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  • 1.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Admission policy of the Swedish teacher education favouring men: Discussion in the Parliament 19622012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 227-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1962 the Swedish Parliament decided on a school reform. Meritocracy and equal opportunity were important goals. However, these ideals were not applied to elementary school teacher education, where a sex quota policy favoured male applicants. In the Parliamentary debate, a woman member of the Right Wing Party raised objections to the policy. A man representative of the Social Democrat government's education politics had to explain why the admission policy that favoured men was not abolished. By evoking historical ideas of women teachers as inferior, and warnings of the feminisation of schools as a great threat, the admission rules were defended. Also, the analysis of the debate shows that women were supposed to hold back their individual rights and a woman arguing in favour of a gender neutral admission policy risked being labelled as “unwomanly”.

  • 2.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Anna Anka i skolan: Att utforska könsdebatter2012In: Normkritiska perspektiv i skolans likabehandlingsarbete / [ed] Elisabeth Elmeroth, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Det ska vara lika för alla, så att säga...2004Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fostran till förändrade roller?: om synen på kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-19622010In: Fostran i skola och utbildning.: Årsböcker i svensk undervisningshistoria / [ed] Anna Larsson, Uppsala: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Fostran till förändrade roller?: om synen på kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-1962.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    För och mot könskvoteringen till förskollärarutbildningen: Argument i tidskriften Förskolan 1970-19812018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preschool teacher is a profession that is highly associated with femininity, and a very large majority of staff in preschools are women. Due to the current high recruitment needs in Swedish preschools, SKL (the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions) has stated that it is important that both women and men see the preschool as a possible workplace for themselves. Therefore it might be worthwhile to take a look at the discussions that took place during the 1970s, being perhaps the period during which men in preschools were discussed the most. When the Swedish preschool was developing in the 1970s, it was a political aim to have both men and women work in the preschools. In order for more men to be admitted to preschool teacher education, a quota policy that favoured male applicants was introduced. The preschool teachers’ trade union, Sveriges Förskollärares Riksförbund (SFR) defended the quota policy and argued in support of it in the union journal Förskolan (The Preschool) for several years. In 1976 the organization changed its position and argued instead that the admissions policy should be abolished. This study investigates the discussions that were held in the union journal Förskolan, both for and against the quota procedure for preschool teacher education in the years 1971-1980. The research questions are as follows: What arguments were put forward in the discussions? In what way can these arguments be said to challenge or sustain the unequal relationship between women and men?

     

    A qualitative analysis of the years 1970-1981 has been conducted. The journal in its entirety has been reviewed and analyzed for arguments, regardless of whether the statement came from the trade union, a letter to the editor, someone interviewed in a report, etc. Three arguments for the quota policy and two arguments against were found. An argument for the quota policy was, To achieve higher values, which meant a higher goal was assumed to be achieved by applying the quota measure. The higher values intended were a more even gender distribution, justice and a more versatile workforce. This reasoning was not specific to preschool teacher education, but could have been aimed at all education programmes that have an uneven gender distribution, both male-dominated and female-dominated. Another argument was, Compensation for the absence of men, which meant that the male preschool teachers would make up for the fathers who did not participate in their children's lives. The third argument was, Men are better preschool teachers than women, which meant that men were depicted as more committed and flexible workers. In some cases, the arguments can be linked to historical discussions about women and men and their place in society. An argument against the quota policy was, A gender quota policy sustains outdated attitudes, which meant that the expectations that gender role thinking within preschools would change, had not been fulfilled. The second argument against the quota policy was, Men and women should be admitted on equal terms, which meant that a female qualified applicant should not have to stand back for a less qualified man.

     

    Only one of the arguments challenged the unequal relationship between women and men; Men and women should be admitted on equal terms. In the 1970s debate, it was not an uncommon premise that men would contribute something that the women lacked. They would take the place as men, not primarily as preschool teachers. Today, when preschool is facing major recruitment needs and SKL's ambition is to broaden recruitments, SKL emphasizes that it wants men to be recruited not so that they work in preschool to fulfill a specific ’male function’, rather gender should not be an obstacle.

