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  • 1.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Studies on women's entrepreneurship from Nordic countries and beyond2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's

    entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper encourages research that investigates how context, at the micro, meso and macro level, is related to women's entrepreneurship, and acknowledges that gender is socially constructed.

    Findings

    – This paper finds evidence that recent calls for new directions in women's entrepreneurship research are being followed, specifically with regard to how gender is done and how context is related to women's entrepreneurial activities.

    Originality/value

    – This paper assesses trends in research on women's entrepreneurship, mainly from the Nordic countries.

  • 2.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Swecden.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017In: Paper presented at: 31st RENT Conference, Lund, 16-17 NOV 2017, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2017, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?2014In: Diana International Research Conference 2014: Stockholm, June 15-17 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 4.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013In: The International Helix conference 2013, Linköping, Sweden, June, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 6.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014In: Gender, Work & Organization: Abstracts 1-376, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women's movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a politica l change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women's entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the pub lic sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirica l studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women 's entrepreneurs hip in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women's position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms.

  • 7.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm university.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio, Stockholm.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Swedish as well as international policy advocates an increase inwomen’s business ownership. The reasons center around economic growth:women start businesses at a lower rate than men, and are therefore seen asan untapped resource in stagnant economies. Busienss ownership is advo-cated as a viable alternative to unemployment. Women’s business owner-ship is further seen as instrumental in the neo-liberal transformation of thepublic sector, with privatization of former public commitments in educa-tion and care. In developing countries the arguments center around pov-erty alleviation – help to self-help is advocated. Feminist arguments suchas equal distribution of power and influence among men and women arelargely absent, and a discussion of the allocation of unpaid, domestic workbetween men and women is also absent. The discussion on entrepreneur-ship and the discussion on feminism seem to live side by side, with littleexchange between them. Neither feminist theory, nor extant entrepreneur-ship theory adequately account for feminist agency and activism within aglobalized market economy, in which discourses of entrepreneurship, in-novation and economic growth take precedence. Doing so would implychallenges of and developments of concepts like enterprise, gender, growth,competition, agency, feminist activism and gender equality. In this paperwe seek to bridge and combine feminist and entrepreneurship theories innew ways. We suggest a feminist theoretical understanding of current dis-courses, practices and policies regarding entrepreneurship and women’sentrepreneurship.

  • 8.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015In: The 4th European Conference on Politics and Gender 2015 June 11-13 Uppsala, Sweden, 2015, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Kundval – dilemman i gränssnittet mellan privata och offentliga organisationer2010In: Samtal pågår…: från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Tora Friberg, Sabrina Thelander, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2010, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: a discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly changed the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Mälardalen University.
    To play or not to play : that is the question: Gender perspectives on entrepreneurship and innovation2010In: Gender, Work and Organization, 6th international interdisciplinary conference, 21st - 23rd June, 2010: Conference stream : Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth: Gender perspectives, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    To play or not to play: that is the question: Entrepreneuring as gendered play2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 206-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can play be used to unravel the discourse of the gendered hero entrepreneur and instead describe mundane entrepreneuring? Further, how can the doing of gendered social orders be problematized when entrepreneuring is equated with play? In this article we answer these questions by engaging with the French social theorist Caillois’ (1961)conceptualization of play as being at the heart of all higher culture. Two ethnographic cases act as our vehicle in analysing play as entrepreneuring. From a rich description of these cases we find that it is not a question of playing or not playing, but about how to play. All four forms of play described by Caillois are present, which illustrates the variation of entrepreneuring and the richness of activities conducted in the ‘doing of entrepreneurship’. Further, both ways of playing discussed by Caillois are found. Whilst these two ways are interrelated on a continuum in the theory of play, they have been separated in entrepreneurship discourse, where they underpin the tendency to differentiate between the hero entrepreneur and ordinary people. Finally, we engage in a more interpretive and reflective discussion on entrepreneuring as performative acts through which social orders can be not only reproduced but also transformed.

  • 13.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Sustainable working life development through interactive research2018In: PIN-C Conference Proccedings: 2018 Eskilstuna, Sweden, 2018, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive research has emerged as a new approach to collaborative research in working life research, and it is characterized by a continuous joint learning process between the researchers and the practitioners. In this paper we argue that interactive research is a way to advance scientific knowledge about the development of new types of work arrangements and development of sustainable working life. We present the basic ideas and benefits of the interactive research approach, illustrated through a practical case, the HELIX Competence Centre and discuss potential limitation and challenges associated with this form of collaborative research.

