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  • 1.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Oxford, UK;Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Marshall, Leon
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Namur, Belgium.
    van't Zelfde, Maarten
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Villalobos-Arambula, Alma R.
    Univ Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Boekelo, Bastiaen
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Bartholomeus, Harm
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ, Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use2017In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1126-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimBiodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services. LocationThe Netherlands. MethodsWe compiled a dataset of c.3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers. ResultsWe found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity. Main conclusionsFunctional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.

  • 2.
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kissling, W. Daniel
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Carvalheiro, Luísa G.
    Universidade de Brasília, Brazil ; University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands ; University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 24451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species’ functional traits that influence their ability to move, reproduce or establish. Here, we show that functional traits related to dispersal, reproduction, habitat use and diet have influenced how three pollinator groups (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) responded to changes in climate and land-use in the Netherlands since 1950. Across the three pollinator groups, we found pronounced areal range expansions (>53%) and modelled range shifts towards the north (all taxa: 17–22 km), west (bees: 14 km) and east (butterflies: 11 km). The importance of specific functional traits for explaining distributional changes varied among pollinator groups. Larval diet preferences (i.e. carnivorous vs. herbivorous/detritivorous and nitrogen values of host plants, respectively) were important for hoverflies and butterflies, adult body size for hoverflies, and flight period length for all groups. Moreover, interactions among multiple traits were important to explain species’ geographic range shifts, suggesting that taxon-specific multi-trait analyses are needed to predict how global change will affect biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  • 3. Anders, Brattström
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fredrik, Bjerding
    Franzén, Markus
    2007. The future for the cloded apollo (P. mnemosyne) in Blekinge2007In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 128, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests2019In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 992-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

  • 5.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ecological characteristics associated with high mobility in night-active moths2013In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an important factor influencing the range and persistence of local populations. However, mobility is very difficult to measure empirically and thus is poorly known in most taxa. Since ecological characteristics have been suggested as good estimators of mobility, we here explore the association between ecological characteristics and mobility. We surveyed night-active moths on a Swedish island, situated 16 km from the mainland, and compared ecological characteristics of the non-resident moths found on the island with those of a species pool of assumed potential vagrants from the neighbouring mainland. Species associated with high mobility were characterised by a large range, a high population density, an activity period during warm temperatures and by being habitat generalists or preferring open habitats. The generally assumed view of poly- and oligophagous species being more mobile than monophagous species was obscured by the effect of population density. Poly- and oligophagous species had higher population densities than did monophagous species, which probably explain their higher mobility found in this study. Our result highlights the need to consider the influence of ecological characteristics on mobility. This in turn will have implications for an increased understanding of distribution patterns, population persistence and how to prioritise conservation actions, especially since habitats and climate are under dramatic changes. In taxa where data on mobility are poor, ecological characteristics can be used as a proxy for mobility.

  • 6.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Franzén, Markus
    Department of Community Ecology, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany.
    Mobility is related to species traits in noctuid moths2011In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 36, p. 369-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. 1. Mobility is important for the understanding of how species survive infragmented landscapes and cope with increasing rates of habitat and climate change.However, mobility is a difficult trait to explore and is poorly known in most taxa.Species traits have been studied in relation to range shifts, extinction risks, andresponses to habitat area and isolation, and have also been suggested as good estimatorsof mobility. Here we explore the relation between mobility and species traits in noctuidmoths.2. We sampled noctuid moths by an automatic light-trap on an island far out in theBaltic Sea. We compared traits of the non-resident species on the island with traits ofa species pool of assumed potential migrants from the Swedish mainland.3. Mobility was significantly related to adult activity period, length of flightperiod, and the interaction between host-plant specificity and distribution area. Widelydistributed host-plant generalists were more mobile than host-plant specialists withmore restricted distribution, and species with an adult activity period in August toSeptember moved to the island to a higher extent than species with an adult activityperiod in May to July. Our results remained qualitatively robust in additional analyses,after controlling for phylogeny and including all species recorded on the island, exceptfor the trait ‘length of flight period’.4. Our results highlight the importance of the relation between mobility and speciestraits. Noctuid moths with certain traits move over longer distances than earlier known.This finding is important to include when predicting range dynamics in fragmentedand changing landscapes, and when conservation measures of species are devised.

