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  • 1.
    Alantie, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland;Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Makkonen, Tanja
    University of Turku, Finland;Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Renvall, Kati
    University of Turku, Finland;Macquarie University, Australia.
    Is Old Age Just a Number in Language Skills?: Language Performance and Its Relation to Age, Education, Gender, Cognitive Screening, and Dentition in Very Old Finnish Speakers2022In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 274-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:This study reports on how very old (VO) Finnish people without dementia perform in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and two verbal fluency tasks and which demographic factors predict the performance.

    Method:The study included fifty 80- to 100-year-old community-dwelling Finnish speakers with no dementing illnesses or speech-language disabilities, who completed the WAB and two verbal fluency tasks. Multifactorial statistical analyses with recursive partitioning were carried out to determine the significant predictors out of five predictor variables (age, gender, education, dentition, and Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) for four response variables (WAB Aphasia Quotient [AQ], Language Quotient [LQ], semantic, and phonemic word fluencies).

    Results:Overall, individual variation was notable in VO speakers. All predictor variables were statistically significantly associated with one or more of the language skills. Age was the most significant predictor; the critical age of 85–86 years was associated with a decline in WAB-AQ and semantic fluency. Poor dentition and the MMSE score both predicted a decline in WAB-LQ and phonemic fluency. A high level of education was positively associated with the skills of the best-performing individuals in WAB-AQ, WAB-LQ, and semantic fluency.

    Conclusions:VO age is a significant factor contributing to language performance. However, a younger age, a good cognitive performance, intact teeth, and a higher educational level also seem to have a preservative power as regards language skills. Gender differences should be interpreted with caution. The results of this study provide culture- and language-specific normative data, which aids in differentiating typical aging from the signs of acute or degenerative neuropathology to ensure appropriate medical and therapeutic interventions.

  • 2.
    Alasuutari, Pertti
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Rautalin, Marjaana
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Rise of the Idea of Model in Policymaking: The case of the British parliament, 1803-20052018In: European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie, ISSN 0003-9756, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 341-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the question whether national decision-making has become increasingly interdependent in recent decades, and what role “world models” play in any such trend. These questions are scrutinised by utilising the “Historic Hansard” corpus, which contains all records of the UK Parliament from 1803 to 2005, complemented by other corpora. The results show that references to other countries were most frequent in parliamentary debates very early in the 19th century. However, allusions to other countries have evolved from referencing case examples to referencing policies that are constructed and branded as models. The idea of transferable models caught on particularly strongly from the 1950s onward. The other corpora used for the study confirmed that these changes reflect a global trend. Hence, the post-war era has witnessed a worldwide spread of the idea of model as a precondition for a global proliferation of named models.

  • 3.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 4.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality2019In: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality (VR) to explore and interact with corpus linguistics data. Our case study focuses on the language identification parameter in the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus, a dynamic corpus of Twitter data where each tweet originated within the Nordic countries. We demonstrate how VR can provide previously unexplored perspectives into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region and showcase its geospatial variation. We utilize a head-mounted display (HMD) for a room-scale VR scenario that allows 3D interaction by using hand gestures. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the interface enables exploration of the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), making it particularly useful for diachronic investigations.

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity. Our empirical results detail students’ reactions to working in this environment. The discussion part examines the benefits, prospects and limitations of using VR in visualizing corpus data.

  • 5.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Ida
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Subject metadata for humanities journal articles: Indexing consistency between a local repository and an external bibliographic database2019In: Presented at DCMI 2019: Metadata Innovation. Seoul, South Korea - September 23rd-26th, 2019, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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    presentation
  • 6.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Ahlström, Ida
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Subject indexing in humanities: A comparison between a local university repository and an international bibliographic service2020In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 1193-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – As the humanities develop in the realm of increasingly more pronounced digital scholarship, it isimportant to provide quality subject access to a vast range of heterogeneous information objects in digitalservices. The study aims to paint a representative picture of the current state of affairs of the use of subjectindex terms in humanities journal articles with particular reference to the well-established subject access needsof humanities researchers, with the purpose of identifying which improvements are needed in this context.

    Design/methodology/approach – The comparison of subject metadata on a sample of 649 peer-reviewedjournal articles from across the humanities is conducted in a university repository, against Scopus, the formerreflecting local and national policies and the latter being the most comprehensive international abstract andcitation database of research output.

    Findings – The study shows that established bibliographic objectives to ensure subject access for humanitiesjournal articles are not supported in either the world’s largest commercial abstract and citation databaseScopus or the local repository of a public university in Sweden. The indexing policies in the two services do notseem to address the needs of humanities scholars for highly granular subject index terms with appropriatefacets; no controlled vocabularies for any humanities discipline are used whatsoever.