  • 14.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Sustainable development in organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten & Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ellström, Per-ErikLinköping University.Klofsten, MagnusLinköping University.Tillmar, MalinLinköping University.
    Sustainable Development in Organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly competitive environment can lead to considerable problems for many organizations as they struggle to adapt to change. As a result, they fail to create the conditions that can lead to sustainable development over the long term, thus affecting the capabilities of employees. This book provides a fresh perspective on sustainable change and development in organizations, as well as a critical perspective on lean implementation, work environment and sustainability.

    The expert contributors address the development in, and of, organizations, as well as the development process between organizations, such as in networks or clusters. They discuss topics, such as the role of customers in the development of public organizations; developing knowledgeable practice at work; exploring evidence-based practice and the challenge of regional gender contracts.

    Undergraduates and postgraduates in different management fields including organizational theory, innovation, human resources, quality development and entrepreneurship will find this book to be of interest. The empirical results and interdisciplinary approach will appeal to practitioners and policy-makers at national, as well as international levels.

  • 16.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping university.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Entrepreneurship invited into the (social) welfare arena2016In: Social entrepreneurship and social enterprises: Nordic perspectives / [ed] Lundgaard Andersen, Linda;Gawell, Malin;Spear, Roger, Routledge, 2016, p. 215-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17. Hård, Ursula
    et al.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; National Institute for Working Life.
    Kvinnors företagande - arbetsmarknadsbeteende och organisatorisk lösning2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 18.
    Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University.
    Contextualising the coevolution of (dis)trust and control: a longitudinal case study of a public market2018In: Journal of Trust Research, ISSN 2151-5581, E-ISSN 2151-559X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 192-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the dynamics of trust?control is still inconclusive. In this paper, we offer an in-depth understanding of how (dis)trust and control coevolve as embedded in multiple dimensions of context. The paper focuses on public markets, a context which is underrepresented in extant studies on trust and control. Our analysis is based on a longitudinal case study of interorganisational relationships (IOR) between boundary spanners representing purchaser and providers on a customer choice market for home care in a midsized municipality in Sweden. We identify, narrate and analyse critical incidents during seven years of the process. A conceptual framework contextualising the trust?control nexus of a public?private IOR is developed and utilised. We find that while the public?private IOR context requires control, control only enables deterrence trust from the municipal officers and only in individual providers. Interferential rather than symbiotic coevolution of trust and control is the dominating pattern. In addition, we find what we denote as mixed coevolution, where control simultaneously has positive and negative impact on trust. In our case in point, control enables trust in specific providers but this trust is not reciprocated due to experienced distrust on the category level.

  • 19. Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    The multilevel coevolution of (dis)trust and control in a high-trust welfare context: Cases from a Swedish customer-choice market2017In: Paper presented at the EGOS conference July 2017 in Copenhagen, European Group of Organization Studies , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    New forms of organization: new ways to organize2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 169-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are central to our way of organizing society and understanding the phenomenon of organizing within and between organizations is hence important. In this chapter we focus on dimensions of mobility in efforts at organizing within and between organizations as well as between sectors. It is argued that the public sector is a good place to start if one wants to capture facets of contemporary society, as an understanding of the changes taking place in the public sector is also a means of grasping the increasing hybridisation of organizations taking place also in private and third sectors. In our analysis we highlight examples of intraorganizational, interorganizational and intersectoral organizing and how mobility can be a tool and a goal, as well as a problem and a solution. When it comes to gender, however, the striking image is one of immobility rather than mobility.

  • 21. Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Multisectoral organizing in the Swedish welfare system: Understanding the complexity2017In: Paper presented at the EGOS conference July 2017 in Copenhagen, European Group of Organization Studies , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Rosell, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Organizing Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Sector Challenge2015In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research / [ed] Paula Kyrö, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 130-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allying and expanding the diverse fields of entrepreneurship and sustainable development research is a modern day imperative. The Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research cuts through the different approaches and perspectives of the two fields to point the way ahead for research on sustainable entrepreneurship, outlining the motivation, intentions and impact of ecopreneurs in a local, national and global context.

    This Handbook paints an illuminating picture of the historic and current understanding of the bond between entrepreneurship and sustainable development. The authors explore the basic contradictions between the two fields and outline the transformative role entrepreneurship can play in achieving sustainable development. 45 expert researchers and their research communities from 16 countries across Europe, Africa, Australia and North America provide original and informative contributions on a variety of issues, from women’s empowerment to climate change and organic farmers to ecotourism.