  • 7.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colour pattern variation can inform about extinction risk in moths2017In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that species with inter-individual variation in colour patterns should beless vulnerable to extinction, compared with species that do not vary in colour. Toevaluate this prediction, we explored whether differences in colour pattern diversitywas associated with extinction risk, using red-list status for more than 350 species ofnoctuid moths in Sweden. We also evaluated six other species characteristics thathave been proposed to influence extinction risk namely: host plant niche breadth,habitat type, area of occupancy, body size, overwintering life-history stage and lengthof flight activity period. We found that species with variable colour patterns hadreduced extinction risk overall compared with species having non-variable colourpatterns, and that this difference was pronounced more strongly among species havingsmaller areas of occupancy. There were also significant associations with hostplant niche breadth and habitat type, extinction risk being lower on average in polyphagousspecies and in generalist species that occupied different habitat types. Thesefindings represent the first evidence for insects that variable colouration is associatedwith reduced extinction risks. Information on colour pattern variation is readily availablefor many taxa and may be used as a cost-effective proxy for endangerment inthe work of halting national and global biodiversity loss.

  • 8.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Lund University.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    With that diet, you will go far: trait-based analysis reveals a link between rapid range expansion and a nitrogen-favoured diet.2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1750, article id 20122305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global change has had a substantial influence on the distribution of organisms, and many species are currently expanding their ranges. To evaluate the underlying processes, long-term data with good geographic resolution are essential. One important but generally overlooked data source is offered by the taxon-specific national catalogues of first provincial records that are kept in many countries. Here, we use such data to quantify trait-based influences on range expansion in Swedish butterflies and moths between 1973 and 2010. Of 282 species meeting pre-defined quality criteria, 170 expanded their northern range margin, with a mean expansion rate of 2.7 km per year. The analyses demonstrate that habitat and diet generalists, forest species and species active during warm conditions have expanded their ranges more rapidly than other species. Notably, range expansion in diet specialists was positively related to a nitrogen-favoured larval diet, an effect not found among oligo- or polyphagous species. In contrast to the general view, this shows that specialist species can undergo rapid range expansion. We suggest that increased areas of nitrogen-rich habitat, and increased availability of a nitrogen-favoured diet, are among the most important drivers of range expansions, potentially having far-reaching consequences for a wide variety of organisms.

  • 9.
    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Goias, Brazil;Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Oxford, UK.
    Garibaldi, Lucas A.
    Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Argentina;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn CONICET, Argentina.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Michez, Denis
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Poyry, Juha
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Reemer, Menno
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;European Invertebrate Survey Netherlands, Netherlands.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    UFZ Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    van den Berg, Leon
    Bosgrp Zuid Nederland, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Kunin, William E.
    Univ Leeds, UK.
    Soil eutrophication shaped the composition of pollinator assemblages during the past century2019In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and other sources of environmental eutrophication have increased substantially over the past century worldwide, notwithstanding the recent declining trends in Europe. Despite the recognized susceptibility of plants to eutrophication, few studies evaluated how impacts propagate to consumers, such as pollinators. Here we aim to test if soil eutrophication contributes to the temporal dynamics of pollinators and their larval resources. We used a temporally and spatially explicit historical dataset with information on species occurrences to test if soil eutrophication, and more specifically nitrogen deposition, contributes to the patterns of change of plant and pollinator richness in the Netherlands over an 80 yr period. We focus on bees and butterflies, two groups for which we have good knowledge of larval resources that allowed us to define groups of species with different nitrogen related diet preferences. For each group we estimated richness changes between different 20-yr periods at local, regional and national scale, using analytical methods developed for analyzing richness changes based on collection data. Our findings suggest that the impacts of soil eutrophication on plant communities propagate to higher trophic levels, but with a time-lag. Pollinators with nitrogen-related diet preferences were particularly affected, in turn potentially impairing the performance of pollinator-dependent plants. Pollinator declines continued even after their focal plants started to recover. In addition, our results suggest that current levels of nitrogen deposition still have a negative impact on most groups here analyzed, constraining richness recoveries and accentuating declines. Our results indicate that the global increase in nitrogen availability plays an important role in the ongoing pollinator decline. Consequently, species tolerances to soil nitrogen levels should be considered across all trophic levels in management plans that aim to halt biodiversity loss and enhance ecosystems services worldwide.

  • 10.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 11.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Variable coloration is associated with dampened population fluctuations in noctuid moths2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1808, p. 1-9, article id 20142922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and recent reviews state that greater genetic and phenotypic variation should be beneficial for population abundance and stability. Experimental evaluations of this prediction are rare, of short duration and conducted under controlled environmental settings. The question whether greater diversity in functionally important traits stabilizes populations under more complex ecological conditions in the wild has not been systematically evaluated. Moths are mainly nocturnal, with a large variation in colour patterns among species, and constitute an important food source for many types of organisms. Here, we report the results of a long-term (2003-2013) monitoring study of 115 100 noctuid moths from 246 species. Analysis of time-series data provide rare evidence that species with higher levels of inter-individual variation in colour pattern have higher average abundances and undergo smaller between-year fluctuations compared with species having less variable colour patterns. The signature of interspecific temporal synchronization of abundance fluctuations was weak, suggesting that the dynamics were driven by species-specific biotic interactions rather than by some common, density-independent factor(s). We condude that individual variation in colour patterns dampens population abundance fluctuations, and suggest that this may partly reflect that colour pattern polymorphism provides protection from visually oriented predators and parasitoids.