    Originality/value – In all, not much has changed since 1990s when indexing for the humanities was shown tolag behind the sciences. The community of researchers and information professionals, today working togetheron digital humanities projects, as well as interdisciplinary research teams, should demand that their subjectaccess needs be fulfilled, especially in commercial services like Scopus and discovery services.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Hanell, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Papmehl-Dufay, Ludvig
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Introducing Digital Methods Platform for Arts and Humanities (DiMPAH)2022In: Presented at the 8th Big Data Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, December 1-2, 2022, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Full text
  • 8.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Automatic subject classification for improving retrieval in a Swedish repository2017In: ISKO UK Conference 2017: Knowledge Organization: what's the story?, 11 – 12 September 2017, London, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent adoption of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) in Sweden has ignited discussions about automated subject classification especially for digital collections, which generally seem to lack subject indexing from controlled vocabularies. This is particularly problematic in the context of academic resource retrieval tasks, which require an understanding of discipline-specific terminologies and the narratives behind their internal ontologies. The currently available experimental classification software have not been adequately tested and their usefulness is unproven especially for Swedish language resources. We address these issues by investigating a unifying framework of automatic subject indexing for the DDC, including an analysis of suitable interactive visualisation features for supporting these aims. We will address the disciplinary narratives behind the DDC in selected subject areas and the preliminary results will include an analysis of the data collection and a breakdown of the methodology. Major visualisation possibilities in support of the classification process are also outlined. The project will contribute significantly to Swedish information infrastructure by improving the findability of Swedish research resources by subject searching, one of the most common yet the most challenging types of searching.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Poster
  • 9.
    Hansson, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Golub, Koraljka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ahlström, Ida
    Linnaeus University, The University Library.
    Publication Practices in the Humanities: An in-depth Study of a Swedish Arts and Humanities Faculty 2010-20182021In: Nordic Journal of Library and Information Studies, ISSN 2597-0593, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 41-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a case study of research publication practices at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Linnaeus University, a young, mid-sized university in the south-east of Sweden. Research output was measured from publications in the local institutional repository following the guidelines of local research policy as defined in university documentation. The data collection comprised 3,316 metadata records of publications self-registered by authors affiliated with the faculty during the period of 2010–2018. A statistical analysis of research output was conducted, focusing on preferred publication types, disciplinary specificity, level of co-authorship, and the language of the publication as registered in the local repository. The analysis focused on two main research questions: 1) how do the local research practices stand in relation to traditional publication patterns in the humanities? 2) how do the observed publication patterns relate to local university policy on publication and research evaluation? The empirical results suggest a limited correlation between publication practices and research incentives from university management, a finding that is corroborated by previous research on the scholarly character of the humanities and university policies. Overall, traditional humanities publication patterns were largely maintained throughout the period under investigation.

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  • 10.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Räikkönen, Jenni
    Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Investigating colloquialization in the British parliamentary record in the late 19th and early 20th century2020In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 79, p. 1-16, article id 101270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore how sociocultural changes were reflected in the parliamentary record, a genre that combines elements of spoken, written and written-to-be-spoken discourses. Our main interests are in the processes of linguistic colloquialization and democratization, understood broadly as tendencies towards greater informality and equality in language use. Previous diachronic studies have established that written language has increasingly adopted features associated with spoken language, although genre and register differences are considerable. Our starting point is that as Parliament has become more demographically representative and as prescriptive norms have loosened in society on the whole, the relative frequency of informal features in parliamentary language may have increased. At the same time, profound changes took place in the practices of recording parliamentary proceedings, most importantly the introduction of the official report in 1909. Our data on British parliamentary debates come from the Hansard Corpus (Alexander and Davies, 2015). We investigate the 60-year-period 1870-1930, which includes reports of parliamentary debates and, after 1909, verbatim reports (in total ca. 40 million words). Adopting a pattern-driven approach, we focus on n-gram frequencies. The analysis first identifies major shifts in the language of the reports using unsupervised grouping methods, and then investigates in more detail the frequency trends of individual n-grams associated with spoken language, as well as their function in parliamentary debates. The findings indicate that the introduction of the official report resulted in clear changes in n-gram frequencies, which can be linked to democratization and colloquialization.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Academic Vocabulary in Wikipedia Articles: Frequency and Dispersion in Uneven Datasets2019In: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carl Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 282-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its popularity, the status of Wikipedia in higher education settings remains somewhat controversial, and the linguistic characteristics of the genre have not been exhaustively described. This exploratory paper takes a data-driven approach to assessing the use of academic vocabulary in Wikipedia articles. Our analysis is based on Coxhead’s Academic Word List, and the data comes from the Westbury Lab Wikipedia Corpus. We employ methods of statistical data analysis to classify Wikipedia articles according to the frequencies of academic words, and apply the same procedure to a comparable set of texts representing another genre, published research articles. The unsupervised classification procedure groups the articles according to academic content regardless of topic, which allows us to measure genre-specific similarities. The findings of the study show that academic words are common in both genres in focus, and more interestingly, if we look at aggregate frequencies of academic words, Wikipedia articles are not markedly different from RAs within the same discipline. This being said, we can observe disciplinary differences in the distribution of academic words in Wikipedia, such that Economics writing contains more academic words than the other two disciplines in focus. Disciplinary differences can likewise be observed in the distribution of individual academic words.