  • 7.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Gender as difference and young people without limitations: Gender discourses in a study counsellor context.2007In: Present challenges in gender research. / [ed] Andersson, Å. & Johansson, E. (eds.), National school of gender research. Umeå university , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Head Teachers, Women and Hesitation to Discuss Gender Issues.2017In: Open Journal of Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2327-5960, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 238-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of Swedish head teachers approaches the importance of gender issues in terms of their work. The empirical material is from so-called “research circles”, which were part of a gender equality project conducted in southern Sweden. A research circle is similar to a focus group interview. The group, which consists of eight women who were head teachers within compulsory education, met on six occasions. The results show that the women initially expressed strong hesitation about whether discussing gender issues in relation to the role of head teacher was beneficial at all. The entire gender equality project was called into question by the suggestion that the connection between head teacher and gender implied a weakening of women. However, examples of gender playing a role within educational settings were increasingly noted. By highlighting female head teachers’ ambivalence towards discussing issues related to gender and gender equality, this paper contributes to the discussion about why these issues do not occupy a stronger position within schools. Also, the female head teachers’ hesitation and ambivalence are connected to the decline in status of the head teacher profession due to the restructuring of education, for which women in educational leadership in Sweden have been blamed.

  • 9.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Health and social care students heading for a vocational identity: How do femininities and masculinities affect the process?2016In: 2016 International Conference on Gender Studies, Cracow, Poland, 24-25 June, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    How the girl choosing technology became the symbol of the non-traditional pupil’s choice in Sweden2011In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non‐traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was expected to lead to labour shortage. However, the problems and the resistance against women in the workshops were rarely discussed. One possible explanation for not addressing the obstacles that the girls risked facing is that great hopes were attached to changing gender roles. The major school reform that was about to be launched was also expected to lead to more equal educational choices. In addition, girls' choices were associated with tradition and an outmoded society. The female mechanic or industrial worker came to be seen as a symbol of modern Sweden.

  • 11.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Immaterial cultural heritage in focus: Gender norms and democratic values.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Jämställdhet – en del av skolans värdegrund.2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jämställdhet som didaktisk utmaning inom lärarutbildningen2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Konstruktionen av kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-1994, med särskilt fokus på naturvetenskap och teknik2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lilla genushäftet 2.0: Om genus och skolans jämställdhetsmål2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lilla genushäftet: om genus och skolans jämställdhetsmål2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Man och förskollärare – att positioneras som ”annorlunda”2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Men and masculinities in the feminine preschool teacher training: A planned project about the gender dilemma2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Preschool teacher students talk about children: a story about femininities and masculinities?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rektor, kvinna och ambivalens inför att diskutera könsfrågor2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Self-Evident, Excessive or Opposed: Student Teachers’ Associations with ‘Gender Equality’2016In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study undertaken in a Swedish teacher education setting. The aim is to obtain data that can be helpful for teacher educators planning their teaching about gender equality policy. The assumptions which the students base their pre-understandings on are in focus. The empirical material consists of 105 student teachers’ descriptions of their associations with the term ‘gender equality’ [jämställdhet]. In the material, three competing discourses are found. One discourse is the discourse of the fair gender equality. Within this discourse, gender equality seems to be quite an uncomplicated issue. Gender equality is, or should be, something natural. A second discourse is the discourse of the exaggerated gender equality, linking gender equality to conflicts, aggression and excessive demands. A third discourse is the discourse of the opposed gender equality. Within this discourse, gender equality is described as a contested issue met with resistance and hostility. Being able to identify and examine these competing discourses may work as a first step in identifying assumptions that students hold about gender equality and gender issues.

  • 22.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Självklar rättvisa, överdrivna krav och motarbetat: Lärarstudenters associationer till ”jämställdhet”2015In: Abstracts. Den nionde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, 15-16 oktober, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av 1960-talet har ett jämställdhetsmål varit inskrivet i grundskolans läroplan. Lärarutbildningen får dock återkommande kritik för brister när det gäller att förbereda blivande lärare på detta uppdrag (Kreitz-Sandberg 2013). Som Toohey (2002) framhåller har alla som undervisar god hjälp av att kartlägga sina studenters tidigare kunskaper och antaganden innan de planerar undervisningen. Studiens övergripande syfte är att få ett underlag som kan vara till hjälp för att planera undervisning om skolans jämställdhetsmål inom lärarutbildningen. De forskningsfrågor som vägleder studien är följande: Vilka diskurser 11 återkommer i lärarstudenters associationer till jämställdhet? Vilka antaganden rymmer dessa diskurser?

