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  • 1.
    Lewis, Nicola S.
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Javakhishvili, Zurab
    Ilia State Univ, Rep of Georgia.
    Russell, Colin A.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Lexmond, Pascal
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Westgeest, Kim B.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Bestebroer, Theo M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Halpin, Rebecca A.
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Lin, Xudong
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Ransier, Amy
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Fedorova, Nadia B.
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Stockwel, Timothy B.
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Georgia, USA.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala Univ.
    Smith, Gavin
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore.
    Bahl, Justin
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore ; Univ Texas Houston, USA..
    Wentworth, David E.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    de Graaf, Miranda
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data2015In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 96, p. 2050-2060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian lAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses.

  • 2.
    Lim, S. M.
    et al.
    Artemis One Hlth Res Fdn, Netherlands.
    Geervliet, M.
    Artemis One Hlth Res Fdn, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Muskens, G. J. D. M.
    Wageningen Environm Res Alterra, Netherlands.
    Majoor, F. A.
    Sovon Dutch Ctr Field Ornithol, Netherlands.
    Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.
    Artemis One Hlth Res Fdn, Netherlands;Univ Vet Med Hannover, Germany.
    Martina, B. E. E.
    Artemis One Hlth Res Fdn, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Serologic evidence of West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections in Eurasian coots in the Netherlands2018In: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 96-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA. In addition, sera of jackdaws and carrion crows captured for previous experimental infection studies were added to the selection. Of the 265 screened serum samples, 27 were found to be WNV-antibody-positive, and subsequent cross-neutralization experiments using WNV and USUV confirmed that five serum samples were positive for only WNV-neutralizing antibodies and seven for only USUV. The positive birds consisted of four Eurasian coots (Fulica atra) and one carrion crow (Corvus corone) for WNV, of which the latter may suggest local presence of the virus, and only Eurasian coots for USUV. As a result, the screening of a small selection of serum samples originally collected for avian influenza surveillance demonstrated a seroprevalence of 1.6% for WNV and 2.8% for USUV, suggesting that this sustained infrastructure could serve as a useful source for future surveillance of arboviruses such as WNV and USUV in the Netherlands.

  • 3.
    Naguib, Mahmoud M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Animal Health Research Institute, Egypt.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Samy, Ahmed
    Animal Health Research Institute, Egypt;The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Eriksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fife, Mark
    The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Avian influenza viruses at the wild–domestic bird interface in Egypt2019In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 1575687Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of the orders Anseriformes (mainly ducks, geese and swans) and Charadriiformes (mainly gulls, terns and waders) constitute the natural reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In Egypt, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and LPAI H9N2 viruses are endemic in domestic poultry, forming a threat to animal and human health and raising questions about the routes of introduction and mechanisms of persistence. Recently, HPAI H5N8 virus was also introduced into Egyptian domestic birds. Here we review the literature on the role of wild birds in the introduction and endemicity of avian influenza viruses in Egypt. Dabbling ducks in Egypt harbor an extensive LPAI virus diversity and may constitute the route of introduction for HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H5N8 viruses into Egypt through migration, however their role in the endemicity of HPAI H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and potentially other avian influenza virus (AIV) strains–by means of reassortment of viral genes–is less clear. Strengthened surveillance programs, in both domestic and wild birds, that include all LPAI virus subtypes and full genome sequencing are needed to better assess the wild–domestic bird interface and form a basis for evidence-based measures to limit and prevent AIV transmission between wild and domestic birds. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 4.
    Poen, Marjolein J
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Manvell, Ruth J
    APHA, UK.
    Brown, Ian
    APHA, UK.
    Bestebroer, Theo M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van der Vliet, Stefan
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Vuong, Oanh
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Scheuer, Rachel D
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands;Vogeltrekstat Dutch Ctr Avian Migrat & Demog NIOO, Netherlands.
    Nolet, Bart A
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands;NIOO-KNAW, Netherlands.
    Kleyheeg, Erik
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands;Vogeltrekstat Dutch Ctr Avian Migrat & Demog NIOO, Netherlands.
    Müskens, Gerhard J D M
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Majoor, Frank A
    Sovon, Netherlands.
    Grund, Christian
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Lack of virological and serological evidence for continued circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in wild birds in the Netherlands, 14 November 2014 to 31 January 2016.2016In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 21, no 38, p. 11-21, article id 30349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus. One HPAI H5N8 virus-infected Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) sampled on 25 February 2015 was detected. Serological assays were performed on 1,443 samples, including 149 collected between 2007 and 2013, 945 between 14 November 2014 and 13 May 2015, and 349 between 1 September and 31 December 2015. Antibodies specific for HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4 were absent in wild bird sera obtained before 2014 and present in sera collected during and after the HPAI H5N8 emergence in Europe, with antibody incidence declining after the 2014/15 winter. Our results indicate that the HPAI H5N8 virus has not continued to circulate extensively in wild bird populations since the 2014/15 winter and that independent maintenance of the virus in these populations appears unlikely.