  • 12.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Manual to the LMEMT corpus2019In: Late Modern English Medical Texts: Writing medicine in the eighteenth century / [ed] Irma Taavitsainen, Turo Hiltunen, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Learning text analytics without coding?: An introduction to KNIME2023In: Education for Information, ISSN 0167-8329, E-ISSN 1875-8649, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 121-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of the quantitative turn in linguistics and the emergence of text analytics has created a demand for new methodological skills among linguists and data scientists. This paper introduces KNIME as a low-code programming platform for linguists interested in learning text analytic methods, while highlighting the considerations necessary from a linguistics standpoint for data scientists. Examples from an Open Educational Resource created for the DiMPAH project are used to demonstrate KNIME's value as a low-code option for text analysis, using sentiment analysis and topic modelling as examples. The paper provides detailed step-by-step descriptions of the workflows for both methods, showcasing how these methods can be applied without writing code. The results suggest that visual or low-code programming tools are useful as an introduction for linguists and humanities scholars who wish to gain an understanding of text analytic workflows and computational thinking. However, as with more traditional programming, caution must be exercised when using methods without fully understanding them. In conclusion, KNIME is a potential avenue for innovative research and teaching computational methods to humanities scholars.

  • 14.
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hanell, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Considering KNIME Workflows as Shareable Resources: An Example from ‘Trolling the Library’2024In: Presented at HumInfra Conference (HiC) 2024, Gothenburg, 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the growing influence of the radical right turns cultural institutions into political symbols (Harding, 2021), online forums and social media are key venues for antagonistic outbursts directed at public libraries (Carlsson, Hanell & Hansson 2022). Trolling the Library aims to explore radical right digital attacks against public libraries, and is currently piloting different methods to analyse online comments and news items from the website SamNytt. This contribution outlines one intended deliverable of the project: a shareable workflow for the low-code tool KNIME (KoNstanz Information MinEr).

     

    Low-code tools play an important role in making data analysis and visualization accessible to researchers and students with limited experience, or interest, in programming (see De Mauro, Marzoni & Walter, 2021). While low-code tools do introduce closed-box issues, they can still be considered important steppingstones towards computational approaches (Tyrkkö & Ihrmark, submitted). An additional benefit is the shareability of the workflow resulting from designing the method pipeline in tools such as KNIME or Orange. 

     

    The specific workflow resulting from Trolling the Library contains sentiment analysis and topic modeling components. While limited in scope, the discussion of the workflow highlights both the benefits and drawbacks of low-code workflows as potential shareable resources for the digital humanities. This contribution focuses on the ease of use, possible obstacles from an unfamiliar user’s perspective, and the availability of appropriate resources for the platform. 

     

     

    Works cited:

     

    Carlsson, H., Hanell, F., & Hansson, J. (2022). ”Det känns som att jag bara

    sitter och väntar på att det ska explodera”: politisk påverkan på de

    kommunala folkbibliotekens verksamhet i sex sydsvenska regioner. Nordic

    Journal of Library and Information Studies, 3(1), 26-43.

     

    De Mauro Andrea, Francesco Marzoni & Andrew J. Walter. 2021. Data Analytics Made Easy: Analyze and present data to make informed decisions without writing any code. Packt Publishing

     

    Harding, T. (2021). Culture wars? The (re) politicization of Swedish cultural

    policy. Cultural Trends, 1-18.

     

    Tyrkkö, J., & Ihrmark, D. Submitted. Low-code data science tools for linguistics: Swiss army knives or pretty black boxes? In Coats S. and V. Laippala (eds.) March of Data (Language, Data Science and Digital Humanities X). London: Bloomsbury Academic.

  • 15.
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hanell, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Trolling the Library: The digital threat to the democratic mission of public libraries2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the growing influence of the radical right have turned cultural

    institutions into political symbols in an emerging ‘culture war’ (Harding,

    2021). Carlsson, Hanell & Hansson (2022) show how digital forums and social

    media play a significant part in orchestrating the ideologically laden conflicts

    and confrontations that public libraries are currently facing. This prompts an

    investigation of the digital environments where supporters of radical right-wing

    ideas interact, share thoughts, construct collective identities, and coordinate

    actions towards libraries. In this explorative pilot study, we use selected

    methods on a small dataset to test viable methods and approaches.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hanell, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Trolling the Library: the digital threat to the democratic mission of public libraries2023In: Presented at Big Data 2023, November 30th - December 1st, Växjö, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the growing influence of the radical right have turned cultural institutions into political symbols in an emerging ‘culture war’ (Harding, 2021). Carlsson, Hanell & Hansson (2022) show how digital forums and social media play a significant part in orchestrating the ideologically laden conflicts and confrontations that public libraries are currently facing. Digitally mediated threats from the radical right may obstruct the statutory mission of the institution to promote democracy, but knowledge about how such threats develop and unfold, as well as the relation between online interactions and offline events (Scrivens, Davies & Frank, 2020), is lacking. This prompts an investigation of the digital environments where supporters of radical right-wing ideas interact, share thoughts, construct collective identities, and coordinate actions towards libraries.

