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  • 1.
    Achtenhagen, Leona
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Studies on women's entrepreneurship from Nordic countries and beyond2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's

    entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The paper encourages research that investigates how context, at the micro, meso and macro level, is related to women's entrepreneurship, and acknowledges that gender is socially constructed.

    Findings

    – This paper finds evidence that recent calls for new directions in women's entrepreneurship research are being followed, specifically with regard to how gender is done and how context is related to women's entrepreneurial activities.

    Originality/value

    – This paper assesses trends in research on women's entrepreneurship, mainly from the Nordic countries.

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  • 2.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017In: Paper presented at: 31st RENT Conference, Lund, 16-17 NOV 2017, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2017, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?2014In: Diana International Research Conference 2014: Stockholm, June 15-17 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 4.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013In: The International Helix conference 2013, Linköping, Sweden, June, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

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  • 6.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014In: Gender, Work & Organization: Abstracts 1-376, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women's movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a politica l change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women's entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the pub lic sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirica l studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women 's entrepreneurs hip in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women's position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms.

  • 7.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm university.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio, Stockholm.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Swedish as well as international policy advocates an increase inwomen’s business ownership. The reasons center around economic growth:women start businesses at a lower rate than men, and are therefore seen asan untapped resource in stagnant economies. Busienss ownership is advo-cated as a viable alternative to unemployment. Women’s business owner-ship is further seen as instrumental in the neo-liberal transformation of thepublic sector, with privatization of former public commitments in educa-tion and care. In developing countries the arguments center around pov-erty alleviation – help to self-help is advocated. Feminist arguments suchas equal distribution of power and influence among men and women arelargely absent, and a discussion of the allocation of unpaid, domestic workbetween men and women is also absent. The discussion on entrepreneur-ship and the discussion on feminism seem to live side by side, with littleexchange between them. Neither feminist theory, nor extant entrepreneur-ship theory adequately account for feminist agency and activism within aglobalized market economy, in which discourses of entrepreneurship, in-novation and economic growth take precedence. Doing so would implychallenges of and developments of concepts like enterprise, gender, growth,competition, agency, feminist activism and gender equality. In this paperwe seek to bridge and combine feminist and entrepreneurship theories innew ways. We suggest a feminist theoretical understanding of current dis-courses, practices and policies regarding entrepreneurship and women’sentrepreneurship.

  • 8.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN).
    Women's contributions to rural development: implications for entrepreneurship policy2023In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposePolicy for women's entrepreneurship is designed to promote economic growth, not least in depleted rural areas, but very little is known about the contributions of rural women entrepreneurs, their needs or how the existing policy is received by them. Using a theoretical framework developed by Korsgaard et al. (2015), the authors analyse how rural women entrepreneurs contribute to rural development and discuss the implications for entrepreneurship policy. This paper aims to focus on the aforementioned objectives.Design/methodology/approachThe authors interviewed 32 women entrepreneurs in rural Sweden representing the variety of businesses in which rural Swedish women are engaged. The authors analysed their contributions to rural development by analysing their motives, strategies and outcomes using Korsgaard et al.'s framework of "entrepreneurship in the rural" and "rural entrepreneurship" as a heuristic, interpretative device.FindingsIrrespective of industry, the respondents were deeply embedded in family and local social structures. Their contributions were substantial, multidimensional and indispensable for rural viability, but the policy tended to bypass most women-owned businesses. Support in terms of business training, counselling and financing are important, but programmes especially for women tend to miss the mark, and so does rural development policy. More important for rural women entrepreneurs in Sweden is the provision of good public services, including for example, schools and social care, that make rural life possible.Research limitations/implicationsTheoretically, the findings question the individualist and a-contextual focus of much entrepreneurship research, as well as the taken-for-granted work-family divide. How gender and how the public and the private are configured varies greatly between contexts and needs contextual assessment. Moreover, the results call for theorising place as an entrepreneurial actor.Practical implicationsBased on the findings, the authors advise future policymakers to gender mainstream entrepreneurship policy and to integrate entrepreneurship and rural development policy with family and welfare state policy.Originality/valueThe paper highlights how rural women respond to policy, and the results are contextualised, making it possible to compare them to other contexts. The authors widen the discussion on contributions beyond economic growth, and the authors show that policy for public and commercial services and infrastructure is indeed also policy for entrepreneurship.

