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  • 1.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Lärare om föräldrars förändrade attityder: Brist på respekt för professionen2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Admission policy of the Swedish teacher education favouring men: Discussion in the Parliament 19622012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 227-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1962 the Swedish Parliament decided on a school reform. Meritocracy and equal opportunity were important goals. However, these ideals were not applied to elementary school teacher education, where a sex quota policy favoured male applicants. In the Parliamentary debate, a woman member of the Right Wing Party raised objections to the policy. A man representative of the Social Democrat government's education politics had to explain why the admission policy that favoured men was not abolished. By evoking historical ideas of women teachers as inferior, and warnings of the feminisation of schools as a great threat, the admission rules were defended. Also, the analysis of the debate shows that women were supposed to hold back their individual rights and a woman arguing in favour of a gender neutral admission policy risked being labelled as “unwomanly”.

  • 3.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Anna Anka i skolan: Att utforska könsdebatter2012In: Normkritiska perspektiv i skolans likabehandlingsarbete / [ed] Elisabeth Elmeroth, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 1, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Beröring i förskolan – omsorg eller fara?2019In: Resultatdialogen 2019. / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2019, p. 42-45Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Det ska vara lika för alla, så att säga...2004Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fostran till förändrade roller?: om synen på kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-19622010In: Fostran i skola och utbildning.: Årsböcker i svensk undervisningshistoria / [ed] Anna Larsson, Uppsala: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Fostran till förändrade roller?: om synen på kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-1962.2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    För och mot könskvoteringen till förskollärarutbildningen: Argument i tidskriften Förskolan 1970-19812018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 1-2, p. 127-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preschool teacher is a profession that is highly associated with femininity, and a very large majority of staff in preschools are women. Due to the current high recruitment needs in Swedish preschools, SKL (the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions) has stated that it is important that both women and men see the preschool as a possible workplace for themselves. Therefore it might be worthwhile to take a look at the discussions that took place during the 1970s, being perhaps the period during which men in preschools were discussed the most. When the Swedish preschool was developing in the 1970s, it was a political aim to have both men and women work in the preschools. In order for more men to be admitted to preschool teacher education, a quota policy that favoured male applicants was introduced. The preschool teachers’ trade union, Sveriges Förskollärares Riksförbund (SFR) defended the quota policy and argued in support of it in the union journal Förskolan (The Preschool) for several years. In 1976 the organization changed its position and argued instead that the admissions policy should be abolished. This study investigates the discussions that were held in the union journal Förskolan, both for and against the quota procedure for preschool teacher education in the years 1971-1980. The research questions are as follows: What arguments were put forward in the discussions? In what way can these arguments be said to challenge or sustain the unequal relationship between women and men?

     

    A qualitative analysis of the years 1970-1981 has been conducted. The journal in its entirety has been reviewed and analyzed for arguments, regardless of whether the statement came from the trade union, a letter to the editor, someone interviewed in a report, etc. Three arguments for the quota policy and two arguments against were found. An argument for the quota policy was, To achieve higher values, which meant a higher goal was assumed to be achieved by applying the quota measure. The higher values intended were a more even gender distribution, justice and a more versatile workforce. This reasoning was not specific to preschool teacher education, but could have been aimed at all education programmes that have an uneven gender distribution, both male-dominated and female-dominated. Another argument was, Compensation for the absence of men, which meant that the male preschool teachers would make up for the fathers who did not participate in their children's lives. The third argument was, Men are better preschool teachers than women, which meant that men were depicted as more committed and flexible workers. In some cases, the arguments can be linked to historical discussions about women and men and their place in society. An argument against the quota policy was, A gender quota policy sustains outdated attitudes, which meant that the expectations that gender role thinking within preschools would change, had not been fulfilled. The second argument against the quota policy was, Men and women should be admitted on equal terms, which meant that a female qualified applicant should not have to stand back for a less qualified man.