    Methodologically, the pilot study explores user comments on online news websites (Landert 2014), applying a data-driven approach informed by sentiment analysis and topic modelling (TM) testing both conventional lexicon-based sentiment scoring and LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation) topic modelling, and more recent BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) modelling. For purposes of transparency and easy replicability, we carry out the analyses in the open-source environment KNIME (Konstanz Information Miner; see Ihrmark & Tyrkkö 2023).

    The dataset of the pilot study contains 561 comments taken from 138 different articles published between 2019 and 2023 on the SamNytt website, the main media outlet for the Swedish radical right. The articles were selected by using the search term “bibliotek” in the site’s search function. The comments were made by 338 different user accounts, with a low number of individual accounts making more than 5 comments. An ongoing analysis suggests that the frequency and temporality of comments and upvotes provide a window into the processes shaping radical right-wing digital attacks that result in tangible consequences for public libraries.

  • 17. Kauhanen, Henri
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Something about nothing: Using resampling, collocation extraction and nonlinear regression to link orthography and grammaticalisation2013In: Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Olga Timofeeva, Maria Salenius, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique , 2013, p. 131-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kopaczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Applications of Pattern-driven Methods in Corpus Linguistics2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of corpora has conventionally been envisioned as being either corpus-based or corpus-driven. While the formal definition of the latter term has been widely accepted since it was established by Tognini-Bonelli (2001), it is often applied to studies that do not, in fact, fullfil the fundamental requirement of a theory-neutral starting point. This volume proposes the term pattern-driven as a more precise alternative. The chapters illustrate a variety of methods that fall under this broad methodology, such as the extraction of lexical bundles, POS-grams and semantic frames, and demonstrate how these approaches can uncover new understandings of both synchronic and diachronic linguistic phenomena.

  • 19.
    Kopaczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Blogging around the world: Universal and localised patterns in Online Englishes2018In: Applications of Pattern-driven Methods in Corpus Linguistics / [ed] Joanna Kopaczyk, Jukka Tyrkkö, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 277-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The borderless nature of blogging raises the question whether the traditional regionally defined varieties of English continue to hold true (see Crystal 2011). In order to investigate the extent to which the language published online without external intervention is similar around the world, this chapter investigates repetitive patterns, or 3-grams, found in blogs in the 583-million-word GloWbE corpus (Davies 2013). The data shows two types of repetitive word sequences: universal, or those that are frequent in all or most of the nineteen geographic locations represented in the corpus, and localised, or those unique to specific regions. We explore multiple ways of approaching the regional distribution of universal and localised 3-grams, such as statistical similarity measures (Jaccard coefficient and hierarchical clustering) and network visualisations. Three correlated research issues are addressed by this study: (1) the ratio of 3-grams in blogs from various World Englishes, which will shed light onto the degree of formulaicity in Web Englishes around the world; (2) the overlaps between various locations in terms of preferred sequences, which may point to local or global standardization hubs on the level of sentence and text construction; (3) finally, the status of model-providing varieties for internet communication, especially American English, in view of the most frequent 3-grams from other locations (cf. Mair 2013).

  • 20.
    Korhonen, Minna
    et al.
    The Australian National University, Australia;Macquarie University, Australia .
    Kotze, HaideeUtrecht University, Netherlands;North-West University, Netherlands.Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Exploring Language and Society with Big Data: Parliamentary discourse across time and space2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Fatemi, Masoud
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Ihrmark, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Americanization in the Nordic Contexts on Twitter2019In: Presented at ICAME 40 2019. Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Leppänen, Sirpa
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Introduction2014In: Texts and Discourses of New Media / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Sirpa Leppänen, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Levin, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From the BBC to the PFC and CAPTCHA: Acronym typology from a cross-linguistic perspective2018In: ICAME 39, Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018, Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society: Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 108-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acronyms are prevalent and increasingly frequent both in English (Leech et al. 2009: 212–213) and other languages, such as German (Steinhauer 2000: 1), a development which mirrors the increasing societal prominence of science/technology and politics/business outside specialized domains (Kobler-Trill 1994: 200). Although acronyms allow brief and unambiguous communication among experts, they also decrease transparency for non-experts both when it comes to retrieving the full form of the acronym (e.g., LSD) or its referent (UNFCCC). The potential lack of transparency is further compounded in translations due to cultural differences. However, few previous studies have addressed the translation of acronyms and none from a corpus-based perspective.