  • 9.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015In: The 4th European Conference on Politics and Gender 2015 June 11-13 Uppsala, Sweden, 2015, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 10.
    Al-Dajani, Haya
    et al.
    Prince Mohammed Bin Salman Coll Business & Entrepr, Saudi Arabia.
    Bang, Nupur Pavan
    Indian Sch Business, India.
    Basco, Rodrigo
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Calabro, Andrea
    IPAG Family Business Inst IFBI, France.
    Cheng, Jeremy Chi Yeung
    CUHK Business Sch, China.
    Clinton, Eric
    Dublin City Univ, Ireland.
    Daspit, Joshua J.
    Texas State Univ, USA.
    De Massis, Alfred
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Cruz, Allan Discua
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Garcia-Lorenzo, Lucia
    LSE, UK.
    Gartner, William B.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN). Babson Coll, USA.
    Germain, Olivier
    Univ Quebec Montreal, Canada.
    Gherardi, Silvia
    Univ Trento, Italy.
    Helin, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Imas, Miguel
    Kingston Univ London, UK.
    Jack, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    McAdam, Maura
    Dublin City Univ, Ireland.
    Radu-Lefebvre, Miruna
    Audencia Nantes, France.
    Rovelli, Paola
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN).
    Torchia, Mariateresa
    Int Univ Monaco, Monaco.
    Verduijn, Karen
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Welter, Friederike
    IfM Bonn, Germany;Univ Siegen, Germany.
    A multi-voiced account of family entrepreneuring research: expanding the agenda of family entrepreneurship2023In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis conceptual, multi-voiced paper aims to collectively explore and theorize family entrepreneuring, which is a research stream dedicated to investigating the emergence and becoming of entrepreneurial phenomena in business families and family firms.Design/methodology/approachBecause of the novelty of this research stream, the authors asked 20 scholars in entrepreneurship and family business to reflect on topics, methods and issues that should be addressed to move this field forward.FindingsAuthors highlight key challenges and point to new research directions for understanding family entrepreneuring in relation to issues such as agency, processualism and context.Originality/valueThis study offers a compilation of multiple perspectives and leverage recent developments in the fields of entrepreneurship and family business to advance research on family entrepreneuring.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Kundval – dilemman i gränssnittet mellan privata och offentliga organisationer2010In: Samtal pågår…: från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Tora Friberg, Sabrina Thelander, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2010, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Conceptualising feminist resistance in the postfeminist terrain2023In: Gender in Management, ISSN 1754-2413, E-ISSN 1754-2421, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 183-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In this paper, women entrepreneurs are seen as leaders and women leaders as entrepreneurial, making both groups an easy target of postfeminist expectations, governed by calls to embody the entrepreneurial self. Acknowledging that the entrepreneurial self has its roots in the universal, rational and autonomous subject, which was shaped in a male form during the Enlightenment, the purpose of this study is to conceptualise feminist resistance as a process through which the autonomous subject can be de-stabilised. Design/methodology/approach: Empirically, this study draws on an extensive research project on women's rural entrepreneurship that includes 32 in-depth interviews with women entrepreneurs in rural Sweden. This study interpreted expressions of resistance from the women by using an analytical framework the authors developed based on Jonna Bornemark's philosophical treatise. Findings: Feminist resistance unfolds as an interactive and iterative learning process where the subject recognises their voice, strengthens their voice and beliefs in a relational process and finally sees themselves as a fully fledged actor who finds ways to overcome obstacles that get in their way. Conceptualising resistance as a learning process stands in sharp contrast to the idea of resistance as enacted by the autonomous self. Research limitations/implications: This study helps researchers to understand that what they may have seen as a sign of weakness among women, is instead a sign of strength: it is a first step in learning resistance that may help women create a life different from that prescribed by the postfeminist discourse. In this way, researchers can avoid reproducing women as "weak and inadequate". Originality/value: Through the re-writing of feminist resistance, the masculine entrepreneurship discourse including the notion of the autonomous self is challenged, and a counternarrative to the postfeminist entrepreneurial woman is developed. Theorising resistance as a learning practice enables a more transforming research agenda, making it possible to see women as resisting postfeminist expectations of endless competition with themselves and others.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: a discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly changed the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