  • 5.
    Short, Kirsty R
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands;University of Queensland, Australia.
    Richard, Mathilde
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van Riel, Debby
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Schrauwen, Eefje J A
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van den Brand, Judith M A
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Mänz, Benjamin
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Bodewes, Rogier
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Herfst, Sander
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    One health, multiple challenges: The inter-species transmission of influenza A virus.2015In: One Health, ISSN 2352-7714, Vol. 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A viruses are amongst the most challenging viruses that threaten both human and animal health. Influenza A viruses are unique in many ways. Firstly, they are unique in the diversity of host species that they infect. This includes waterfowl (the original reservoir), terrestrial and aquatic poultry, swine, humans, horses, dog, cats, whales, seals and several other mammalian species. Secondly, they are unique in their capacity to evolve and adapt, following crossing the species barrier, in order to replicate and spread to other individuals within the new species. Finally, they are unique in the frequency of inter-species transmission events that occur. Indeed, the consequences of novel influenza virus strain in an immunologically naïve population can be devastating. The problems that influenza A viruses present for human and animal health are numerous. For example, influenza A viruses in humans represent a major economic and disease burden, whilst the poultry industry has suffered colossal damage due to repeated outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of influenza A viruses by shedding light on interspecies virus transmission and summarising the current knowledge regarding how influenza viruses can adapt to a new host.

  • 6.
    van Boheemen, Sander
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Bestebroer, Theo M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Pas, Suzan D
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Herfst, Sander
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    A family-wide RT-PCR assay for detection of paramyxoviruses and application to a large-scale surveillance study.2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e34961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family-wide molecular diagnostic assays are valuable tools for initial identification of viruses during outbreaks and to limit costs of surveillance studies. Recent discoveries of paramyxoviruses have called for such assay that is able to detect all known and unknown paramyxoviruses in one round of PCR amplification. We have developed a RT-PCR assay consisting of a single degenerate primer set, able to detect all members of the Paramyxoviridae family including all virus genera within the subfamilies Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. Primers anneal to domain III of the polymerase gene, with the 3' end of the reverse primer annealing to the conserved motif GDNQ, which is proposed to be the active site for nucleotide polymerization. The assay was fully optimized and was shown to indeed detect all available paramyxoviruses tested. Clinical specimens from hospitalized patients that tested positive for known paramyxoviruses in conventional assays were also detected with the novel family-wide test. A high-throughput fluorescence-based RT-PCR version of the assay was developed for screening large numbers of specimens. A large number of samples collected from wild birds was tested, resulting in the detection of avian paramyxoviruses type 1 in both barnacle and white-fronted geese, and type 8 in barnacle geese. Avian metapneumovirus type C was found for the first time in Europe in mallards, greylag geese and common gulls. The single round family-wide RT-PCR assay described here is a useful tool for the detection of known and unknown paramyxoviruses, and screening of large sample collections from humans and animals.

