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  • 1.
    Madsen, Tage Koed
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Hans Eibe
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Market orientation on national and international new ventures2012In: Presented at 15th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, University of Pavia, Italy. September 21-23, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market orientation is often mentioned as a key factor for the success of domestic and international activities, but our knowledge about differences in degrees of market orientation remains limited for firms that have varying degrees of international activities. In particular, the literature is very sparse with regard to studies of newly established firms. Our study empirically explores this gap examining how different types of new ventures adopt two strategic components of market orientation – customer orientation and competitor orientation. Our empirical evidence is based on responses from CEOs of 249 Danish manufacturing firms that are categorized into four groups, depending on their degree of international operations within the first three years. We demonstrate that the most internationally oriented firms seem to be the most market oriented in general. They are significantly more competitor-oriented than domestically oriented firms, but the results regarding customer orientation are more mixed. Interestingly, we find indications that the strategic emphasis on customer orientation may be higher for firms with domestic operations than for those with limited international operations. We discuss implications for research and managers.

  • 2.
    Madsen, Tage Koed
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Hans Eibe
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    The Market Orientation of Domestic and International New Ventures2015In: Entrepreneurship in International Marketing / [ed] Shaoming Zou, Hui Xu, Linda Hui Shi, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market orientation is often mentioned as a key factor for the success of domestic and international activities, but our knowledge about differences in degrees of market orientation remains limited for firms that have varying degrees of international activities. In particular, the literature is very sparse with regard to studies of newly established firms. Our study empirically explores this gap examining how different types of new ventures adopt two strategic components of market orientation – customer orientation and competitor orientation. Our empirical evidence is based on responses from CEOs of 249 Danish manufacturing firms that are categorized into four groups, depending on their degree of international operations within the first three years. We demonstrate that the most internationally oriented firms seem to be the most market oriented in general. They are significantly more competitor-oriented than domestically oriented firms, but the results regarding customer orientation are more mixed. Interestingly, we find indications that the strategic emphasis on customer orientation may be higher for firms with domestic operations than for those with limited international operations. We discuss implications for research and managers.

  • 3.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    From market orientation to orientation towards international marjets (OIM) of born global firms: evaluating the impact of OIM on born global firms' performance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a considerable amount of research on market orientation, research on this concept in the context of born global firms is still lacking a precise definition and full operationalization. This research aims to investigate how the market orientation (MO) concept could be understood for a specific type of firm: the born global firm. The thesis is framed around three studies.

    First, an exploratory study that was developed by performing qualitative interviews in a sample of five Spanish firms from different sectors which had international activity. The data were analyzed using cross-case analysis. The results suggests that the market orientation concept should be developed into the concept of orientation towards international markets (OIM) for born global firms. This study also provides the components for measuring this orientation in this type of firm.

    Second, using samples of born global firms from the Nordic countries and Spain, we assess the dimensionality of OIM by considering the optimal number of scale items, with the exception of the network construct, and assess the measurement invariance of the construct across the samples. The results support the conceptualization of OIM as a multidimensional construct, using customer orientation, competitor orientation, interfunctional coordination, and innovativeness and technological capability. Measurement invariance was assessed using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. The factors outlined above have a similar dimensionality and factor structure across countries.

    Finally the third study, examines how the extended concept of market orientation for born global firms that we have called OIM affects business performance, as measured by customer performance and financial performance, in the context of born global firms, and whether this effect varies between countries. The results show that the OIM components have a positive and significant effect on business performance in born global firms in both contexts (Nordic and Spanish companies) through customer and financial performance.

    Based on these research findings, the thesis‘s main theoretical contribution is the suggestion of how MO should be conceptualized for BG firms. Our findings provide evidence that it is necessary to incorporate components that relate to the international scope of this type of firm, with the concept of OIM. From a business practice perspective, this dissertation suggested that the scale we have developed can provide a reliable and valid analytical tool for assessing the orientation towards international markets of these firms. Thus born global managers may adopt the scale for a better understanding of the reality of foreign markets and to develop effective strategies to attract and retain customers in different markets overseas.

  • 4.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Market orientation of born global firms: evaluating the impact on performance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Strategic orientations of international new ventures on emerging market: the Latin America context2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Rialp Criado, A.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Rialp Criado, J.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Stoian, M. C.
    Brunel University, UK.
    How to measure born-global firms' orientation towardsinternational markets?: [ Cómo medir la orientación de las empresas “born-global” hacia los mercados internacionales? ]2015In: Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing, ISSN 1138-1442, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of orientation towards internationalmarkets (OIM) for born global firms (BG) and present a measurement scale of OIMspecifically designed for these firms. We propose a scale of OIM based on the literature reviewand a qualitative study. This proposal is then tested by means of a quantitative research design. The final scale not only considers three constructs of the market orientation concept: customerorientation, competitor orientation and interfunctional coordination; but also incorporatesanother construct related to the innovation capability of the firm (innovativeness and technologicalcapability). This proposed measurement scale shows invariance across younger andolder BG firms and, therefore, constitutes a useful measurement tool to be considered by futureresearch analyzing the impact of OIM of BG firms on their performance.