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  • 14.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management (MAN).
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Genusperspektiv på entreprenörskap: från kvinnors företagande till feministisk aktivism2023In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, Vol. Mars 23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Från inledningen: Den internationella forskningen om kvinnors företagande tog fart i början av 1990-talet. Redan 1989 publicerade pionjärerna Elisabeth Sundin och Carin Holmquist den svenska studien Kvinnor som företagare: Osynlighet, mångfald, anpassning. Studien banade väg för en livaktig svensk forskning inom ämnet. I början handlade forskningen om att visa att kvinnor som företagare faktiskt finns. Trots att kvinnor sedan många år utgjort ungefär en tredjedel av alla företagare så ansågs och anses fortfarande företagare vara män. I ett senare skede fokuserade forskningen på villkoren för företag drivna av kvinnor. Många studier visade till exempel att kvinnor har svårare att få finansiering för sina verksamheter än män. Det kan bero på direkt diskriminering, men också på att kvinnor är verksamma i feminint kodade branscher som exempelvis detaljhandel eller personlig service. I dessa branscher har man sällan stora tillgångar som kan ställas som säkerhet för ett lån. Branscherna är också arbetskraftsintensiva, vilket gör det svårare att uppnå skalfördelar och hög lönsamhet.

  • 15.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    An alternative entrepreneurial university?2021In: A Research Agenda for the Entrepreneurial University / [ed] Ulla Hytti, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, 1, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we discuss the entrepreneurial university as a part of the entrepreneurialisation of society. To investigate how this affects the University we take inspiration from Mazzucato´s discussion about the entrepreneurial state. Based on a rich empirical case where entrepreneurship has been introduced in a different way than described in extant literature (and policy), two conceptualisations of the entrepreneurial university are elaborated on. In “The Entrepreneurial University” (TEU) focus is set on how existing technology can be used in a new context or turned into innovations. In contrast, in the “Alternative Entrepreneurial University” (AEU) processes and practices are introduced to facilitate reflexivity with regards to the role of entrepreneurship in late capitalism. It is proposed that, rather than choosing one of these two ‘idea(l)s’, it may be beneficial to find ways to unite the two approaches, finding ways to create stability for knowledge production that can feed into both new technologies and novel ways of organizing society for the betterment of its constituents. Further it is suggested that the two conceptualisations can help to advance research approaches on the entrepreneurialisation of universities in order to learn how this sets and shifts boundaries for democracy and our understanding of knowledge production.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Mälardalen University.
    To play or not to play : that is the question: Gender perspectives on entrepreneurship and innovation2010In: Gender, Work and Organization, 6th international interdisciplinary conference, 21st - 23rd June, 2010: Conference stream : Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth: Gender perspectives, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    To play or not to play: that is the question: Entrepreneuring as gendered play2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 206-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can play be used to unravel the discourse of the gendered hero entrepreneur and instead describe mundane entrepreneuring? Further, how can the doing of gendered social orders be problematized when entrepreneuring is equated with play? In this article we answer these questions by engaging with the French social theorist Caillois’ (1961)conceptualization of play as being at the heart of all higher culture. Two ethnographic cases act as our vehicle in analysing play as entrepreneuring. From a rich description of these cases we find that it is not a question of playing or not playing, but about how to play. All four forms of play described by Caillois are present, which illustrates the variation of entrepreneuring and the richness of activities conducted in the ‘doing of entrepreneurship’. Further, both ways of playing discussed by Caillois are found. Whilst these two ways are interrelated on a continuum in the theory of play, they have been separated in entrepreneurship discourse, where they underpin the tendency to differentiate between the hero entrepreneur and ordinary people. Finally, we engage in a more interpretive and reflective discussion on entrepreneuring as performative acts through which social orders can be not only reproduced but also transformed.

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  • 18.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Sustainable working life development through interactive research2018In: PIN-C Conference Proccedings: 2018 Eskilstuna, Sweden, 2018, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive research has emerged as a new approach to collaborative research in working life research, and it is characterized by a continuous joint learning process between the researchers and the practitioners. In this paper we argue that interactive research is a way to advance scientific knowledge about the development of new types of work arrangements and development of sustainable working life. We present the basic ideas and benefits of the interactive research approach, illustrated through a practical case, the HELIX Competence Centre and discuss potential limitation and challenges associated with this form of collaborative research.