    With current and authorative contributions spanning the globe, this Handbook will inspire researchers, teachers and policy-makers to compose their own understanding and contribution on the fast expanding field of entrepreneurship and sustainable development.

  • 23.
    Nählinder, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Lund university.
    Towards a gender aware understanding of innovation: a three-dimensional route2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to discuss the theory of gender bias in innovation studies, to illustrate the gender bias of innovation studies by using empirical means and to suggest what is needed to reduce such bias. Previous studies on innovation have primarily focussed on male-dominated industries. These studies have been biased and hence unable to capture the range of innovations covered by theoretical definitions. 

    Design/methodology/approach - An innovation survey was conducted among entrepreneurs in the traditionally "female-labelled" health-care industry, avoiding the "male-labelled" concept of innovation itself in the questionnaire. The authors endeavoured to ascertain whether there is a significant difference between males and females in terms of innovativeness. Quantitative analyses were used to analyse the results and draw comparisons with an ordinary innovation survey. 

    Findings - Using a gender-aware operationalisation of innovation, no significant difference in innovativeness was found between men and women. This suggests that more attention is needed to correct the prevailing gender bias in innovation studies. A research model is presented to further understand the gender-biased operationalisations of innovation. Each of its three dimensions has a clear impact upon perceived innovativeness: the gender-label of the sector studied, the gender-neutrality of the operationalisation used in the study and the gender of the actors involved. All dimensions should be taken into account in future innovation studies that aim for gender neutrality. 

    Practical implications - Operationalisations for measuring innovations are usually biased. Therefore, women appear less innovative, which, in turn, leads to less visibility. 

    Originality/value - Gender perspectives are very seldom employed in innovation studies. In quantitative studies of this sort, it is even rarer. Our empirical evidence from the quantitative study shows the urgency of the need to broaden the concept both in academic, political and public debates. This is not the least for efficiency reasons in resource allocation and public policy.

  • 24.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University.
    In the name of women?: Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women - such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's wellbeing and financial or other independence - or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005-2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Att jobba med hjärtat: En studie av grön omsorg ur genus- och entreprenörskapsperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Rosell, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Intertwining of practices in multi-sector entrepreneuring for welfare2018In: Presented at the 3rd Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference & PhD Consortium, Växjö, Sweden, April 17-20, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Resilient gender order in entrepreneurship: the case of Swedish welfare industries2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 2-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification.

    Findings

    The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied.

    Practical implications

    The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring.

    Originality/value

    This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.

  • 28. Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Ahl, Helene
    Berglund, Karin
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland: En kvantitativ kartläggning inom ramen för forskningsprojektet "Kvinnors företagande för en levande landsbygd"2018Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    A Nurse and a Civil Servant changing institutions: Entrepreneurial processes in different public sector organizations2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that there is strong connection between the private sector and entrepreneurship has resulted in entrepreneurship in the public sector being neglected. This in turn leads to theoretical, practical and political shortcomings. The role of entrepreneurs as change agents is captured in the concept ‘institutional entrepreneurs’, but most studies focus on actors on the higher levels. This article sheds light on previously forgotten or ignored entrepreneurial processes, those taking place within the middle levels of the public sector, and which result in institutional change. We elaborate on the characteristics of the entrepreneurial processes and their prerequisites. The framework draws on the tension between entrepreneurship and the institutional context, and suggests a multi-level approach, drawing on insights from both entrepreneurship studies and new institutional theory. The cases highlight the importance of being able to create alliances and find sponsors to ensure freedom of action and grant legitimacy. The enabling and constraining aspects of the institutional context are illustrated and discussed.

  • 30.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Creative Destruction or Destruction of Creativity2008In: Nordic Small-Business Research Conference 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors entreprenörskap i och genom offentlig sektor: Möjlighetsexploatering eller självexploatering?2008In: Perspektiv på förnyelse och entreprenörskap i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anders Lundström, Elisabeth Sundin, Örebro: Forum för småföretagarforskning , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors företagande i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling2011In: Kvinnors företagande - mål eller medel? / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Gun Hedlund, Martin Wottle, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2011, p. 187-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors företagande i spåren av offentliga sektorns omvandling2008In: Sesam öppna dig!: Forskarperspektiv på kvinnors företagande / [ed] Pär Larsson, Ulla Göransson, Magnus Lagerholm, Stockolm: Vinnova , 2008, p. 87-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det genussystem vi lever i behöver uppmärksammas tydligare för att kvinnor som entreprenörer ska få en rättvis chans och erkännande.