    Diskursbegreppet utgår från socialkonstruktionismen som betonar att vi inte kan uppleva och skapa kunskap om omgivningen på annat sätt än genom de begrepp, kategorier och språk vi redan har. Vår kunskap om världen kommer därför alltid att vara tydligt beroende av den tid och kultur som vi lever i. Diskurser är ”socialt konstruerade betydelsesystem som kunde ha varit annorlunda” (Jørgensen & Phillips 2000 s 28). Laclau och Mouffe (2001) riktar fokus mot de sociala strider som pågår inom språket (Jfr Bakhtin 1999). Med diskursiv kamp avser de den strid som pågår om hur t.ex. ett begrepp ska förstås. I den här studien gäller den diskursiva kampen ”jämställdhet”.

    Det empiriska materialet består av 105 lärarstudenters beskrivningar av vilka associationer som ”jämställdhet” väcker. I materialet framträder tre konkurrerande diskurser. En dominant diskurs i materialet är diskursen om den rättvisa jämställdheten. Jämställdhet är, eller borde vara, något självklart. Inom denna diskurs ter sig jämställdhet ofta som något okomplicerat. En andra diskurs är diskursen om den överdrivna jämställdheten som kopplar samman jämställdhet med konflikter, aggressivitet och överdrivna krav. En tredje diskurs är diskursen om den motarbetade jämställdheten där jämställdhet förstås som en känslig fråga som väcker motstånd. Att granska dessa konkurrerande diskurser kan ses som ett sätt att identifiera var studenterna befinner sig när det gäller jämställdhet och genusfrågor.

    Bakhtin, M., M. (1999). The problem of speech genres. In: A. Jaworski & N. Coupland. The Discourse Reader. London: Routledge. Jørgensen Winther M. & Phillips, L. (2000) Diskursanalys som teori och metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur Kreitz-Sandberg, S. (2013). Gender inclusion and horizontal gender segregation: stakeholders' strategies and dilemmas in Swedish teachers' education. Gender and Education. Volume 25, Issue 4, pages 444-465. Laclau, E. & Mouffe, C. (2001). Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso. Toohey, S. (2002). Designing courses for higher education. Buckingham. Open University Press.

  • 23.
    Hedlin, Maria
    School of Education and Behavioural Sciences, University of Borås.
    Swedish schools and gender equality in the 1970s2013In: International Education Studies, ISSN 1913-9020, E-ISSN 1913-9039, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 76-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys’ academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with work on a forthcoming curriculum. The empirical material examined consists of the preparatory work for the Swedish comprehensive school National Curriculum, LGR 80 and the publication Lärartidningen [Teachers’ Journal]. In the material, the gender inequality problem was first and foremost discussed in terms of sex-role values that led to sex-linked choices of education and jobs. Hopes that girls would turn to technical education and technical career choices were highly connected to the issue of equality between the sexes. Attention was occasionally drawn to women’s second-rate position in society, but mainly the problem of gender inequality was considered to be pupils’ attitudes rather than structures and strong cultural norms. Through information and sex-mixed classes the problem would be solved. Thus, in the material examined the gender discussions were rather superficial.

  • 24.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Talet om fler män till förskolan: att teoretisera praktisk kunskap om genus.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers and school discipline 1960–1970: Constructions of femininities and masculinities in Teachers’ Journal2013In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 755-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historical perspective may provide important insights for understanding contemporary discussions and the expectations attached to women and men in today’s teaching. The role of gendered meanings in relation to teachers’ work is explored in this article by focusing on discussions on school discipline during the period 19601970. Teachers’ Journal, a Swedish weekly union publication, is examined. The findings show that in the 1960s it was still possible for a male teacher to position himself as a ‘real man’ by defending corporal punishment. Further, the stereotype of a bad mother was taken up in the discussions. Discipline problems were connected to pupils not properly cared for by their mothers. Bad mothers were depicted as either lazy, overprotective or working women. In contrast, femininity, motherhood and paid work were linked in the caring female teacher. In the final section, the relevance of the findings for the present is discussed.