  • 19.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Sustainable development in organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten & Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ellström, Per-ErikLinköping University.Klofsten, MagnusLinköping University.Tillmar, MalinLinköping University.
    Sustainable Development in Organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly competitive environment can lead to considerable problems for many organizations as they struggle to adapt to change. As a result, they fail to create the conditions that can lead to sustainable development over the long term, thus affecting the capabilities of employees. This book provides a fresh perspective on sustainable change and development in organizations, as well as a critical perspective on lean implementation, work environment and sustainability.

    The expert contributors address the development in, and of, organizations, as well as the development process between organizations, such as in networks or clusters. They discuss topics, such as the role of customers in the development of public organizations; developing knowledgeable practice at work; exploring evidence-based practice and the challenge of regional gender contracts.

    Undergraduates and postgraduates in different management fields including organizational theory, innovation, human resources, quality development and entrepreneurship will find this book to be of interest. The empirical results and interdisciplinary approach will appeal to practitioners and policy-makers at national, as well as international levels.

  • 21.
    Gashi Nulleshi, Shqipe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Rural proofing entrepreneurship in two fields of research2022In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 332-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how rural entrepreneurship is discussed by analyzing articles in the leading journals of the two main research fields, entrepreneurship studies, and rural studies, through the concept of rural proofing.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The systematic literature review centers on the two main fields where rural entrepreneurship is studied and covers papers in nine leading journals in entrepreneurship studies and two leading journals in rural studies, between the years 1989 and 2020. In total, 97 papers were reviewed and we utilize and operationalize the rural proofing concept based on Fahmy et al.'s (2004) 3 characteristics of rural: remoteness, accessibility, and rural locale and sense of place. The authors take stock of the dimensions of rural proofing addressed within each of the research fields to find similarities and differences; that is, if articles are rural proofed (or not) when discussing rural entrepreneurship.

    Findings

    The classification of articles across the three dimensions of rural proofing shows that the field of rural entrepreneurship is being addressed mainly in the dimensions of remoteness and accessibility, while few authors in rural studies journals give priority to the rural locale and sense of place dimension. The results of the authors' review reveal that out of a total of 97 articles on rural entrepreneurship, 56 articles address at least one dimension of rural proofing and 41 articles do not address any dimension. Among the 41 articles not rural proofed, rurality is not problematized when discussing rural entrepreneurship. Instead, the authors focus on specific topics such as social capital, community entrepreneurship/networks, entrepreneurs'/farmers' identity, illegality in rural areas, and institutional framework. The number of non-rural-proofed articles in entrepreneurship journals is almost double that in rural studies journals. This means that authors in entrepreneurship journals do not problematize rurality to the same extent as authors in rural studies journals when addressing rural entrepreneurship.

    Research limitations/implications

    The authors emphasize the need for increased cross-fertilization between the fields of entrepreneurship and rural studies as an avenue to develop the entrepreneurship field in the direction towards rural proofing. A close collaboration with academia and policymakers is essential to promote interdisciplinary research in order to make a distinctive contribution to rural development. Scholars in either of the two fields will benefit from our review and identification of similarities and differences in the research. The review is one step towards promoting a closer dialog between the two fields.

    Originality/value

    Previous reviews have focused mainly on what rural entrepreneurship entails (e.g. what topics are discussed) rather than how rural entrepreneurship is discussed. This paper centers on the differences and similarities of the two main fields and provides an in-depth qualitative analysis of how rural entrepreneurship is discussed by utilizing the rural proofing concept.

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  • 22.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping university.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Entrepreneurship invited into the (social) welfare arena2016In: Social entrepreneurship and social enterprises: Nordic perspectives / [ed] Lundgaard Andersen, Linda;Gawell, Malin;Spear, Roger, Routledge, 2016, p. 215-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23. Hård, Ursula
    et al.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; National Institute for Working Life.
    Kvinnors företagande - arbetsmarknadsbeteende och organisatorisk lösning2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 24.
    Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Contextualising the coevolution of (dis)trust and control: a longitudinal case study of a public market2018In: Journal of Trust Research, ISSN 2151-5581, E-ISSN 2151-559X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 192-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the dynamics of trust?control is still inconclusive. In this paper, we offer an in-depth understanding of how (dis)trust and control coevolve as embedded in multiple dimensions of context. The paper focuses on public markets, a context which is underrepresented in extant studies on trust and control. Our analysis is based on a longitudinal case study of interorganisational relationships (IOR) between boundary spanners representing purchaser and providers on a customer choice market for home care in a midsized municipality in Sweden. We identify, narrate and analyse critical incidents during seven years of the process. A conceptual framework contextualising the trust?control nexus of a public?private IOR is developed and utilised. We find that while the public?private IOR context requires control, control only enables deterrence trust from the municipal officers and only in individual providers. Interferential rather than symbiotic coevolution of trust and control is the dominating pattern. In addition, we find what we denote as mixed coevolution, where control simultaneously has positive and negative impact on trust. In our case in point, control enables trust in specific providers but this trust is not reciprocated due to experienced distrust on the category level.