     

    Only one of the arguments challenged the unequal relationship between women and men; Men and women should be admitted on equal terms. In the 1970s debate, it was not an uncommon premise that men would contribute something that the women lacked. They would take the place as men, not primarily as preschool teachers. Today, when preschool is facing major recruitment needs and SKL's ambition is to broaden recruitments, SKL emphasizes that it wants men to be recruited not so that they work in preschool to fulfill a specific ’male function’, rather gender should not be an obstacle.

  • 9.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Gender as difference and young people without limitations: Gender discourses in a study counsellor context.2007In: Present challenges in gender research. / [ed] Andersson, Å. & Johansson, E. (eds.), National school of gender research. Umeå university , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Head Teachers, Women and Hesitation to Discuss Gender Issues.2017In: Open Journal of Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2327-5960, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 238-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of Swedish head teachers approaches the importance of gender issues in terms of their work. The empirical material is from so-called “research circles”, which were part of a gender equality project conducted in southern Sweden. A research circle is similar to a focus group interview. The group, which consists of eight women who were head teachers within compulsory education, met on six occasions. The results show that the women initially expressed strong hesitation about whether discussing gender issues in relation to the role of head teacher was beneficial at all. The entire gender equality project was called into question by the suggestion that the connection between head teacher and gender implied a weakening of women. However, examples of gender playing a role within educational settings were increasingly noted. By highlighting female head teachers’ ambivalence towards discussing issues related to gender and gender equality, this paper contributes to the discussion about why these issues do not occupy a stronger position within schools. Also, the female head teachers’ hesitation and ambivalence are connected to the decline in status of the head teacher profession due to the restructuring of education, for which women in educational leadership in Sweden have been blamed.

  • 11.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Health and social care students heading for a vocational identity: How do femininities and masculinities affect the process?2016In: 2016 International Conference on Gender Studies, Cracow, Poland, 24-25 June, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    How the girl choosing technology became the symbol of the non-traditional pupil’s choice in Sweden2011In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non‐traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was expected to lead to labour shortage. However, the problems and the resistance against women in the workshops were rarely discussed. One possible explanation for not addressing the obstacles that the girls risked facing is that great hopes were attached to changing gender roles. The major school reform that was about to be launched was also expected to lead to more equal educational choices. In addition, girls' choices were associated with tradition and an outmoded society. The female mechanic or industrial worker came to be seen as a symbol of modern Sweden.

  • 13.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Immaterial cultural heritage in focus: Gender norms and democratic values.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Jämställdhet – en del av skolans värdegrund.2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jämställdhet som didaktisk utmaning inom lärarutbildningen2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Konstruktionen av kön i skolpolitiska texter 1948-1994, med särskilt fokus på naturvetenskap och teknik2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lilla genushäftet 2.0: Om genus och skolans jämställdhetsmål2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lilla genushäftet: om genus och skolans jämställdhetsmål2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Man och förskollärare – att positioneras som ”annorlunda”2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Men and masculinities in the feminine preschool teacher training: A planned project about the gender dilemma2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Preschool teacher students talk about children: a story about femininities and masculinities?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rektor, kvinna och ambivalens inför att diskutera könsfrågor2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Self-Evident, Excessive or Opposed: Student Teachers’ Associations with ‘Gender Equality’2016In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study undertaken in a Swedish teacher education setting. The aim is to obtain data that can be helpful for teacher educators planning their teaching about gender equality policy. The assumptions which the students base their pre-understandings on are in focus. The empirical material consists of 105 student teachers’ descriptions of their associations with the term ‘gender equality’ [jämställdhet]. In the material, three competing discourses are found. One discourse is the discourse of the fair gender equality. Within this discourse, gender equality seems to be quite an uncomplicated issue. Gender equality is, or should be, something natural. A second discourse is the discourse of the exaggerated gender equality, linking gender equality to conflicts, aggression and excessive demands. A third discourse is the discourse of the opposed gender equality. Within this discourse, gender equality is described as a contested issue met with resistance and hostility. Being able to identify and examine these competing discourses may work as a first step in identifying assumptions that students hold about gender equality and gender issues.