  • 26.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    The construction of girls and science in Swedish school politics.2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    When they're practically crying out for men: An ethnographic study of male health and social care students' minority position2014In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a reputation as a country with a relatively high level of gender equality. Nevertheless, both the labour market and vocational training programmes in upper secondary school are highly segregated along gender lines. The present ethnographic study concerns the minority position and professional socialisation of male students taking part in a health and social care programme in upper secondary school in Sweden. In addition to observations, students, health and social care teachers and internship supervisors were interviewed. The study revealed that it was taken for granted that men were considered particularly valuable. The male students universally and frankly described how they expected to receive preferential treatment in future employment situations. They showed no sign of finding this as being unjust to their female colleagues. Furthermore, the emphasis on male students’ gender entails the risk that they will be treated more as men than as the nursing assistants they are training to be, which may hamper their professional socialisation.

  • 28.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gunnarsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Preschool student teachers, technology, and gender: positive expectations despite mixed experiences from their own school days2014In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 184, no 12, p. 1948-1959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasises preschool teachers' task to stimulate children's interest in science and technology. Technology education, however, has not always had a given place in Swedish early childhood education, and this has been associated with female preschool teachers' fear of technology. This qualitative study explores how students training to be teachers in Swedish preschool view both the technology education they themselves received during their school days and their future task of teaching technology in preschool. The study's empirical material is an assignment that the students did within their Preschool Teacher Programme. Seventy-nine students, including 77 women and 2 men, described their experiences in writing. Many students describe a boring technology education which made them, as girls, feel marginalised. However, there were also those who felt quite at ease with their technology classes. Nevertheless, the students, regardless of their former experiences, have a positive attitude towards the task of teaching technology. Technology education in preschool is viewed as something quite different from the technology education they themselves had in school. The students stress that technology in early childhood education should be something that children and preschool teachers explore together.

  • 29.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Men who are preschool teachers handling distrust2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Preschool-teacher and man: Handling gender-specific expectations.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Touch in preschool - care or risk?: Paperpresentation.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Challenging Gender in Teacher Education2012In: Gender and change: Power, politics and everyday practices. / [ed] M. Jansdotter Samuelsson, C. Krekula & M. Åberg, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 113-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Fallet med de störande manliga studenterna: En situation tolkad utifrån fyra förklaringsmodeller2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 116-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad university.
    Fussy girls and chattering women: The construct and subordination of femininity in preschool teacher training2018In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, most preschool teachers are women. This fact sometimes leads to the assumption that preschools are “feminine”, and that this might be bad for boys. We challenge this assumption. Using a gender critical approach we have studied preschool student teachers. “Femininity” might be used as a rhetorical and demeaning stereotype by them. Women and femininity however, are not interchangeable concepts. Failure to acknowledge this can pave the way for subtle sexism against girls and women. Our argument is supported by ethnographic observations and interviews with student teachers. By means of a Foucauldian genealogical analysis we uncover the conditions of possibility for two long-lasting feminine stereotypes. One stereotype argues that young girls should never fuss. The other claims that women are chattering gossipers. Our study shows that these archaic notions persist in Swedish preschool teacher training, despite its long tradition of work for gender equality.

  • 35.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Lärarutbildningen, jämställdhet och genus2011Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Maskulinitetsskapande i studentgruppen2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Teacher education challenges gender: Mapping and changing gender patterns2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    The call for more male preschool teachers: Echoed and questioned by Swedish student teachers2013In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 183, no 1, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, more men in preschools are called for. In this article, we explore how Swedish students understand the talk about recruiting more male preschool teachers, and how they agree with or challenge dominant notions of femininity and masculinity through their understanding. Interviews were conducted with female and male student teachers who were aiming at working in preschools. The results show that gender stereotypes and common-sense phrases are both adopted and challenged in the students’ discussions. Many students, both female and male, welcome male teachers because men are expected to add something to preschools. Furthermore, male teachers are widely appreciated in a way that female teachers are not. However, other students, both female and male, highlight and question the simplification that often comes with the call for more men. These students question the one-sided focus on gender. They also object to the gender division that may occur in gender-mixed work groups.