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  • 25. Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    The multilevel coevolution of (dis)trust and control in a high-trust welfare context: Cases from a Swedish customer-choice market2017In: Paper presented at the EGOS conference July 2017 in Copenhagen, European Group of Organization Studies , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    New forms of organization: new ways to organize2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 169-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are central to our way of organizing society and understanding the phenomenon of organizing within and between organizations is hence important. In this chapter we focus on dimensions of mobility in efforts at organizing within and between organizations as well as between sectors. It is argued that the public sector is a good place to start if one wants to capture facets of contemporary society, as an understanding of the changes taking place in the public sector is also a means of grasping the increasing hybridisation of organizations taking place also in private and third sectors. In our analysis we highlight examples of intraorganizational, interorganizational and intersectoral organizing and how mobility can be a tool and a goal, as well as a problem and a solution. When it comes to gender, however, the striking image is one of immobility rather than mobility.

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  • 27. Högberg, Lena
    et al.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköpings universitet.
    Multisectoral organizing in the Swedish welfare system: Understanding the complexity2017In: Paper presented at the EGOS conference July 2017 in Copenhagen, European Group of Organization Studies , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Jogmark, Marina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Entreprenörskap för socio-ekologisk omställning på landsbygden2022In: Förnyelse på småländska: Berättelser om utvecklingsarbete i vardagen / [ed] Magnus Forslund och Lena Gustafsson, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2022, p. 130-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Jogmark, Marina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Reflektioner kring vägar och vägval för socio-ekologisk omställning2022In: Förnyelse på småländska: Berättelser om utvecklingsarbete i vardagen / [ed] Magnus Forslund och Lena Gustafsson, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2022, p. 156-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Rosell, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Organizing Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Sector Challenge2015In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research / [ed] Paula Kyrö, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 130-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allying and expanding the diverse fields of entrepreneurship and sustainable development research is a modern day imperative. The Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research cuts through the different approaches and perspectives of the two fields to point the way ahead for research on sustainable entrepreneurship, outlining the motivation, intentions and impact of ecopreneurs in a local, national and global context.

    This Handbook paints an illuminating picture of the historic and current understanding of the bond between entrepreneurship and sustainable development. The authors explore the basic contradictions between the two fields and outline the transformative role entrepreneurship can play in achieving sustainable development. 45 expert researchers and their research communities from 16 countries across Europe, Africa, Australia and North America provide original and informative contributions on a variety of issues, from women’s empowerment to climate change and organic farmers to ecotourism.

    With current and authorative contributions spanning the globe, this Handbook will inspire researchers, teachers and policy-makers to compose their own understanding and contribution on the fast expanding field of entrepreneurship and sustainable development.

  • 31.
    Nählinder, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping university.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Lund university.
    Towards a gender aware understanding of innovation: a three-dimensional route2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to discuss the theory of gender bias in innovation studies, to illustrate the gender bias of innovation studies by using empirical means and to suggest what is needed to reduce such bias. Previous studies on innovation have primarily focussed on male-dominated industries. These studies have been biased and hence unable to capture the range of innovations covered by theoretical definitions. 

    Design/methodology/approach - An innovation survey was conducted among entrepreneurs in the traditionally "female-labelled" health-care industry, avoiding the "male-labelled" concept of innovation itself in the questionnaire. The authors endeavoured to ascertain whether there is a significant difference between males and females in terms of innovativeness. Quantitative analyses were used to analyse the results and draw comparisons with an ordinary innovation survey. 

    Findings - Using a gender-aware operationalisation of innovation, no significant difference in innovativeness was found between men and women. This suggests that more attention is needed to correct the prevailing gender bias in innovation studies. A research model is presented to further understand the gender-biased operationalisations of innovation. Each of its three dimensions has a clear impact upon perceived innovativeness: the gender-label of the sector studied, the gender-neutrality of the operationalisation used in the study and the gender of the actors involved. All dimensions should be taken into account in future innovation studies that aim for gender neutrality. 