  • 12.
    Franzén, Markus
    Institutionen för entomologi, Sveriges lanbruksuniversitet.
    Occurrence patterns of butterflies (Rhopalocera) and burnet moths (Zygaenidae) in semi-natural pastures in southeastern Sweden and their potential as indicators of species richness2002Student thesis
  • 13. Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Species traits predict island occupancy in noctuid moths2012In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing how species’ traits relate to processes that underlie occupancy patterns such as colonisation and population persistence, is important for our understanding of how species survive in fragmented and changing landscapes. We used automatic UV light-traps to sample noctuidmoths on two remote islands, and compared traits of island occupants with those of a species pool from mainland southeast Sweden. Widely distributed species, generalist species, species with a long adult activity period and species active late in the summer had higher probability of occupancy on the remote islands. The results were consistent between islands. The traits of host plant specificity and species with an adult activity period during late summer remained robust and were statistically significant after controlling for any possible phylogenetic bias. This indicates that species exhibiting those traits survive better when habitat and climate changes. It is crucial to includeour results in; (1) conservation planning, e.g. when devising conservation measures in fragmented landscapes; (2) for predictions of future occupancy patterns; and (3) ecosystem impact assessments, e.g. the importance of moths as pollinators, herbivores and being the functional link between parasitoids, plants, consumers and predators.

  • 14.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dieker, Petra
    Thunen Inst Biodivers, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Rapid plant colonization of the forelands of a vanishing glacier is strongly associated with species traits2019In: Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine research, ISSN 1523-0430, E-ISSN 1938-4246, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 366-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed glacier forelands provide valuable insights into vegetation dynamics. We studied the vascular plants in the glacier forelands of the Almajallojekna glacier in comparison to the plants in the surrounding area. The glacier is retreating rapidly at an average rate of 0.17 km(2) per year from 1898 to 2012. In the newly emerged glacier forelands, we found that 32 percent of the 381 plant taxa occurred in the surrounding region. Sixty-eight plant species were present on the youngest terrain (0-31 y), an additional thirteen species occurred on terrain aged 32-53 years, and an additional forty-two species were detected on terrain aged 54-114 years. Of the surrounding species pool, plant species that had successfully established in recently deglaciated terrains were characterized by high regional abundance and low seed weight, and they were more likely to be members of the plant families Saxifragaceae, Salicaceae, and Asteraceae. Woody plant species with a preference for well-drained soils were more likely to be present in the youngest terrain. Our results show that the vegetation of glacier forelands is developing rapidly depending on the plant species in the surrounding area and the species' life-history traits.

  • 15.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 1, article id e02577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that species with more variable color patterns should have higher establishment success and be less sensitive to environmental changes and local extinction compared with species that do not vary in color. This difference in colonization/extinction balance should manifest as larger continental range distributions and modulate the species-area relationship on true islands. We evaluated these predictions using data for 1216 species of butterflies and moths that differed with regard to inter-individual variation in color pattern. We show that species with more variable color patterns have larger continental range sizes in Europe compared with non-variable species. We also provide rare evidence that the slope of the species-area relationship on islands is steeper for species having non-variable color patterns, suggesting that to preserve 60% of non-variable species would require an area twice as large compared to what would be needed to preserve 60% of variable species. Our findings suggest that combining information on ecological characteristics with presence/absence data from small and medium sized islands can help identify traits that drive species range patterns at the continental scale, and that individual variation in color pattern can be used as a proxy for ecological generalization and the ability to cope with environmental change.