    This study investigates the use of acronyms in English originals and their translations into German and Swedish, comparing forms, functions and distributions across the languages. A major outcome will be a typology of translation strategies and acronym use in the three languages. The material consists of an English-German-Swedish popular non-fiction parallel corpus currently being compiled by the authors. This genre covers, for instance, popular science and biographies, and the texts are aimed at informing and entertaining non-specialist audiences. Therefore, writers and translators need to strike a balance between brevity and transparency without compromising accuracy or alienating readers.

    Preliminary results suggest that acronyms most often occur as noun phrase heads (When IBM introduced…), but they are also frequent in more complex structures such as English premodifiers (PGP encryption) and German (UN-Klimakonvention) and Swedish compounds (NKVD-officer) (cf. Ström Herold & Levin in preparation). They also occasionally form part of new words (NAFTA-style). This flexibility is likely facilitated by the simplex forms of acronyms (Fleischer & Barz 2012: 284).

    The first-time mentions of acronyms in texts are of particular interest. Based on our popular non-fiction corpus, knowledge of some frequent acronyms is presupposed (e.g., DNA tests), others are given as appositive noun phrases alongside the full form (The chemical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (usually known as DDT) […]) (cf. Biber & Gray 2016: 202–207), while some receive more extensive meta-linguistic comments (WYSIWYG, pronounced "wiz-ee-wig," an acronym for "What you see is what you get."). This is also found in translations, which can be either more or less explicit than the original:

    (1a)  Complete the CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart), and you're in.

    (1b) den CAPTCHA […] (den ”Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart", also den ”vollautomatischen öffentlichen Turingtest zur Unterscheidung von Computern und Menschen") [’i.e. the ”completely-automated…”’]

    (1c) captcha-rutan (ett robotfilter för att skilja människor från datorer) [’the captcha-box (a robot-filter to tell …’]

    The translations of first-time mentions vary greatly between German and Swedish target texts. Important factors are the target audience’s (assumed) culture-specific knowledge and their knowledge of English. Our acronym typology will consider structural and pragmatic features and their relevance to translation.

    References

    Biber, Douglas & Bethany Gray. 2016. Grammatical complexity in academic English. Linguistic change in writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Fleischer, Wolfgang & Irmhild Barz. 2012. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Kobler-Trill, Dorothea. 1994. Das Kurzwort im Deutschen. Eine Untersuchung zu Definition, Typologie und Entwicklung. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

    Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English. A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Steinhauer, Anja. 2000. Sprachökonomie durch Kurzwörter: Bildung und Verwendung in der Fachkommunikation. Tübingen: Narr.

    Ström Herold, Jenny & Magnus Levin. In preparation. The Obama presidency, the Macintosh keyboard and the Norway fiasco. English proper noun modifiers in German and Swedish contrast. Paper presented at BICLCE, Vigo, September 2017.

  • 24.
    McConchie, R. W.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Juvonen, TeoKaunisto, MarkUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland.Nevala, MinnaTyrkkö, JukkaUniversity of Helsinki, Finland.
    Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3)2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 25. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Historical Dictionaries in their Paratextual Context2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both dictionary and paratext research have emerged recently as widely-recognised research areas of intrinsic interest. This collection represents an attempt to place dictionaries within the paratextual context for the first time. This volume covers paratextual concerns, including dictionary production and use, questions concerning compilers, publishers, patrons and subscribers, and their cultural embedding generally. This book raises questions such as who compiled dictionaries and what cultural, linguistic and scientific notions drove this process. What influence did the professional interests, life experience, and social connexions of the lexicographer have? Who published dictionaries and why, and what do the forematter, backmatter, and supplements tell us? Lexicographers edited, adapted and improved earlier works, leaving copies with marginalia which illuminate working methods. Individual copies offer a history of ownership through marginalia, signatures, dates, places, and library stamps. Further questions concern how dictionaries were sold, who patronised them, subscribed to them, and how they came to various libraries.

  • 26. McConchie, Roderick
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Introduction2018In: Historical Dictionaries in their Paratexual Context / [ed] McConchie Roderick, Jukka Tyrkkö, Berlin & Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. vii-xiiChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Introduction2013In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Meurman-Solin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, JukkaUniversity of Tampere, Finland.
    Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Mäkinen, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Peikola, Matti
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Turun vieraat kielet 1880-luvulla sanomalehtien välittämänä2021In: Kieliä ja kohtaamisia Turun historiassa: näkökulmia Suomen vanhimman kaupungin historialliseen monikielisyyteen / [ed] Kolehmainen Leena; Aino Liira; Kirsi-Maria Nummila, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2021, p. 208-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nevala, Minna
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    From criminal lunacy to mental disorder: The changing lexis of mental health in the British parliament2023In: Exploring Language and Society with Big Data: Parliamentary discourse across time and space / [ed] Minna Korhonen, Haidee Kotze, Jukka Tyrkkö, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2023, p. 194-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates discourses of mental health in the British parliament over two centuries (1800–2020). A pattern-driven approach is used to explore terminology related to mentally ill people, mental institutions, and mental health in general. The study focuses on lexical trends in parliamentary discourse, the extent to which mental health discourse was discussed in general, and the way in which the lexis of modern mental health care has developed. The results show that the major shifts in the entire lexical field have happened in specific time periods, the turning points being in the 1840s, 1930s and 1950s. The general attitude also seems to have shifted, and the data show an increasing concern for legally protecting people with mental illness.