  • 39.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    "Vara med i gänget?": Yrkessocialisation och genus i två gymnasieprogram2013Report (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskolläraren – ett hot?2012In: Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2052, E-ISSN 1504-2987, no 6, p. 441-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Få män arbetar som pedagoger i  förskolan. En anledning till detta sägs ibland vara att män skrämts bort av debatten kring sexuella övergrepp i förskolan. Frågan är dock hur debatten påverkar de män och kvinnor som faktiskt vill arbeta som förskollärare. I den här artikeln undersöks denna fråga med utgångspunkt i en intervjuundersökning med tjugo förskollärarstudenter i slutet av sin utbildning. Resultaten visar att både kvinnor och män tvingas förhålla sig till diskursen om sexuella övergrepp. Detta sker på sätt som inte alltid följer dominerande föreställningar om kön.

  • 41.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Getting ready for work. Constructions of gender in the vocational training of two upper secondary school programs2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a range of efforts to break the gender segregation of the job market, Swedish working life is still following traditional gender patterns. Less than a third of all upper secondary school programs are gender balanced. Still, researchers have not paid much attention to how constructions of gender impact on vocational training. In our paper we report from a newly started ethnographic project aiming to explore how gender is constructed in the vocational training of two upper secondary school programs, the Building and Construction programme and the Health and Social Care programme. Building on field observations from learning situations in the programmes our research question is: How do vocational training make building and construction workers and health and social care workers of girls and boys?

     

  • 42.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Happy objects – happy men?: Affect and materiality in vocational training2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Happy objects – happy men?: Affect and materiality in vocational training.2015In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 523-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the prevailing social inertia of vocational training. Previous research indicates that gendered social norms contribute to sustaining gender segregation. Few studies, however, have paid attention to how the interplay of emotional and material factors impact on gender norms in vocational training. The article builds on an ethnographic study in a Swedish upper-secondary educational programme traditionally dominated by masculinity norms, namely the Building and Construction programme. Employing Sara Ahmed's notion of happy objects, the article centres on vocational students' expressed joy in the practical work and shows how joy contributes to sustaining and challenging dominant masculinity patterns. Though students enjoyed practical work, the study indicates that a particular version of happiness was normalised which ruled out non-heterosexual and female students. The article suggests that further studies of social inertia in vocational training need to account for the interconnectedness of the emotional, material, and corporeal dimensions of gender.

  • 44.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ner i glassvackan – en konsekvens av att återkommande vara den som inte lyfts fram2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Teaching gender in teacher education: Challenging common sense.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    The pre-school teacher - a threat?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The preschool teacher – a threat? On touch and gender in teacher-student interaction in preschools.2013In: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network:01. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the physical interaction between teachers and students in Early Childhood Education from a sociological perspective.

    Physical interaction between teachers and students is an integral component of teachers’ work in preschools, and numerous psychological and neuro-psychological studies have shown that touch benefits children’s well-being (see e.g. Montagu 1986; Field 2003). Research has however also shown that while most teachers are confident that touch is beneficial for children, fewer of them actually use touch in their professional work. According to the teachers this is in part due to fears of being accused of ‘inappropriate’ touching (Owen and Gillentine 2011; cf. Stamatis 2011).

    Jones (2001) and King (2004) have shown that male preschool teachers are more likely than female teachers to be suspected of inappropriate touching of children (cf. Berill & Martino 2002; Foster & Newman 2005; Sargent 2005; Gilbert & Williams 2008). But this phenomenon also affects women (Andrzejewski & Davis 2007; Åberg & Hedlin 2012a).

    In an on-going project we are investigating how norms for gender are established, maintained and challenged through physical interaction between teachers and students in preschools. In this paper we will report preliminary results from the project.

    The study is inspired by Piper and Stronach’s (2007) concept ‘relational touch’. This concept does not presuppose the meaning of touch in teacher-student interactions. Rather, it opens for a dynamic analysis which search for social, cultural, organizational and material factors impacting on how touch is used and interpreted by teachers in relation to the pedagogical practice. The concept of ‘relational touch’ is in alignment with how we use the concept of gender in the study. The concept of gender deals with how verbal, bodily and material aspects of social relations create a dynamic pattern in gender relations, what Connell has called a gender order (cf. Connell 2009). Thus, we understand touch and gender as norms which are created by and create social, cultural and material practices (Butler 2004). 