  • 24.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Självklar rättvisa, överdrivna krav och motarbetat: Lärarstudenters associationer till ”jämställdhet”2015In: Abstracts. Den nionde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, 15-16 oktober, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av 1960-talet har ett jämställdhetsmål varit inskrivet i grundskolans läroplan. Lärarutbildningen får dock återkommande kritik för brister när det gäller att förbereda blivande lärare på detta uppdrag (Kreitz-Sandberg 2013). Som Toohey (2002) framhåller har alla som undervisar god hjälp av att kartlägga sina studenters tidigare kunskaper och antaganden innan de planerar undervisningen. Studiens övergripande syfte är att få ett underlag som kan vara till hjälp för att planera undervisning om skolans jämställdhetsmål inom lärarutbildningen. De forskningsfrågor som vägleder studien är följande: Vilka diskurser 11 återkommer i lärarstudenters associationer till jämställdhet? Vilka antaganden rymmer dessa diskurser?

    Diskursbegreppet utgår från socialkonstruktionismen som betonar att vi inte kan uppleva och skapa kunskap om omgivningen på annat sätt än genom de begrepp, kategorier och språk vi redan har. Vår kunskap om världen kommer därför alltid att vara tydligt beroende av den tid och kultur som vi lever i. Diskurser är ”socialt konstruerade betydelsesystem som kunde ha varit annorlunda” (Jørgensen & Phillips 2000 s 28). Laclau och Mouffe (2001) riktar fokus mot de sociala strider som pågår inom språket (Jfr Bakhtin 1999). Med diskursiv kamp avser de den strid som pågår om hur t.ex. ett begrepp ska förstås. I den här studien gäller den diskursiva kampen ”jämställdhet”.

    Det empiriska materialet består av 105 lärarstudenters beskrivningar av vilka associationer som ”jämställdhet” väcker. I materialet framträder tre konkurrerande diskurser. En dominant diskurs i materialet är diskursen om den rättvisa jämställdheten. Jämställdhet är, eller borde vara, något självklart. Inom denna diskurs ter sig jämställdhet ofta som något okomplicerat. En andra diskurs är diskursen om den överdrivna jämställdheten som kopplar samman jämställdhet med konflikter, aggressivitet och överdrivna krav. En tredje diskurs är diskursen om den motarbetade jämställdheten där jämställdhet förstås som en känslig fråga som väcker motstånd. Att granska dessa konkurrerande diskurser kan ses som ett sätt att identifiera var studenterna befinner sig när det gäller jämställdhet och genusfrågor.

    Bakhtin, M., M. (1999). The problem of speech genres. In: A. Jaworski & N. Coupland. The Discourse Reader. London: Routledge. Jørgensen Winther M. & Phillips, L. (2000) Diskursanalys som teori och metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur Kreitz-Sandberg, S. (2013). Gender inclusion and horizontal gender segregation: stakeholders' strategies and dilemmas in Swedish teachers' education. Gender and Education. Volume 25, Issue 4, pages 444-465. Laclau, E. & Mouffe, C. (2001). Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso. Toohey, S. (2002). Designing courses for higher education. Buckingham. Open University Press.

  • 25.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Swedish schools and gender equality in the 1970s2013In: International Education Studies, ISSN 1913-9020, E-ISSN 1913-9039, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 76-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys’ academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with work on a forthcoming curriculum. The empirical material examined consists of the preparatory work for the Swedish comprehensive school National Curriculum, LGR 80 and the publication Lärartidningen [Teachers’ Journal]. In the material, the gender inequality problem was first and foremost discussed in terms of sex-role values that led to sex-linked choices of education and jobs. Hopes that girls would turn to technical education and technical career choices were highly connected to the issue of equality between the sexes. Attention was occasionally drawn to women’s second-rate position in society, but mainly the problem of gender inequality was considered to be pupils’ attitudes rather than structures and strong cultural norms. Through information and sex-mixed classes the problem would be solved. Thus, in the material examined the gender discussions were rather superficial.