  • 7.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Rialp Criado, Josep
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Market orientation for born global firms: a qualitative examination2012In: Presented at International Conference on Business & Economics, Istanbul, Turkey, 3-4 August 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the market orientation on performance has been addressed widelyby the academic literature; however, the connection between the marketorientation concept and born-global firms’ performance has not been consideredyet. In order to explore how market orientation of born-global firms impacts ontheir performance, we have to verify the most suitable tool for measuring bornglobals'market orientation: are the traditional scales considered by the specificliterature (MKTOR and MARKOR) equally valid? If they are not, which wouldbe the proper modification? Through a qualitative research we suggest amodification of the traditional scales for measuring market orientation in firmsthat internationalize rapidly from inception.

  • 8.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Rialp Criado, Josep
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Market Orientation Of Born Globals Firms: Aqualitative Examination2012In: International Journal of Business and Management Studies, ISSN 1309-8047, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the market orientation on performance has been addressed widely by the academic literature; however, the connection between the market orientation concept and born-global firms’ performance has not been considered yet. In order to explore how market orientation of born-global firms impacts on their performance, we have to verify the most suitable tool for measuring bornglobals' market orientation: are the traditional scales considered by the specific literature (MKTOR and MARKOR) equally valid? If they are not, which would be the proper modification? Through a qualitative research we suggest a modification of the traditional scales for measuring market orientation in firms that internationalize rapidly from inception.

  • 9.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Rialp Criado, Josep
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Measuring Orientation Towards International Markets and its Effect on Performance of European Born Global and Non-Born Global Firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Rialp, Joseph
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Measuring orientation towards international markets and its effect on performance of European Born Global and Non-born Global firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Zarate-Montero, Luis
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.
    The Effect of Orientation towards International Markets in Performance of SMEs: a Comparative Study of Manufactures and Service Exporter Firms2017In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies": Dubai, United Arab Emirates, July 2-5, 2017 / [ed] Sarianna Lundan & Tunga Kiyak, Academy of International Business , 2017, p. 192-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the extended concept of market orientation previously tested on international new ventures firms called orientation towards international markets (OIM), which has four components: customer orientation, competitor orientation, interfunctional coordination and innovativeness and technological capability) affects business performance, as measured by customer performance and financial performance, in the context of in global and intercontinental SMEs, and whether this effect varies between industries. We use a data collected by web survey in a sample survey of a data set of 140 SMEs. The technique of confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the measurement properties of the study constructs, and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis is used in testing the measurement invariance. Subsequently, a structural equation modeling procedure is used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that the OIM components have a positive and significant effect on business performance in global and intercontinental SMEs in both industries comparison between service and manufactures firms through customer and financial performance.

  • 12.
    Yusof, Sitinor Wardatulaina Mohd
    et al.
    Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia.
    Jabar, Juhaini
    Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia.
    Murad, Murzidah Ahmad
    Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Exploring the cultural determinants of entrepreneurial success: The case of Malaysia2017In: International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, ISSN 2313-626X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the cultural determinants of entrepreneurial success in Malaysia. Entrepreneurship is one of the main important drivers of a market nation and economists have underlined the crucial task acting in the market development. By employing describing the phenomenon of new venture creation and an interactive framework of entrepreneurship, this paper proposes a model that comprises four elements particularly in entrepreneurial culture and mindset influences. First the factor elements that lead to success in entrepreneurship are discussed together with the all four elements which are (1) presence of experienced entrepreneurs, (2) skills and knowledge of entrepreneurs, (3) cultural attitudes towards entrepreneurship and (4) proximity of entrepreneurial universities. Second, the main findings from the research are as follows; the elements of entrepreneurial culture and mindsets are the factors that contributed to the success in entrepreneurship. Third, this research will be practicable for academicians and the researchers who are concerned in examining the success factors on entrepreneurship. Finally, this study may conduce through the national or regional laws and regulation be changed to facilitate and retain the entrepreneurial movement. The future research may focus on the different physical region in Malaysia or within each of the other developing countries. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by IASE. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 13.
    Zarate-Montero, L.
    et al.
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Export promotion through networks: the case of Costa Rica high tech firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Zárate-Montero, Luis
    et al.
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Social capital, diaspora and post internationalization: a developing economy case2019In: Diaspora Networks in International Business: Perspectives for Understanding and Managing Diaspora Business and Resources / [ed] Maria Elo & Indianna Minto-Coy, Springer, 2019, p. 229-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International new ventures (INVs) from high tech industry in developing economies need international markets in order to survive and/or develop their business activities. INVs have utilized their bonding social capital to overcome their liabilities and success in foreign market. In this study we focus on Costa Rican software firms who have took advantage of the immigrants in their CORs (diaspora) that generates bonding and bridging social capital to enter to international markets, particularly in US market. The case study analyses of four companies suggest that bonding social capital originating from diaspora enables INVs to implement lower and more inexpensive modes of entry and bridging social capital enables originating from other ties them to increase the sales in foreign market. The influences of the diaspora on social capital provoke a positive change on firms’ performance. © 2019, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature.

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