  • 7.
    van den Brand, Judith M. A.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Kroeze, Edwin J. B. Veldhuis
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van de Bildt, Marco W. G.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Bodewes, Rogier
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Herfst, Sander
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Richard, Mathilde
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Lexmond, Pascal
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Bestebroer, Theo M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Kuiken, Thijs
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Wild ducks excrete highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 (2014-2015) without clinical or pathological evidence of disease2018In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, ISSN 2222-1751, Vol. 7, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was highest in common pochards and mallards for the 2005 virus. The 2014 virus infection was subclinical in all four waterbird species, while the 2005 virus caused clinical disease and pathological changes in over 50% of the common pochards. In chickens, the 2014 virus infection caused systemic disease and high mortality, similar to the 2005 virus. In conclusion, the evidence was strongest for Eurasian wigeons as long-distance vectors for HPAI H5N8 virus from 2014. The implications of the switch in speciesspecific virus excretion and decreased disease severity may be that the HPAI H5 virus more easily spreads in the wildwaterbird population.

  • 8.
    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Carleton Univ, Canada.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wille, Michelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. WHO Collaborating Ctr Reference & Res Influenza, Australia.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Host and virus ecology as determinants of influenza A virus transmission in wild birds2018In: Current Opinion in Virology, ISSN 1879-6257, E-ISSN 1879-6265, Vol. 28, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low pathogenic influenza A virus (LPIAV) prevalence and subtype distribution differs between and across bird taxa. A crucial factor in the epidemiology of these viruses and virus subtypes is the ability to transmit between and within different host taxa and individuals. Successful viral transmission depends on availability of susceptible hosts and exposure of host to virus. Exposure to viruses and susceptibility to virus infection and/or disease are shaped by both host and virus traits. In this review we have identified key host and virus traits that can affect LPIAV transmission, both in terms of exposure and susceptibility. Furthermore we highlight current challenges in assessment of these traits and identify methodological considerations for future studies.

  • 9.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Herfst, Sander
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    How a virus travels the world2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6222, p. 616-617Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Höfle, Ursula
    Inst Invest Recursos Cineget IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM, Spain.
    van Amerongen, Geert
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van de Bildt, Marco
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Majoor, Frank
    Sovon, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Kuiken, Thijs
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Long-Term Effect of Serial Infections with H13 and H16 Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Black-Headed Gulls.2015In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 89, no 22, p. 11507-11522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNLABELLED: Infections of domestic and wild birds with low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been associated with protective immunity to subsequent infection. However, the degree and duration of immunity in wild birds from previous LPAIV infection, by the same or a different subtype, are poorly understood. Therefore, we inoculated H13N2 (A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/7/2009) and H16N3 (A/black-headed gull/Netherlands/26/2009) LPAIVs into black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), their natural host species, and measured the long-term immune response and protection against one or two reinfections over a period of >1 year. This is the typical interval between LPAIV epizootics in wild birds. Reinfection with the same virus resulted in progressively less virus excretion, with complete abrogation of virus excretion after two infections for H13 but not H16. However, reinfection with the other virus affected neither the level nor duration of virus excretion. Virus excretion by immunologically naive birds did not differ in total levels of excreted H13 or H16 virus between first- and second-year birds, but the duration of H13 excretion was shorter for second-year birds. Furthermore, serum antibody levels did not correlate with protection against LPAIV infection. LPAIV-infected gulls showed no clinical signs of disease. These results imply that the epidemiological cycles of H13 and H16 in black-headed gulls are relatively independent from each other and depend mainly on infection of first-year birds.

    IMPORTANCE: Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) circulate mainly in wild water birds but are occasionally transmitted to other species, including humans, where they cause subclinical to fatal disease. To date, the effect of LPAIV-specific immunity on the epidemiology of LPAIV in wild birds is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of H13 and H16 LPAIV infection in black-headed gulls on susceptibility and virus excretion of subsequent infection with the same or the other virus within the same breeding season and between breeding seasons. These are the only two LPAIV hemagglutinin subtypes predominating in this species. The findings suggest that H13 and H16 LPAIV cycles in black-headed gull populations are independent of each other, indicate the importance of first-year birds in LPAIV epidemiology, and emphasize the need for alternatives to avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific serum antibodies as evidence of past LPAIV infection and correlates of protection against LPAIV infection in wild birds.

