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  • 1.
    Aspers, Patrik
    et al.
    Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sailing together from different shores: labour markets and inequality on board merchant ships2019In: Global Networks, ISSN 1470-2266, E-ISSN 1471-0374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse the consequences of the conditions of the labour-market contracts for working on board merchant ships. More specifically, we examine how seafarers hired on different contracts work together. Seafarers' conditions of work differ considerably: some, mainly workers in the West, have permanent contracts with a shipping company, are paid a relatively high monthly wage and can go ashore every second month, whereas others performing the same tasks may have to stay at sea for more than six months at a time, and work for less money on temporary contracts. Drawing on the economic sociology of markets and institutional theory, in this article we present the institutional conditions of globalized labour markets for seafarers and analyse unique data derived from observations and interviews on board merchant ships. We argue that the notion of market is a key explanatory factor for how the work is conducted on board. Theoretically, our elaboration on markets allows us to conceptualize and address global and transnational markets.

  • 2.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    On the Future of Maritime Transport - Discussing Terminology and Timeframes2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept 'autonomous ships' has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete - which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term 'autonomous' describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that 'smart ships', or perhaps 'intelligent ships', are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.

  • 3.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Towards Autonomous Shipping: Exploring Potential Threats and Opportunities in Future Maritime Operations2020In: Advances in Human Factors of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Neville Stanton, Springer, 2020, p. 633-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents findings from an ongoing research project aiming to study the future of shipping operations with a specific focus on issues related to human roles, responsibilities and the organization of work. A focus group with representatives for the Swedish shipping cluster (n = 6) and academia (n = 2) has been conducted to explore potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) with the developments towards autonomous shipping. The results show an overall concern for how to realize the transition between today’s maritime traffic and a future setting where vessels may be operated from shore. Technology to automate navigational tasks and increase the degree of autonomy in shipping are developing, but more attention needs to be paid to the transition of work that may accompany the ongoing developments. Clear roles, responsibili- ties and a definition of potential operator competences need to be formulated to ensure a human-centered development for safer shipping.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Globalization and Organization on Swedish-flagged Merchant Ships2017In: Economic challenge and new maritime risks management: What blue growth? / [ed] Patrick Chaumette, Bilbao: Gomylex , 2017, p. 385-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    On Board the Global Workplace: Coordination and Uncertainty on Merchant Ships2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how work and social life are coordinated on board merchant ships. The merchant ship is a global workplace where people from different nationalities come together to work and live for an extended period of time.

    The study is based on ethnographic field work on board merchant ships. The core of the study is field work on two Swedish-flagged RoRo-ships with ethnically mixed crews coming from Sweden, the Philippines and Eastern Europe. Participant observation and interviews are the two methods that have been used to generate the material.

    The empirical material shows that although the ships have a formal organization, the ships with mixed ethnic crews are in a disorderly state, a state of dissonance. The dissonance is due to a conflict between two evaluative principles. One principle refers to the Swedes’ way of doing things, which involves a flattened hierarchy and autonomous workers. The other principle refers to the Filipinos’ way of doing things, a formalized relationship between officers and crew and respect for the chain of command. These two principles sometimes come into conflict in the coordination of work tasks. The analysis also shows that social life on board is coordinated by ethnic networks, i.e. the seafarers spend their free time segregated by ethnicity. Furthermore, the results show that these two evaluative principles are in a hierarchical relationship. They form a hierarchy of worth where the Swedes’ way of doing things is seen as superior.

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