  • 26.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Talet om fler män till förskolan: att teoretisera praktisk kunskap om genus.2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers and school discipline 1960–1970: Constructions of femininities and masculinities in Teachers’ Journal2013In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 755-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historical perspective may provide important insights for understanding contemporary discussions and the expectations attached to women and men in today’s teaching. The role of gendered meanings in relation to teachers’ work is explored in this article by focusing on discussions on school discipline during the period 19601970. Teachers’ Journal, a Swedish weekly union publication, is examined. The findings show that in the 1960s it was still possible for a male teacher to position himself as a ‘real man’ by defending corporal punishment. Further, the stereotype of a bad mother was taken up in the discussions. Discipline problems were connected to pupils not properly cared for by their mothers. Bad mothers were depicted as either lazy, overprotective or working women. In contrast, femininity, motherhood and paid work were linked in the caring female teacher. In the final section, the relevance of the findings for the present is discussed.

  • 28.
    Hedlin, Maria
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    The construction of girls and science in Swedish school politics.2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    ‘They only see their own child’: An interview study of preschool teachers’ perceptions about parents2019In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 189, no 11, p. 1776-1785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how preschool teachers see their interaction with the home. The empirical material consists of semi-structured interviews with 30 qualified preschool teachers working in Swedish preschools. The informants describe how they promote cooperation and prevent conflict by clarifying that parents’ comments are welcome. They also try to grant parents’ requests regarding their own children; however, the informants also speak about parents having views about what should happen with the whole group and how the teachers should carry out their job, such as parents telling the preschool teachers whether they should hold their activities indoors or outdoors. Highly educated and well-off parents can express comments and demands in a way as if they want to decide how the work in the preschool is planned and carried out. A contrasting challenge is when parents with a non-Swedish background have language difficulties that can hinder cooperation.

  • 30.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    'Today the parents are chasing us!': Teacher's experiences of parental involvement.2019In: Paper presentation at Conference for Gender Studies (G19), University of Gothenburg Sweden, 7-9 October 2019., 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    When they're practically crying out for men: An ethnographic study of male health and social care students' minority position2014In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a reputation as a country with a relatively high level of gender equality. Nevertheless, both the labour market and vocational training programmes in upper secondary school are highly segregated along gender lines. The present ethnographic study concerns the minority position and professional socialisation of male students taking part in a health and social care programme in upper secondary school in Sweden. In addition to observations, students, health and social care teachers and internship supervisors were interviewed. The study revealed that it was taken for granted that men were considered particularly valuable. The male students universally and frankly described how they expected to receive preferential treatment in future employment situations. They showed no sign of finding this as being unjust to their female colleagues. Furthermore, the emphasis on male students’ gender entails the risk that they will be treated more as men than as the nursing assistants they are training to be, which may hamper their professional socialisation.

  • 32.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gunnarsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Preschool student teachers, technology, and gender: positive expectations despite mixed experiences from their own school days2014In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 184, no 12, p. 1948-1959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasises preschool teachers' task to stimulate children's interest in science and technology. Technology education, however, has not always had a given place in Swedish early childhood education, and this has been associated with female preschool teachers' fear of technology. This qualitative study explores how students training to be teachers in Swedish preschool view both the technology education they themselves received during their school days and their future task of teaching technology in preschool. The study's empirical material is an assignment that the students did within their Preschool Teacher Programme. Seventy-nine students, including 77 women and 2 men, described their experiences in writing. Many students describe a boring technology education which made them, as girls, feel marginalised. However, there were also those who felt quite at ease with their technology classes. Nevertheless, the students, regardless of their former experiences, have a positive attitude towards the task of teaching technology. Technology education in preschool is viewed as something quite different from the technology education they themselves had in school. The students stress that technology in early childhood education should be something that children and preschool teachers explore together.