  • 31.
    Nevala, Minna
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lunatics and idiots: The effect of semantic shifts on naming and labelling in the British Parliament, 1950–20002023In: Nordic Journal of Socio-Onomastics, ISSN 2004-0296, Vol. 3, p. 97-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Nurmi, Arja
    et al.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Petäjäniemi, Anna
    Pahta, Päivi
    The social and textual embedding of multilingual practices in Late Modern English: A corpus-based analysis2018In: Multilingual Practices in Language History: English and Beyond / [ed] Päivi Pahta, Janne Skaffari, Laura Wright, Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 171-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33. Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Collaborative exploration of rich corpus data using immersive virtual reality and non-immersive technologies2019In: ADDA: Approaches to Digital Discourse Analysis – ADDA 2, Turku, Finland 23-25 May 2019 ; Book of abstracts, Turku: University of Turku , 2019, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, large textual data sets, comprising many data points and rich metadata, have become a common object of investigation and analysis. Information Visualization and Visual Analytics provide practical tools for visual data analysis, most commonly as interactive two-dimensional (2D) visualizations that are displayed through normal computer monitors. At the same time, display technologies have evolved rapidly over the past decade. In particular, emerging technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), or mixed reality (MR) have become affordable and more user-friendly (LaValle 2016). Under the banner of “Immersive Analytics”, researchers started to explore the novel application of such immersive technologies for the purpose of data analysis (Marriott et al. 2018).

    By using immersive technologies, researchers hope to increase motivation and user engagement for the overall data analysis activity as well as providing different perspectives on the data. This can be particularly helpful in the case of exploratory data analysis, when the researcher attempts to identify interesting points or anomalies in the data without prior knowledge of what exactly they are searching for. Furthermore, the data analysis process often involves the collaborative sharing of information and knowledge between multiple users for the goal of interpreting and making sense of the explored data together (Isenberg et al. 2011). However, immersive technologies such as VR are often rather single user-centric experiences, where one user is wearing a head-mounted display (HMD) device and is thus visually isolated from the real-world surroundings. Consequently, new tools and approaches for co-located, synchronous collaboration in such immersive data analysis scenarios are needed.

    In this software demonstration, we present our developed VR system that enables two users to explore data at the same time, one inside an immersive VR environment, and one outside VR using a non-immersive companion application. The context of this demonstrated data analysis activity is centered around the exploration of the language variability in tweets from the perspectives of multilingualism and sociolinguistics (see, e.g. Coats 2017 and Grieve et al. 2017). Our primary data come from the the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) corpus (Laitinen et al. 2018, Tyrkkö 2018), and the immersive VR application visualizes in three dimensions (3D) the clustered Twitter traffic within the Nordic region as stacked cuboids according to their geospatial position, where each stack represents a color-coded language share (Alissandrakis et al. 2018). Through the utilization of 3D gestural input, the VR user can interact with the data using hand postures and gestures in order to move through the virtual 3D space, select clusters and display more detailed information, and to navigate through time (Reski and Alissandrakis 2019) ( https://vrxar.lnu.se/apps/odxvrxnts-360/ ). A non-immersive companion application, running in a normal web browser, presents an overview map of the Nordic region as well as other supplemental information about the data that are more suitable to be displayed using non-immersive technologies.

    We will present two complementary applications, each with a different objective within the collaborative data analysis framework. The design and implementation of certain connectivity and collaboration features within these applications facilitate the co-located, synchronous exploration and sensemaking. For instance, the VR user’s position and orientation are displayed and updated in real-time within the overview map of the non-immersive application. The other way around, the selected cluster of the non-immersive user is also highlighted for the user in VR. Initial tests with pairs of language students validated the proof-of-concept of the developed collaborative system and encourage the conduction of further future investigations in this direction.

  • 34.
    Reski, Nico
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    "Oh, that's where you are!": Towards a Hybrid Asymmetric Collaborative Immersive Analytics System2020In: NordiCHI '20: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society, Tallinn, Estonia, October 25-29, 2020., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 1-12, article id 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a hybrid Immersive Analytics system to support asymmetrical collaboration between a pair of users during synchronous data exploration. The system consists of an immersive Virtual Reality application, a non-immersive web application, and a real-time communication interface connecting both applications to provide features to facilitate the collaborators’ mutual understanding and their ability to make (spatial) references. We conducted a real world case study with pairs of language students, encouraging them to use the developed system to investigate a large multivariate Twitter dataset from a sociolinguistic perspective within an explorative analysis scenario. Based on the results of usability scores, log file analyses, observations, and interviews, we were able to validate the approach in general, and gain insights into the users’ collaboration with respect to awareness, deixis, and group dynamics.