    Practical implications - Operationalisations for measuring innovations are usually biased. Therefore, women appear less innovative, which, in turn, leads to less visibility. 

    Originality/value - Gender perspectives are very seldom employed in innovation studies. In quantitative studies of this sort, it is even rarer. Our empirical evidence from the quantitative study shows the urgency of the need to broaden the concept both in academic, political and public debates. This is not the least for efficiency reasons in resource allocation and public policy.

  • 32.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    In the name of women?: Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women - such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's wellbeing and financial or other independence - or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005-2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 33.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Att jobba med hjärtat: en studie av grön omsorg ur genus- och entreprenörskapsperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Working from the heart - cultivating feminist care ethics through care farming in Sweden2022In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1446-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore why and how women and men farmers carry out care farming, paying attention to farming being gendered. We engage in geographical research on feminist care ethics to understand care farming by considering the people-place relationships cultivated. We draw on post-structural feminist understandings of gendered farm subjectivities, thereby exploring the emergence of new gender subjectivities. The paper fills research gaps on farmers providing care, and on the gendered nature of care farming. To the feminist geographic theorisations on feminist care ethics, we contribute a post-structural feminist approach. Empirically, the study builds on farm visits and 20 semi-structured interviews with women and men engaged in care farming on 12 farms in rural Sweden. We conclude that care farmers cultivate feminist care ethics as an ontology of connections, by working from the heart. This has meant care farmers are developing people-place and people-people connections. Feminist care ethics is, on the one hand a way of expressing criticism of current societal developments such as productivist agriculture and efficiency orientated welfare provisioning and, on the other, a way of making a difference. Feminist care ethics also includes the development of new gender subjectivities for both women and men farmers. We suggest that care farming implies farming otherwise, which shifts the farms to places of care, instead of food production. Altogether, we argue that care farmers nurturing feminist care ethics challenge the very conceptualisation of agriculture - from cultivating animals and plants to cultivating connections.

  • 35.
    Rosell, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Intertwining of practices in multi-sector entrepreneuring for welfare2018In: Presented at the 3rd Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference & PhD Consortium, Växjö, Sweden, April 17-20, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Rosell, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Spacing and pacing across sectors in public entrepreneuring2019In: Presented at the 4th Annual Entrepreneurship as Practice Conference, Nantes, France, April 3-6, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Resilient gender order in entrepreneurship: the case of Swedish welfare industries2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 2-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification.

    Findings

    The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied.

    Practical implications

    The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring.

    Originality/value

    This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.

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  • 38.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland: en kvantitativ kartläggning inom ramen för forskningsprojektet "Kvinnors företagande för en levande landsbygd"2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En livskraftig landsbygd med tillgång till arbetskraft, arbetstillfällen och välfärdsservice är en aktuell samhällsfråga. Företagandets omfattning på landsbygden är en aspekt som kan ha betydelse för landsbygdskommunernas sårbarhet. Syftet med rapporten är att utveckla kunskap om kvinnors entreprenörskap på landsbygden, som kan ligga till grund för att stimulera landsbygdsutveckling, jämställdhet och vidare forskning, exempelvis genom kvalitativa forskningsmetoder.

    Med hjälp av en databasstudie beskrivs och analyseras omfattningen och karaktären av kvinnors företagande på landsbygden. Till viss del studeras också likheter och skillnader i företagandet mellan kvinnor födda i Sverige och kvinnor födda utomlands, samt mellan kvinnor och män.

