d) or apple juice (0 μg/d folate). Folate status was assessed by erythrocyte and plasma folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) at day 0, and after 8 and 12 weeks of intervention. After 12 weeks, mean plasma folate increased by 14 (P < 0.0001) and 12 (P < 0.0001) nmoL in the folic acid and food group, respectively. Erythrocyte folate concentration increased in the folic acid group from 614 to 912 (P < 0.0001) and in the food group from 631 to 914 nmoL (P < 0.0001). After 12 weeks, 90% of subjects in the folic acid group and 70% in the food group had erythrocyte folate concentrations exceeding 906 nmol/L. tHcy concentration was decreased by 20% (P = 0.007) and 18% (P = 0.006) in the folic acid and food group, respectively, but remained unchanged in the control group during intervention. Folate-enhanced foods effectively improve folate status in women of reproductive age. These foods could be used as a complement to folic acid fortification 

  • 5.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Shalaby, Mohamed T
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing2015In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  • 6.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Effect of germination and subsequent oven-drying on folate content in different wheat and rye cultivars2012In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 374-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are recognised as an important food source of folate, and germinated cereals are reported to contain even more folate. This study examined the effects of germination and oven-drying on folate content in different wheat and rye cultivars. The native folate content in four wheat cultivars ranged from 23 to 33 μg/100 g dry matter (DM) and that in six rye cultivars from 31 to 39 μg/100 g DM. Mean folate content in rye was 25% higher than in wheat. Germination of both cereals resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in folate content, depending on cultivar and duration of germination. The highest folate content in both cereals was found after 96 h of germination and was 181 μg/100 g DM for cv. Kaskelott (rye) and 155 μg/100 g DM for cv. Kosack (wheat). Germination increased the amount of 5-CH 3-H 4folate in both cereals from 45 to 75%. Oven-drying of germinated wheat grains (for 48 and 72 h) at 50 °C did not affect the folate content. In conclusion, germination increases the folate content in wheat and rye cultivars, while subsequent oven-drying does not affect the folate content. Germination can therefore be recommended for producing bakery ingredients with increased folate content. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Egyptian Legumes and Cereal Foods: Traditional and New Methods for Processing2016In: Mediterranean Foods: Composition and Processing / [ed] Rui M. S. Cruz, Margarida C. Vieira, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016, p. 102-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legumes and cereals play an important role in the traditional diet in several regions of the world (Messina 1999). In egypt, cereals occupy the first place in the human diet as a source of calories, with proteins and legumes as the second (FaO 2011). public health authorities around the world recommend the consumption of cereals and legumes because of health benefits deriving from their chemical composition, e.g., a low content of saturated fat and a high content of essential nutrients and phytochemicals (anderson 2004, Messina 2014).

  • 8.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala;Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread.2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi) bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination) has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF).

    METHODS: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.

    RESULTS: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter). The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF).

    CONCLUSION: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  • 9.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Folate content in processed legume foods commonly consumed in Egypt2014In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 337-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial food processing and household cooking are reported to affect folate content. This study examined the effects of industrial and household processing methods on folate content in traditional Egyptian foods from faba beans (Vicia faba) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum). Overnight soaking increased folate content by ∼40–60%. Industrial canning including soaking, blanching and retorting did not affect folate content (p = 0.11) in faba beans, but resulted in losses of ∼24% (p = 0.0005) in chickpeas. Germination increased folate content 0.4–2.4-fold. Household preparation increased the folate content in germinated faba bean soup (nabet soup) one-fold and in bean stew (foul) by 20% (p < 0.0001). After deep-frying of falafel balls made from soaked faba bean paste, losses of 10% (p = 0.2932) compared with the raw faba beans were observed. The folate content (fresh weight) in the traditional Egyptian foods foul and falafel and in the beans in nabet soup was 30 ± 2, 45 ± 2 and 56 ± 6 μg/100 g, respectively. The traditional Egyptian foods foul, falafel and nabet soup are good folate sources and techniques like germination and soaking, which increase the folate content, can therefore be recommended.