    Download full text (pdf)
    2020-Reski-OTW-Submitted
  • 35.
    Rissanen, Matti
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC)2012In: Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data / [ed] Meurman-Solin Anneli, Jukka Tyrkkö, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compilation of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC) was initiated in the early 1980s and the corpus was completed and publicly distributed in 1991. Its size is c. 1.5 million words, and it covers the periods from Early Old English to the end of Early Modern English, i.e., to the beginning of the eighteenth century. The Corpus is structured chronologically and by sociolinguistic, dialectal and genre-based parameters. After two decades, it is still used in various parts of the world as a “diagnostic” corpus giving useful indications of the first thousand years of the development of the English language. The results given by the Helsinki Corpus can be easily supplemented from other larger and/or more focused historical corpora compiled in Helsinki and elsewhere.

  • 36.
    Ström Herold, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    RAF, DNA and CAPTCHA: English acronyms in German and Swedish translation2021In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates acronyms in English originals and their translations into German and Swedish, comparing forms, functions and distributions across the languages. The material was collected from the Linnaeus English-German-Swedish corpus (LEGS) consisting of original and translated popular non-fiction. From a structural point of view, acronyms most often occur as independent noun heads (When IBM introduced […]) or as premodifiers in a noun phrase (PGP encryption). Due to morphosyntactic differences, English acronym premodifiers often merge into hyphenated compounds in German translations (UN-Klimakonvention), but less frequently so in Swedish. The study also discusses explicitation practices when introducing source-culture specific acronyms in the translations. German translators explain and elaborate more than Swedish translators and they do so in the German language. Swedish translators, however, use English to a greater extent, suggesting that Swedish readers are expected to have better knowledge of English than German readers.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext (pdf)
  • 37.
    Säily, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Challenges of combining structured and unstructured data in corpus development2021In: Research in Corpus Linguistics (RiCL), ISSN 1064-4857, E-ISSN 2243-4712, Vol. 9, no 1, p. I-viiiArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the availability of ever larger and more varied electronic datasets, both historical and modern, provide unprecedented opportunities for corpus linguistics and the digital humanities. However, combining unstructured text with images, video, audio as well as structured metadata poses a variety of challenges to corpus compilers. This paper presents an overview of the topic to contextualise this special issue of Research in Corpus Linguistics. The aim of the special issue is to highlight some of the challenges faced and solutions developed in several recent and ongoing corpus projects. Rather than providing overall descriptions of corpora, each contributor discusses specific challenges they faced in the corpus development process, summarised in this paper. We hope that the special issue will benefit future corpus projects by providing solutions to common problems and by paving the way for new best practices for the compilation and development of rich-data corpora. We also hope that this collection of articles will help keep the conversation going on the theoretical and methodological challenges of corpus compilation.

  • 38.
    Taavitsainen, Irma
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Turo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lehto, Anu
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marttila, Ville
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Pahta, Päivi
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Ratia, Maura
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suhr, Carla
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Late Modern English Medical Texts 1700-1800: A corpus for analysing eighteenth-century medical English2014In: ICAME Journal/International Computer Archive of Modern English, ISSN 0801-5775, E-ISSN 1502-5462, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 137-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Timofeeva, Olga
    et al.
    Salenius, Maria
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Preface2013In: Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka / [ed] Tyrkkö Jukka, Olga Timofeeva, Maria Salenius, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique , 2013, p. v-xiiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Physical Dictionary (1657): The first English medical dictionary2012In: Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers: Volume 4 : The Seventeenth Century / [ed] John Considine, London: Ashgate, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Astronomy ‘Playne and Simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900: Isabel Moskowich and Begoña Crespo (eds). Amsterdam, Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012. xi + 240 pp. ISBN 978-90-272-1194-12013In: Literary & Linguistic Computing, ISSN 0268-1145, E-ISSN 1477-4615, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 487-490Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Binomials in English novels of the late modern period: fixedness, formulaicity and style2017In: Binomials in the History of English: Fixed and Flexible / [ed] Joanna Kopaczyk, Hans Sauer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Discovering the past for yourself: Corpora, data-driven learning and the history of English2017In: Approaches to Teaching History of the English Language: Pedagogy in Practice / [ed] Mary Hayes, Allison Burkette, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 141-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Early Modern Medicine in Manuscript and Print: A Triangulation Approach to Analysing Spelling Standardisation2020In: International Journal of English Studies (IJES), ISSN 1578-7044, E-ISSN 1989-6131, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 67-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standardisation process of English spelling largely came to its conclusion during the Early Modern period. While the progress of standardisation has been studied in both printed and manuscript texts, few studies have looked at these processes side by side, especially focusing on the same genre of writing and by using corpora that are sufficiently large for quantitative comparison. Using two Early Modern medical corpora, one based on manuscripts and the other on printed sources, this paper compares the trajectories of spelling standardisation in the two textual domains and shows that while spelling standardisation progressed in an almost linear fashion in printed texts, the manuscripts reveal a much more varied and shallow cline toward standardisation.