    De fall som vi har studerat stärker studier som pekar på att omvandlingarna inom den offentliga sektorn inte har lett till ökad jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Genussystemet förefaller mycket livskraftigt och reproduceras på nya vägar. Men det kanske finns ”glipor i mönstret”. Och kanske kan företagandets könsstämpel ändras eller diversifieras?

  • 34.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Masculinisation of the public sector: Local level studies of public sector outsourcing in elder care2010In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to explore the consequences of new public management (NPM) inspired reforms in general and outsourcing of traditional public sector responsibilities in Sweden to private organizations in particular. At centre stage are the roles of entrepreneurs, women-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and socially constructed paradigms of gender in this process. The paper's aim is to explore, through a local-level case study, the currently ongoing process of gendering and regendering in a female-dominated sector. This is done by a qualitative real-time study of the introduction of a customer-choice system in elder care in a Swedish municipality.

    Design/methodology/approach – The formal decision in Spring 2008 to introduce a “customer-choice model” into home-based elderly care in the municipality is the formal starting point of the research. The authors are given full access to all relevant information and informants including all questions and suggestions from the potential suppliers who were applying to be “authorized and certified suppliers”. Interviews are the main method but also written material like applications and newspaper articles and “letters to the editor” are studied.

    Findings – The outcome of the changes are, from the decision-makers point of view, disappointing. The consequences so far of the customer-choice system, that have been examined here, can be labelled increased masculinism or even a masculinization of the elderly care sector. Whether the polarization is a presage of the process to come is too early to tell. If so, the masculinization observed in this paper extends along three dimensions: governing logic, leadership and ownership. These gender consequences are not those expected or intended by the leading local actors.

    Research limitations/implications – The study is made in an ongoing process. The politicians are making changes aiming at making better working conditions for SMEs and former employees especially women. It is therefore important to follow up what is going to happen in the future. Comparisons with other municipalities and other regimes, nationally and internationally, would also be valuable.

    Practical implications – In this case, the practical implications are, almost, the same as the research implications.

    Originality/value – The real-time research design is used focusing on what is happening in practise at the lower organizational levels of an organizational “experiment” of this kind make this paper unusual and valuable both for researchers and practioners.

  • 35.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Organisational Entrepreneurs in the Public Sectors: Social Capital and Gender2007In: Women, Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: A Dialogue and Construction / [ed] Iiris Aaltio, Paula Kyrö, Elisabeth Sundin, Köpenhamn: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2007, 1, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet ; Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Organiserandet och det fria företagandet: exemplet Friskolornas riksförbund2006In: Den oavsedda organisationen / [ed] Daniel Ericsson, Lund: Academia adacta, 2006, p. 21-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Pushed into Serial Entrepreneurship2011In: The 56th ICSB World Conference: Stockholm, Sweden 15th-18th of June 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are talked of as “the heroes of our times” and more heroic than all others are the entrepreneurs who engage in more than one venture. This paper aims to advance entrepreneurship theory through showing empirically that serial entrepreneurship, or rather serial-startups, isn’t necessarily a deliberate choice. This is illustrated by three selected cases, which we have followed through longitudinal qualitative studies. Theoretically, our analysis has profound implications, since it questions the notion of start-ups as a measure of economic success of individuals, regions or nations. The paper also explores the previously understudied exit-part of the entrepreneurial process.

  • 38.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Trust in New Public Management: Municipalities and business in cooperation2008In: Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Tallin, Estonia, 21-23 May 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Uppföljning av "Eget val" i hemtjänsten i Linköpings kommun: Utförarperspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport redovisar resultaten från en studie i Linköpings kommun av införandet av Linköpingsmodellen för Eget val inom hemtjänsten ur ett utförarperspektiv. Beskrivningarna har strukturerats framförallt utifrån utförarens storlek, eftersom de små företagens problem och villkor i sammanhanget är särskilt viktiga. I sammanfattningen ges kortfattade svar på de frågor som ställs i berördanämnders beslut (Dnr An 2007 0015; Dnr Om 2007 0018). Frågorna är de som återfinns nedan.