    Företagandet är mer omfattande bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna på landsbygden än bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna i tätorterna. Skillnaderna i omfattningen av kvinnors företagande är små mellan olika typer av landsbygdskommuner – de som är avlägset belägna, mycket avlägset belägna eller belägna nära en större stad. Resultaten indikerar snarare att det är kommunernas företagskaraktär eller tradition av företagande som avgör andelen företagare per sysselsatta. Kartläggningen pekar mot att arbetslöshet kan vara ett incitament för företagande – något starkare för de utlandsfödda kvinnorna än för kvinnorna födda i Sverige. Skogsförvaltning och blandat jordbruk är bland de vanligaste näringsgrenarna för både kvinnor och män på landsbygden. I övrigt är dock företagandet mycket könssegregerat med avseende på bransch. De tio vanligaste näringsgrenarna för kvinnor och män skiljer sig markant åt. Kvinnors företag är mest representerade i Hår- och kroppsvård, Restaurangverksamhet, Redovisning och bokföring, Konsultverksamhet avseende företags organisation, Fysioterapeutisk verksamhet samt Litterärt och konstnärligt skapande. Mäns vanligaste näringsgrenar är mer relaterade till landsbygdens kontext av mark- och naturresurser. Kvinnors företag är små, 76 procent är soloföretag och lönsamheten varierar stort. De näringsgrenar där kvinnors företag redovisar högst lönsamhet är i de numerärt mansdominerade näringsgrenarna inom tillverkningsindustrin. Resultaten indikerar därmed könssegregering och hierarki med avseende på arbets- och resursfördelning.

    Kvinnor på landsbygden är mer benägna att vara företagare än anställda om de är gifta, har hemmavarande barn eller en utbildningsnivå lägre än den eftergymnasiala. Det kan tolkas som att företagandet är en lösning för att kombinera arbetsliv med ansvar för hem och barn. De företagande kvinnornas disponibla inkomster är i genomsnitt lägre än för kvinnor med anställning, för män som är företagare och för män med anställning. Att vara gift innebär för kvinnor en lägre disponibel inkomst, men för män en högre disponibel inkomst jämfört med att att inte vara gift. Resultaten visar dock att det inte är de individrelaterade faktorerna som mest bidrar till skillnader i disponibel inkomst, utan, näringsgren och antalet sysselsatta. Manligt könskodade näringsgrenar och stora företag ger högre inkomst. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att företagandet på landsbygden är traditionellt könssegregerat och hierarkiserat, i fråga om resursfördelning.

  • 39.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    A Nurse and a Civil Servant changing institutions: Entrepreneurial processes in different public sector organizations2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that there is strong connection between the private sector and entrepreneurship has resulted in entrepreneurship in the public sector being neglected. This in turn leads to theoretical, practical and political shortcomings. The role of entrepreneurs as change agents is captured in the concept ‘institutional entrepreneurs’, but most studies focus on actors on the higher levels. This article sheds light on previously forgotten or ignored entrepreneurial processes, those taking place within the middle levels of the public sector, and which result in institutional change. We elaborate on the characteristics of the entrepreneurial processes and their prerequisites. The framework draws on the tension between entrepreneurship and the institutional context, and suggests a multi-level approach, drawing on insights from both entrepreneurship studies and new institutional theory. The cases highlight the importance of being able to create alliances and find sponsors to ensure freedom of action and grant legitimacy. The enabling and constraining aspects of the institutional context are illustrated and discussed.

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  • 40.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Creative Destruction or Destruction of Creativity2008In: Nordic Small-Business Research Conference 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors entreprenörskap i och genom offentlig sektor: Möjlighetsexploatering eller självexploatering?2008In: Perspektiv på förnyelse och entreprenörskap i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anders Lundström, Elisabeth Sundin, Örebro: Forum för småföretagarforskning , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors företagande i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling2011In: Kvinnors företagande - mål eller medel? / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Gun Hedlund, Martin Wottle, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2011, p. 187-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Kvinnors företagande i spåren av offentliga sektorns omvandling2008In: Sesam öppna dig!: Forskarperspektiv på kvinnors företagande / [ed] Pär Larsson, Ulla Göransson, Magnus Lagerholm, Stockolm: Vinnova , 2008, p. 87-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det genussystem vi lever i behöver uppmärksammas tydligare för att kvinnor som entreprenörer ska få en rättvis chans och erkännande.

    De fall som vi har studerat stärker studier som pekar på att omvandlingarna inom den offentliga sektorn inte har lett till ökad jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Genussystemet förefaller mycket livskraftigt och reproduceras på nya vägar. Men det kanske finns ”glipor i mönstret”. Och kanske kan företagandets könsstämpel ändras eller diversifieras?

  • 44.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Masculinisation of the public sector: Local level studies of public sector outsourcing in elder care2010In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to explore the consequences of new public management (NPM) inspired reforms in general and outsourcing of traditional public sector responsibilities in Sweden to private organizations in particular. At centre stage are the roles of entrepreneurs, women-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and socially constructed paradigms of gender in this process. The paper's aim is to explore, through a local-level case study, the currently ongoing process of gendering and regendering in a female-dominated sector. This is done by a qualitative real-time study of the introduction of a customer-choice system in elder care in a Swedish municipality.