  • 45.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Exploring Part-of-Speech Profiles and Authorship Attribution in Early Modern Medical Texts2013In: Meaning in the History of English: Words and texts in context / [ed] Andreas H. Jucker, Daniela Landert, Annina Seiler, Nicole Studer-Joho, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 190-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical linguists frequently find themselves working with primary texts of uncertain or dubious origin. Sometimes the author of a text is not known at all or the authorship has been contested on the basis of book-historical evidence; but, whatever the reason is, uncertainties about authorship can lead to problems if the linguistic characteristics of the text are ascribed to the supposed or conventionally accepted author. This exploratory paper evaluates the usefulness of a method of authorship attribution that is based on cluster analysis of part-of-speech frequencies. While far from perfect, the method is shown to be a useful addition to the methodological toolkit of the historical corpus linguist by allowing quick diagnostic analysis of similarities between texts.

  • 46.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kinship References in the British Parliament, 1800-20052019In: Reference and Identify in Public Discourses / [ed] Ursula Lutzky, Minna Nevala, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019, p. 97-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family and kinship are fundamental concepts of human society and of political governance. Proceeding from the notion that frequency of reference can be taken as a simple measure of visibility and representation, this study examines diachronic trends of kinship reference in British parliamentary debates from 1800 to 2005. Using the Hansard Corpus and pattern-driven corpus linguistic methods, I show that changes in the frequencies of reference to kin reflect societal attitudes to gender roles.

  • 47.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lasikatto ja lasilattia: Monikielisyyden dynamiikkaa 1800-luvun Tampereella2019In: Kielten ja kirjallisuuksien mosaiikki: Valta, periferia ja arki / [ed] Arja Nurmi, Saija Isomaa, Päivi Pahta, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2019, p. 133-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of Tampere, Finland.
    Looking for Rhetorical Thresholds: Pronoun Frequencies in Political Speeches2016In: The Pragmatics and Stylistics of Identity Construction and Characterisation / [ed] Nevala Minna, Ursula Lutzky, Gabrielle Mazzon, Carla Suhr, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deliberate and considered use of personal pronouns is one of the primary linguistic features used by political speakers to manage their audiences’ perceptions of in-groups and out-groups. In this diachronic study of political speeches over the last two centuries, I will argue that a notable shift took place in politicians’ use of personal pronouns around the 1920s, immediately following the time broadcast media emerged on the scene.

  • 49.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    ‘My intent is onelie to further those that be willing to learne’: The lexicon of mid-sixteenth century surgical books in context2013In: Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3) / [ed] R.W. McConchie, Teo Juvonen, Mark Kaunisto, Minna Nevala, Jukka Tyrkkö, Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project , 2013, p. 177-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Network graphs to the rescue, or how to visualise distributions and networks in corpora and language2023In: Data Visualization in Corpus Linguistics: Critical Reflections and Future Directions / [ed] Sönning, Lukas;Schützler, Ole, Helsinki: VARIENG, University of Helsinki , 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are talking about the structural properties of corpora or the dispersion of linguistic phenomena within corpora or the language system, corpus-based analyses almost invariably deal with complex and relational data. However, due in part to the design of online and standalone corpus tools, corpora are often treated exclusively from the so-called bag-of-words perspective. As corpora have increased in size, it has become increasingly difficult to understand their structures and metadata, and associations between linguistic features are almost impossible to grasp from tabular data and test statistics alone. In recent years, data visualisation methods developed in the natural sciences have become a part of the digital humanist’s toolkit for gaining insights into complex data, understanding their structure, for identifying outliers and noteworthy categories, and for communicating findings in a way that readers and audiences will remember. In this paper, I will focus on network visualisations, which are highly suited for both exploring and presenting complex linked data. The main tool discussed is Cytoscape, an open-access network visualisation tool widely used in bioinformatics and supported by a large user-base. I will present a series of case studies of how network visualisations can assist in both exploratory analysis and descriptive visualisation of corpora and linguistic data. First, I will demonstrate their utility for exploring the structures of corpora and their metadata. Second, I will show how visualisation methods can clarify collocate relationships and how such visualisations can be designed to represent association strengths in a way that does not mislead the reader. And third, I use network graphing to explore the distribution of multilingual elements across millions of tweets, combining linguistic data and metadata to produce an overview that could not be represented otherwise.

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