    Utförarnas agerande, åsikter och erfarenheter av Eget val-modellen hänger samman med det basansvar som knutits till kommunens servicehus. Anledningen till att Linköpings kommun valde att enligt LOV upphandla basansvar var att skapa ett ”ickevalsalternativ”. Ickevalsalternativet skulle vara en utförare som kunde ge alla hemtjänstens insatser, det vill säga den som inte valde skulle alltså få sin hemtjänsts alla delar av en utförare. Servicelägenheter är ett särskilt boende. Kommunen har ansvar för hälso- och sjukvård i särskilt boende och ingår därför i basansvaret. Fördelningen av basansvaret, och hur den nuvarande situationen uppstod, är avgörande både för hur modellen fungerar och hur den upplevs. Reformerna kan ses som försök att skapa marknader. Marknadsbegreppet används därför i analysen.

  • 40.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Är det något särskilt med offentlig sektor?: Is there something special about the public sector?2010In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Renstig, Monica
    Varför ska kvinnor starta eget inom vård och omsorg?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Att stödja kvinnors företagande: Lärdomar från projektet DISA2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Småföretagen har kommit att betraktas som allt viktigare för sysselsättning och tillväxt. Kvinnor driver företag i mindre utsträckning än män, men de skulle kunna svara för en stor andel av de nya företag som landet behöver (NUTEK, 2003). För att tillvarata den potential som finns är det viktigt att finna vägar att på bästa sätt stödja dessa ”företagerskor”. Denna studie tar sin utgångspunkt i ett riktat stödprojekt (DISA – långsiktig verksamhetsutveckling för kvinnliga företagare) som har drivits av ALMI Företagspartner i Östergötland AB. Tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland har de initierat projektet och denna studie. ALMI Östergötland har med detta velat vidareutveckla sitt och ALMI-koncernens arbete med kvinnors företagande.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna studie är att med DISA-projektet och dess aktörer som utgångspunkt diskutera och analysera hur insatser bör utformas och genomföras för att bäst stödja kvinnliga företagare. Frågor som behandlas är; vilket behov av stöd i sitt företagande de deltagande kvinnorna har, i vilken utsträckning DISA-projektet erbjuder detta stöd liksom vilka lärdomar man kan dra inför framtida insatser.

    DISA-projektet bestod av coachning kombinerat med seminarier. Företagarna fick träffa en personlig coach knappt en gång per månad under ett och ett halvt år, samt delta vid sex halvdagsseminarier. Den studie som gjorts av projektet är kvalitativ, och består bl a av intervjuer med deltagarna såväl i inledningsskedet som i avslutningsskedet av projektet. Under projektets gång har observationer gjorts under coachträffar och seminarier. I rapporten presenteras såväl coachernas som företagarnas reflektioner kring projektet på ett utförligt sätt.

    Studien har visat att förutom de problem och åtföljande stödbehov som känns igen från arbete med manliga företagare (tidsbrist, svårigheter att prioritera övergripande frågor, behov av ett externt bollplank, behov av kontakt med andra i samma situation) har många företagerskor gemensamma erfarenheter av ytterligare svårigheter som har att göra med genussystemet i samhället. Företagerskorna upplevs t ex som annorlunda i många sammanhang och tvingas ofta bevisa att de är bättre än sina manliga kollegor.

    DISA-projektet erbjuder framförallt genom den framgångsrika coachningen ett bra stöd för många av de svårigheter som företagerskorna möter. Företagarna menar att de har fått en ”spark i baken” att ta tag i övergripande frågor, och att de har fått struktur på sitt företag. Många av företagerskorna uttrycker emellertid ett stort behov av erfarenhetsutbyte och kontakt med andra personer i samma situation. Genom seminarierna har detta till viss del möjliggjorts i projektet, men denna komponent bör prioriteras högre i framtida insatser. De olika delarna i stödprojekt bör också integreras tydligt och bygga på samma genomtänkta pedagogik. Deltagarnas tankar kring att vara kvinna och företagare har inte förändrats under projektets gång. Vid rekrytering av deltagare är det viktigt att inte influeras av en manlig norm för vad som är ett företag med potential, samt att inkludera företag ur branscher där många kvinnor är verksamma.

    En viktig lärdom av denna studie är att företagerskor bör få hjälp att förstå och hantera de svårigheter i företagandet som härrör från genussystemet (köns-makt systemet) i samhället. Detta bör behandlas under ett inledande seminarium, och en medvetenhet om genussystemet bör fungera som en ”röd tråd” genom ett dylikt projekt. Företagsutvecklare som arbetar med kvinnors företagande bör få genomgå en mer omfattande genusutbildning än vad som varit fallet i DISA-projektet.