  • 10.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Increasing the folate content in Egyptian baladi bread using germinated wheat flour2011In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 706-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to increase the folate content in Egyptian baladi bread using germinated wheat flour (GWF). The effect of germination temperature and drying conditions on the folate content of wheat grains was studied. Wheat flour was substituted with unsieved and sieved GWF at different levels and the effects on folate content and the rheological properties of dough were determined. Germination of wheat grains resulted in a 3- to 4-fold higher folate content depending on the germination temperature. Maximum folate content (61 mu g/100 g dry matter (DM)) occurred at 30 degrees C. Drying did not affect folate content in germinated grains. After replacement with GWF, folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5- to 4-fold depending on the level of replacement. Rheological properties of dough were adversely affected by increasing replacement level (as determined by farinograph). While the folate content in bread was as high as 66 mu g/100 g DM at complete replacement of flour with sieved GWF, the bread was dark and layers were not separated. After replacement of half of the flour with sieved GWF (50 g/100 g), the baladi bread was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation. The folate content in this bread was 50 mu g/100 g DM, compared with 30 mu g/100 g DM in bread without GWF (0 g/100 g). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moazzami, Ali
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Plasma metabolite profiles in healthy women differ after intervention with supplemental folic acid v. folate-rich foods2018In: Journal of Nutritional Science, ISSN 2048-6790, E-ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 7, p. 1-9, article id e32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public health authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 μg/d by eating folate-rich foods or by taking a folic acid supplement to protect against neural tube defects. In a previous study it was shown that folate-rich foods improved folate blood status as effectively as folic acid supplementation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using NMR metabolomics, the effects of an intervention with a synthetic folic acid supplement v. native food folate on the profile of plasma metabolites. Healthy women with normal folate status received, in parallel, 500 μg/d synthetic folic acid from a supplement (n 18), 250 μg/d folate from intervention foods (n 19), or no additional folate (0 μg/d) through a portion of apple juice (n 20). The metabolic profile of plasma was measured using 1H-NMR in fasted blood drawn at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Metabolic differences between the groups at baseline and after intervention were assessed using a univariate statistical approach (P ≤ 0·001, Bonferroni-adjusted significance level). At baseline, the groups showed no significant differences in measured metabolite concentrations. After intervention, eight metabolites, of which six (glycine, choline, betaine, formate, histidine and threonine) are related to one-carbon metabolism, were identified as discriminative metabolites. The present study suggests that different folate forms (synthetic v. natural) may affect related one-carbon metabolites differently.

  • 12.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci ; Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Öhrvik, Veronica
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tabekha, Mohamed
    Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Folate content in foods commonly consumed in Egypt2010In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 540-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The folate content in some Egyptian foods was determined using RP-HPLC-FL. Trienzyme treatment was used for legumes, dienzyme treatment for cereals and starchy vegetables, and monoenzyme treatment for vegetables and fruits. The highest folate content (633 mu g/100 g) was found in dried Jew's mellow due to low water content, followed by legumes (e.g. 150 mu g/100 g for chick peas) and leafy vegetables (100 mu g/100 g). For other foods, folate content ranged from 10-90 mu g/100 g. In all foods, the predominant folate form was 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, except for dried Jew's mellow, which contained more than 80% 10-HCO-PteGlu. Using folate data from our own analyses and food tables and food consumption data, the dietary folate intake per capita in Egypt was estimated. However, representative and validated food composition data for folate in Egyptian foods are needed for estimating and evaluating the adequacy of the population's folate intake. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Röös, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Georg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Less meat, more legumes: prospects and challenges in the transition toward sustainable diets in Sweden2018In: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, ISSN 1742-1705, E-ISSN 1742-1713, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western diet is characterized by high meat consumption, which negatively affects the environment and human health. Transitioning toward eating more plant-based products in Western societies has been identified as a key instrument to tackle these problems. However, one potential concern is that radically reducing meat in the current diet might lead to deficiencies in nutritional intake. In this paper, we explore a scenario in which meat consumption in Sweden is reduced by 50% and replaced by domestically grown grain legumes. We quantify and discuss the implications for nutritional intake on population level, consequences for agricultural production systems and environmental performance. The reduction in meat consumption is assumed to come primarily from a decrease in imported meat. We use data representing current Swedish conditions including the Swedish dietary survey, the Swedish food composition database, Statistics Sweden and existing life cycle assessments for different food items. At population level, average daily intake of energy and most macro- and micro-nutrients would be maintained within the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations after the proposed transition (e.g., for protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B12 and total iron). The transition would also provide a considerable increase in dietary fiber and some increase in folate intake, which are currently below the recommended levels. The transition scenario would increase total area of grain legume cultivation from 2.2% (current level) to 3.2% of Swedish arable land and is considered technically feasible. The climate impact of the average Swedish diet would be reduced by 20% and the land use requirement by 23%. There would be a net surplus of approximately 21,500 ha that could be used for bioenergy production, crop production for export, nature conservation, etc. Implementation of this scenario faces challenges, such as lack of suitable varieties for varying conditions, lack of processing facilities to supply functional legume-based ingredients to food industries and low consumer awareness about the benefits of eating grain legumes. In sum, joint efforts from multiple actors are needed to stimulate a decrease in meat consumption and to increase cultivation and use of domestically grown grain legumes.

  • 14.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Folic acid and Folates: Physiology and Health Effects2016In: The Encyclopedia of Food and Health / [ed] Caballero, B., Finglas, P., and Toldrá, F., Elsevier, 2016, 1, p. 724-730Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews briefly information regarding important food sources for folate, effects from storage and processing on folate content, and bioprocessing techniques that could provide foods with increased folate content. Thereafter, folate intake, absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability are also discussed. Finally, health effects associated with folate are presented briefly.

  • 15.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Moazzami, Ali
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci.
    Folic acid supplement induces changes in 1-carbon metabolism of healthy women compared to food folate2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 248-248Article in journal (Refereed)
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