    Many European and Western societies have seen an expansion of the means to protect children. This has put focus on teachers’ subjectivities. A safe environment for the child demands a ‘safe’ teacher (cf. Johnson 2001; Jones 2004; McWilliam & Jones 2005). Although it has been claimed that the Scandinavian countries has escaped the negative discourse of the ‘safe teacher’ (cf. Cameron 2001) we have indications that this discourse is impacting also on the supposedly gender equal Utopia of Scandinavia. For example, some preschools have regulated physical interaction by prohibiting children’s nudity, and new legislation has been enacted to prevent sexual offenders to work with children (Åberg & Hedlin 2012). To understand touch in preschools it is important to grasp the globalization of this discourse, and in the paper we will relate the developments in Sweden and Scandinavia to the broader European context. We will explore the impact of external and internal governance, i.e. how media reports and changes in educational policies are connected to teachers’ means of reflexivity and self-governance in relation to touch (cf. Alison 2004).

    Method

    The reserch questions which we investigate in on ongoing project are the following: A) How has physical interaction between teachers and students been discussed in Swedish newspapers and preschool teachers’ professional journals in the last 30 years? B) How have the local policies of Swedish day care centers and preschools in relation to physical interaction between teachers and students changed over time? C) How do Swedish male and female preschool teachers with varying amounts of work experience reflect on touch as part of their work? We answer questions A) and B) through discourse analysis (Howarth 2000) of some 30 years of publications of nationally distributed newspapers and preschool teachers’ professional journals. For question C) we conduct reflexive interviews (Thomsson 2002) with female and male preschool teachers with varying amounts of work experience.

    Expected Outcomes

    Most of the data for this study will be gathered during the spring of 2013. Therefore we cannot yet say that much about the results of the study. However, results from a previous interview study (Åberg & Hedlin 2012; Hedlin & Åberg 2013) with student teachers currently training to be teachers have relevance for this paper. In that study we discovered three different discursively constructed subject positions which students enacted in relation to the risks of ‘inappropriate touching’. The first was a self-disciplining position which men and women entered who felt anxieties that e.g. parents could use ‘inappropriate touch’ as a rhetorical power tool against teachers they didn’t approve of. A second position was individualistic, where students – both men and women – refused to acknowledge that the teacher’s gender had an impact on teachers’ and students’ physical interaction. The third position was a body-reflexive masculine position, entered by male students who had experienced that they had been limited or refused to perform certain ‘sensitive’ work tasks, due to their male bodies (Åberg & Hedlin 2012). In the present paper, we will further develop this analysis.

    References

    Andrzejewski, Carey E. & Davis, Heather A. (2007). Human contact in the classroom. Exploring how teachers talk about and negotiate touching students. Teaching and Teacher Education. No. 24, pp. 779-794. Berill, Deborah, P., & Martino, Wayne (2002). ”Pedophiles and Deviats”: Exploring Issues of Sexuality, Masculinity and Normalization in the Lives of Male Teacher Candidates. In Rita M. Kissen (Ed.) Getting ready for Benjamin: Preparing teachers for sexual diversity in the classroom. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Butler, Judith (2004). Undoing gender. New York: Routledge. Foster, Tor & Newman, Elizabeth (2005). Just a knock back? Identity bruising on the route to becoming a male primary school teacher. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice. Vol. 11, no. 4. pp 341-358. Johnson, Richard (2001). Rethinking risk and the child body in the era of ‘no touch’. In. Alison Jones (ed.) Touchy subject. Teachers touching children. Dunedin: University of Ontago Press. Jones, Alison (2004). Social anxiety, sex, surveillance, and the ‘safe’ teacher. British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 53-66. King, James. R. (2004). The (im)possibility of gay teachers for young children. Theory Into Practice, Vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 122-127. McWilliam, Erica & Jones, Alison (2005). An unprotected species? On teachers as risky subjects. British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 109-120. Owen, Pamela M. & Gillentine, Jonathan (2011) Please touch the children. Appropriate touch in the primary classroom. Early Child Development and Care. Vol. 181, no. 6, pp. 857-868. Piper, Heather & Stronach, Ian (2007) Don’t touch! The educational story of a panic. London: Routledge. Åberg, Magnus & Hedlin, Maria (2012a). Förskolläraren – ett hot? (The preschool teacher – a threat?). Norsk pedagogisk tidskrift. Vol. 96, no. 6, pp 441-452.

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