  • 33.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Men who are preschool teachers handling distrust2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Preschool-teacher and man: Handling gender-specific expectations.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Touch in preschool - care or risk?: Paperpresentation.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Challenging Gender in Teacher Education2012In: Gender and change: Power, politics and everyday practices. / [ed] M. Jansdotter Samuelsson, C. Krekula & M. Åberg, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 113-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Fallet med de störande manliga studenterna: En situation tolkad utifrån fyra förklaringsmodeller2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 116-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad university.
    Fussy girls and chattering women: The construct and subordination of femininity in preschool teacher training2018In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, most preschool teachers are women. This fact sometimes leads to the assumption that preschools are “feminine”, and that this might be bad for boys. We challenge this assumption. Using a gender critical approach we have studied preschool student teachers. “Femininity” might be used as a rhetorical and demeaning stereotype by them. Women and femininity however, are not interchangeable concepts. Failure to acknowledge this can pave the way for subtle sexism against girls and women. Our argument is supported by ethnographic observations and interviews with student teachers. By means of a Foucauldian genealogical analysis we uncover the conditions of possibility for two long-lasting feminine stereotypes. One stereotype argues that young girls should never fuss. The other claims that women are chattering gossipers. Our study shows that these archaic notions persist in Swedish preschool teacher training, despite its long tradition of work for gender equality.

  • 39.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Lärarutbildningen, jämställdhet och genus2011Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Maskulinitetsskapande i studentgruppen2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Principle or dialogue: preschool directors speak about how they handle parents’ suspicions towards men2019In: Power and Education, ISSN 1757-7438, E-ISSN 1757-7438, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caring for children and teaching the youngest students have a strong historical connection to women and femininity. The few men working within early childhood education and care occupy an ambivalent position. On the one hand, they often receive a positive reception in preschools; on the other, they are also met with mistrust and suspicion. The suspicion often comes from parents, and their views have come to bear increasing importance. Preschool directors who have men on their staff thus have a dilemma to manage: they must listen to parents’ views at the same time as they have a personnel responsibility towards all their employees. The purpose of the present study is to describe and analyse how preschool directors reason about the parental suspicion and concern that male educators can encounter because they are men. The empirical material consists of interviews with 10 preschool directors (five women and five men). The study shows that preschool directors experience that parents want male personnel to refrain from performing certain tasks in the preschool. Some of the directors take a principle-based approach and emphasise that men and women should carry out the same work duties. Other directors maintain a dialogue-based approach, focusing on conducting a dialogue with concerned parents.

  • 42.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Teacher education challenges gender: Mapping and changing gender patterns2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    The call for more male preschool teachers: Echoed and questioned by Swedish student teachers2013In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 183, no 1, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, more men in preschools are called for. In this article, we explore how Swedish students understand the talk about recruiting more male preschool teachers, and how they agree with or challenge dominant notions of femininity and masculinity through their understanding. Interviews were conducted with female and male student teachers who were aiming at working in preschools. The results show that gender stereotypes and common-sense phrases are both adopted and challenged in the students’ discussions. Many students, both female and male, welcome male teachers because men are expected to add something to preschools. Furthermore, male teachers are widely appreciated in a way that female teachers are not. However, other students, both female and male, highlight and question the simplification that often comes with the call for more men. These students question the one-sided focus on gender. They also object to the gender division that may occur in gender-mixed work groups.

  • 44.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    "Vara med i gänget?": Yrkessocialisation och genus i två gymnasieprogram2013Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fun guy and possible perpetrator: an interview study of how men are positioned within early childhood education and care2019In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 95-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries call for more men to be teachers in early childhood education and care (ECEC). In Sweden, the issue has been discussed since the early 1970s, but despite these discussions there is little Swedish research that examines the notions and expectations associated with male teachers. International research has found that perceptions of men in ECEC can be very ambivalent and that physical contact between the male educator and children is a sensitive issue. By focusing on the interaction between educators and children, the purpose of this study is to investigate gender-specific beliefs about male preschool teachers. The empirical material consists of interviews with 50 informants. Of these, 17 are men and 33 are women. The results show that “the fun guy” and “the possible perpetrator” are two gender-specific positions that male informants are subjected to. The article discusses how men take up and resist the two positions, and argues for the need to further challenge gendered stereotypes in preschools.