  • 43.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Beating the headwind to tackle fraud: on local gendered practices of business-dispute resolution2018In: Presented at the 3rd Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference & PhD Consortium, Växjö, Sweden, April 17-20, 2018, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Breaking out of Distrust: A case study of Small-Business Cooperation in Tanzania2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 45.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; National Institute for Working Life.
    Breaking out of Distrust: Preconditions for Trust and Cooperation between Small Businesses in Tanzania2005In: Trust under Pressure: Empirical Investigations of Trust and Trust Building in Uncertain Circumstances / [ed] Katinka Bijlsma-Frankema, Rosalinde Klein Woolthuis, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005, p. 54-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Cross-Cultural comparative case studies: a means of uncovering dimensions of trust2011In: Handbook of research methods on trust / [ed] Fergus Lyon, Guido Möllering, Mark N. K. Saunders, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 102-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Foreword: teaching entrepreneurship is walking a tightrope2018In: Revitalizing entrepreneurship education: adopting a critical approach in the classroom / [ed] Karin Berglund & Karen Verduijn, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. xiii-xivChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From employment to self-employment through New Public Management: The role of trust2005In: Conference of European Sociological Association 2005, Torun: Institute of Sociology Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; National Institute for Working Life.
    Gendered small-business assistance: lessons from a Swedish project2007In: Journal of European Industrial Training, ISSN 0309-0590, E-ISSN 1758-7425, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 84-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to deal with the design of small-business training programs and focuses on women business owners, their real needs and the supply of adequate training. How and to what extent are client selection and support needs influenced by the gender system?

    Design/methodology/approach – An in-depth study of an ambitious Swedish project is reported. Interviews with the participating business-owners and advisors, combined with observations during lectures and coaching sessions have been conducted.

    Findings – Even gender-conscious support organizations may have a biased process of client recruitment, leading to an unintended discrimination of women business owners. The women meet the same obstacles as men but also give witness to the subtle obstacles which originate in the gender-system.

    Research?limitations/implications – The study is qualitative and does not aim to provide statistically valid generalizations.

    Practical implications – Gender awareness of support organizations is crucial, in client selection as well as in designing programs and when coaching. These business owners need to understand the gender system in order to handle it more effectively. It is argued that special programs are still needed, even in a country like Sweden known for its relative equality between women and men.

    Originality/value – The context is interesting and the longitudinal in-depth approach brought the author unusually close to advisors and participants. It enabled an understanding of what happened over a short period of time in the minds of those involved, regarding sensitive issues.

  • 50.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Gendering of commercial justice: experience of self-employed women in urban Tanzania2016In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 101-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– Women’s entrepreneurship is often seen as the solution of both economic growth and gender equality. This is despite academic knowledge of the gendered preconditions for entrepreneurship in many contexts. This paper aims to focus on the gendering of commercial justice, a precondition for entrepreneurship. Informed by gender perspectives on women’s entrepreneurship and previous studies on commercial justice in East Africa, this paper sets out to explore the experiences of urban women entrepreneurs.

    Design/methodology/approach– The paper is based on an interview study with women entrepreneurs and representatives of support organizations in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The interviews were conducted in Kiswahili, and access was enabled through dialogues with local partner organizations such as the Tanzanian Chamber of Commerce.

    Findings– Findings are that with formal legal rights, the informal institutions imply that the marital status of the women, and the attitude of their husbands, is the overarching determinants for the commercial justice perceived as available to them. This has implication for many policy areas, such as entrepreneurship support, women’s empowerment and labour market policy. Theoretically, the findings highlight the importance of studying the informal institutions affecting women’s entrepreneurship around the globe. Concerning commercial justice in particular, three dimensions of gendering are identified.

    Research limitations/implications– The paper is based on a qualitative interview study. Further studies with varying methods are needed to further explore the gendering of commercial justice in Tanzania, East Africa and beyond.

    Practical implications– A major practical implication of the study is the insight that business for development, will not automatically lead to business for equality, on a general level. The gender bias is also reproduced in everyday business life, for example, thorough access to commercial justice. Special measures to target the gender equality issue are, therefore, necessary. Another implication of the findings regard the importance of Alternative Dispute Resolution initiatives, affordable to women small and medium enterprise-owners.

    Originality/value– While other obstacles to women’s entrepreneurship in the developing contexts have been well explored, the gendering of perceived commercial justice has not received sufficient attention in previous studies. Studies applying a gender theoretical perspective on entrepreneurship in the explored context are still needed.

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