    Design/methodology/approach – The formal decision in Spring 2008 to introduce a “customer-choice model” into home-based elderly care in the municipality is the formal starting point of the research. The authors are given full access to all relevant information and informants including all questions and suggestions from the potential suppliers who were applying to be “authorized and certified suppliers”. Interviews are the main method but also written material like applications and newspaper articles and “letters to the editor” are studied.

    Findings – The outcome of the changes are, from the decision-makers point of view, disappointing. The consequences so far of the customer-choice system, that have been examined here, can be labelled increased masculinism or even a masculinization of the elderly care sector. Whether the polarization is a presage of the process to come is too early to tell. If so, the masculinization observed in this paper extends along three dimensions: governing logic, leadership and ownership. These gender consequences are not those expected or intended by the leading local actors.

    Research limitations/implications – The study is made in an ongoing process. The politicians are making changes aiming at making better working conditions for SMEs and former employees especially women. It is therefore important to follow up what is going to happen in the future. Comparisons with other municipalities and other regimes, nationally and internationally, would also be valuable.

    Practical implications – In this case, the practical implications are, almost, the same as the research implications.

    Originality/value – The real-time research design is used focusing on what is happening in practise at the lower organizational levels of an organizational “experiment” of this kind make this paper unusual and valuable both for researchers and practioners.

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  • 45.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Organisational Entrepreneurs in the Public Sectors: Social Capital and Gender2007In: Women, Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: A Dialogue and Construction / [ed] Iiris Aaltio, Paula Kyrö, Elisabeth Sundin, Köpenhamn: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2007, 1, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet ; Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University ; Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Organiserandet och det fria företagandet: exemplet Friskolornas riksförbund2006In: Den oavsedda organisationen / [ed] Daniel Ericsson, Lund: Academia adacta, 2006, p. 21-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Pushed into Serial Entrepreneurship2011In: The 56th ICSB World Conference: Stockholm, Sweden 15th-18th of June 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are talked of as “the heroes of our times” and more heroic than all others are the entrepreneurs who engage in more than one venture. This paper aims to advance entrepreneurship theory through showing empirically that serial entrepreneurship, or rather serial-startups, isn’t necessarily a deliberate choice. This is illustrated by three selected cases, which we have followed through longitudinal qualitative studies. Theoretically, our analysis has profound implications, since it questions the notion of start-ups as a measure of economic success of individuals, regions or nations. The paper also explores the previously understudied exit-part of the entrepreneurial process.

  • 48.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Trust in New Public Management: Municipalities and business in cooperation2008In: Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Tallin, Estonia, 21-23 May 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Uppföljning av "Eget val" i hemtjänsten i Linköpings kommun: Utförarperspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport redovisar resultaten från en studie i Linköpings kommun av införandet av Linköpingsmodellen för Eget val inom hemtjänsten ur ett utförarperspektiv. Beskrivningarna har strukturerats framförallt utifrån utförarens storlek, eftersom de små företagens problem och villkor i sammanhanget är särskilt viktiga. I sammanfattningen ges kortfattade svar på de frågor som ställs i berördanämnders beslut (Dnr An 2007 0015; Dnr Om 2007 0018). Frågorna är de som återfinns nedan.

    Utförarnas agerande, åsikter och erfarenheter av Eget val-modellen hänger samman med det basansvar som knutits till kommunens servicehus. Anledningen till att Linköpings kommun valde att enligt LOV upphandla basansvar var att skapa ett ”ickevalsalternativ”. Ickevalsalternativet skulle vara en utförare som kunde ge alla hemtjänstens insatser, det vill säga den som inte valde skulle alltså få sin hemtjänsts alla delar av en utförare. Servicelägenheter är ett särskilt boende. Kommunen har ansvar för hälso- och sjukvård i särskilt boende och ingår därför i basansvaret. Fördelningen av basansvaret, och hur den nuvarande situationen uppstod, är avgörande både för hur modellen fungerar och hur den upplevs. Reformerna kan ses som försök att skapa marknader. Marknadsbegreppet används därför i analysen.

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  • 50.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Är det något särskilt med offentlig sektor?: Is there something special about the public sector?2010In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
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