  • 46.
    Hedlin, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad university, Sweden.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Too much, too little: Preschool teachers’ perceptions of the boundaries of adequate touching2019In: Pedagogy, Culture & Society, ISSN 1468-1366, E-ISSN 1747-5104, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 485-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we focus on physical touch that is judged to be just outside what is considered to be 'normal'. We explore how preschool teachers describe and explain situations where educators give children too much or too little touching. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 30 qualified preschool teachers working in Swedish preschools. When the informants talk about situations where educators give children too much touching, the descriptions involve a behaviour that does not lie within the preschool mission, teachers who do not set boundaries, and actions that have disadvantages for the children. On the other hand, situations where educators give children too little touching are described solely with reference to the teacher and that person's fear or cold personality. The results have been interpreted in relation to the discourse of preschool professionalisation and Hochschild's theory of emotional labour.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University.
    A touch of touch: Preschool teacher education students' reflections about physical touch2018In: Issues in educational research, ISSN 0313-7155, E-ISSN 1837-6290, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 953-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International research has shown that several countries have adopted a cautious attitude towards physical touch between educators and children. Physical touch in preschool is a sensitive and difficult issue that requires preschool teacher education to address the question in a considerate and thoughtful manner. Nevertheless, the question of how students are prepared for the touch that is part of an educational environment with children has only been investigated to a limited extent. The aim of the present study is therefore to study how students perceive that the question of touch is handled in Swedish preschool teacher education. Data was collected through surveys (N = 204) and through semi-structured interviews with students and graduates in preschool teacher education. The results show that the informants felt that their interests and needs were not met. Instead, they were forced to take their own responsibility for raising the issue. To the extent that discussions about physical contact were addressed in education, it was primarily negative aspects that were raised. The results are discussed, for instance from a gender perspective. The men in the program are more affected by the lack of a clear place for touch in the program.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Touch the Children, or Please Don’t: – Preschool Teachers’ Approach to TouchIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Physical touch between educators and children in preschool settings is a sensitive issue in many countries. The aim of the study is to examine how future and newly graduated preschool teachers relate to touch between preschool teachers and children in the Swedish preschool context. The study was conducted using: 1) a questionnaire study (n = 204) and 2) semi-structured interviews (n = 20). The results illustrate the informants’ desire to combine physical care of children with awareness of and respect for children’s bodily integrity.

  • 49.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Förskolläraren – ett hot?2012In: Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2052, E-ISSN 1504-2987, no 6, p. 441-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Få män arbetar som pedagoger i  förskolan. En anledning till detta sägs ibland vara att män skrämts bort av debatten kring sexuella övergrepp i förskolan. Frågan är dock hur debatten påverkar de män och kvinnor som faktiskt vill arbeta som förskollärare. I den här artikeln undersöks denna fråga med utgångspunkt i en intervjuundersökning med tjugo förskollärarstudenter i slutet av sin utbildning. Resultaten visar att både kvinnor och män tvingas förhålla sig till diskursen om sexuella övergrepp. Detta sker på sätt som inte alltid följer dominerande föreställningar om kön.

  • 50.
    Åberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Centrum för Genusforskning, Karlstad universitet.
    Hedlin, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Getting ready for work. Constructions of gender in the vocational training of two upper secondary school programs2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a range of efforts to break the gender segregation of the job market, Swedish working life is still following traditional gender patterns. Less than a third of all upper secondary school programs are gender balanced. Still, researchers have not paid much attention to how constructions of gender impact on vocational training. In our paper we report from a newly started ethnographic project aiming to explore how gender is constructed in the vocational training of two upper secondary school programs, the Building and Construction programme and the Health and Social Care programme. Building on field observations from learning situations in the programmes our research question is: How do vocational training make building and construction workers and health and social care workers of girls and boys?

     

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