  • 11.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Lexmond, Pascal
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Vuong, Oanh
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Schutten, Martin
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Guldemeester, Judith
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands ; University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Germany.
    Elbers, Armin R. W.
    Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Netherlands.
    Slaterus, Roy
    Sovon Dutch Centre For Field Ornithology, Netherlands.
    Hornman, Menno
    Sovon Dutch Centre For Field Ornithology, Netherlands.
    Koch, Guus
    Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds: Towards improvement of surveillance programs2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0173470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions. LPAIV isolated from Dutch poultry were genetically most closely related to LPAIV isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands or occasionally elsewhere in Western Europe. However, a relatively long time interval was observed between the isolations of related viruses from wild birds and poultry. Spatial analyses provided evidence for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) being more abundant near primary infected poultry farms. Detailed year-round investigation of virus prevalence and wild bird species distribution and behavior near poultry farms should be used to improve risk assessment in relation to avian influenza virus introduction and retarget avian influenza surveillance programs.

  • 12.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Majoor, Frank
    Sovon Dutch Ctr Field Ornithol, Netherlands.
    Lexmond, Pascal
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Vuong, Oanh
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Kasemir, Giny
    Natuurmonumenten Dutch Assoc Nat Conservat & Manage, Netherlands.
    Lutterop, Date
    Natuurmonumenten Dutch Assoc Nat Conservat & Manage, Netherlands.
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Kuiken, Thijs
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Epidemiology of influenza A virus among black-headed gulls, the Netherlands, 2006-2010.2014In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 138-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We sampled 7,511 black-headed gulls for influenza virus in the Netherlands during 2006-2010 and found that subtypes H13 and H16 caused annual epidemics in fledglings on colony sites. Our findings validate targeted surveillance of wild waterbirds and clarify underlying factors for influenza virus emergence in other species.

  • 13.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Munster, Vincent J
    NIAID, NIH, USA.
    Majoor, Frank
    Sovon Dutch Ctr Field Ornithol, Netherlands.
    Lexmond, Pascal
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Vuong, Oanh
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Stumpel, Job B G
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Rimmelzwaan, Guus F
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Osterhaus, Albert D M E
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Schutten, Martin
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Slaterus, Roy
    Sovon Dutch Ctr Field Ornithol, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Avian influenza a virus in wild birds in highly urbanized areas.2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, article id e38256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses.

  • 14.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    van der Jeugd, H P
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Nolet, B A
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Slaterus, R
    Sovon, Netherlands.
    Kharitonov, S P
    Bird Ringing Ctr Russia, Russia.
    de Vries, P P
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Vuong, O
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Majoor, F
    Sovon, Netherlands.
    Kuiken, T
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, R A
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Wild bird surveillance around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in the Netherlands, 2014, within the context of global flyways.2015In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 20, no 12, article id 21069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild bird sampling activities in response to the H5N8 virus outbreaks in poultry in the Netherlands are summarised along with a review on ring recoveries. HPAI H5N8 virus was detected exclusively in two samples from ducks of the Eurasian wigeon species, among 4,018 birds sampled within a three months period from mid-November 2014. The H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands were genetically closely related to and had the same gene constellation as H5N8 viruses detected elsewhere in Europe, in Asia and in North America, suggesting a common origin. Ring recoveries of migratory duck species from which H5N8 viruses have been isolated overall provide evidence for indirect migratory connections between East Asia and Western Europe and between East Asia and North America. This study is useful for better understanding the role of wild birds in the global epidemiology of H5N8 viruses. The need for sampling large numbers of wild birds for the detection of H5N8 virus and H5N8-virus-specific antibodies in a variety of species globally is highlighted, with specific emphasis in north-eastern Europe, Russia and northern China.

  • 15.
    Yin, Shenglai
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Kleijn, David
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Muskens, Gerard J. D. M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Glazov, Petr M.
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Si, Yali
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands;Tsinghua Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Prins, Herbert H. T.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Willem Frederik
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

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