  • 16.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Sjöberg, Göran
    Avellaneda Museum, Gävle.
    Butterfly diversity and seasonality of Ta Phin mountain area (N. Vietnam, Lao Cai province)2017In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 465-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity. Butterflies are important indicators for environmental change and are a suitable group to detect areas of high conservation concern and prioritize conservation efforts. To obtain data to support urgently-needed conservation measures, we surveyed the butterfly fauna in a mountainous region of northern Vietnam, using transect counts over 8 months (121 survey days) from June 2014 to April 2015. In total, we recorded > 26,000 butterflies belonging to 231 species, including at least two species new to Vietnam, three red-listed and protected species listed by CITES. Most species were rare: we recorded members of 100 species ae<currency>5 times and 52 species just once. Males dominated the sample, accounting for 81% of all observed butterflies and all members of 84 observed species. Species richness and abundance were highest in July, and there were surprisingly large changes in species composition between months. Species richness curves reached saturation, indicating that we detected most species present in the area, except for members of two families (Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae). Our results highlight the importance of thorough studies using standardized methods, capable of detecting most species in an area, over a whole season. There are urgent needs to integrate butterflies into conservation programs and use their potential as indicator species of habitat degradation and land use intensity.

  • 17.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany ; Lund University.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e37359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope  = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope  = 0.59), low abundance (slope  = 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope  = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  • 18.
    Gerard, Maxence
    et al.
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Vanderplanck, Maryse
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Kuhlmann, Michael
    Univ Kiel, Germany;Nat Hist Museum, UK.
    Potts, Simon G.
    Univ Reading, UK.
    Rasmont, Pierre
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Michez, Denis
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Patterns of size variation in bees at a continental scale: does Bergmann's rule apply?2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 8, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body size latitudinal clines have been widley explained by the Bergmann's rule in homeothermic vertebrates. However, there is no general consensus in poikilotherms organisms in particular in insects that represent the large majority of wildlife. Among them, bees are a highly diverse pollinators group with high economic and ecological value. Nevertheless, no comprehensive studies of species assemblages at a phylogenetically larger scale have been carried out even if they could identify the traits and the ecological conditions that generate different patterns of latitudinal size variation. We aimed to test Bergmann's rule for wild bees by assessing relationships between body size and latitude at continental and community levels. We tested our hypotheses for bees showing different life history traits (i.e. sociality and nesting behaviour). We used 142 008 distribution records of 615 bee species at 50 x 50 km (CGRS) grids across the West Palearctic. We then applied generalized least squares fitted linear model (GLS) to assess the relationship between latitude and mean body size of bees, taking into account spatial autocorrelation. For all bee species grouped, mean body size increased with higher latitudes, and so followed Bergmann's rule. However, considering bee genera separately, four genera were consistent with Bergmann's rule, while three showed a converse trend, and three showed no significant cline. All life history traits used here (i.e. solitary, social and parasitic behaviour; ground and stem nesting behaviour) displayed a Bergmann's cline. In general there is a main trend for larger bees in colder habitats, which is likely to be related to their thermoregulatory abilities and partial endothermy, even if a 'season length effect' (i.e. shorter foraging season) is a potential driver of the converse Bergmann's cline particularly in bumblebees.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Knape, Jonas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UfZ, Germany.
    Population dynamics and future persistence of the clouded Apollo butterfly in southern Scandinavia: The importance of low intensity grazing and creation of habitat patches2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 206, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the population dynamics and future persistence of the last remaining Clouded Apollo butterfly metapopulation in southern Scandinavia. Based on three decades of surveys (1984-2015), we modelled colonization-extinction dynamics and local population sizes using habitat patch characteristics and connectivity, while accounting for imperfect detection and uncertainty in the local population sizes. The colonization probability increased with increasing connectivity and the local extinction probability decreased with increasing local population size in accordance with metapopulation theory. The local population size increased with increasing patch area, and was also affected by grazing intensity. Light grazing resulted in larger local populations compared to heavy grazing or no grazing at all. The butterfly population has decreased considerably during the study period and according to projections of future dynamics the estimated extinction risk within the coming 10 years is 17%. However, it is possible to change the negative trends and decrease the extinction risk considerably by conservation actions. By optimizing the grazing pressure in existing patches the extinction risk was reduced to 11% (a reduction with 35% compared to the scenario with no conservation action). If a few new patches are created close to the occupied ones the extinction risk can be reduced further. In conclusion, there is a large risk that the Clouded Apollo butterfly will go extinct from southern Scandinavia within the coming decade. However, conservation measures that are focused to the core area of the current distribution and applied soon can considerably improve the situation for the butterfly. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Franzén, Markus
    UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Surveying moths using light traps: effects of weather and time of year2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e92453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light trapping is an ideal method for surveying nocturnal moths, but in the absence of standardised survey methods effects of confounding factors may impede interpretation of the acquired data. We explored the influence of weather, time of year, and light source on nightly catches of macro moths in light traps, and compared four strategies for sampling by estimating observed species richness using rarefaction. We operated two traps with different light sources for 225 consecutive nights from mid-March to the end of October in eastern Germany in 2011. In total, 49 472 individuals of 372 species were recorded. Species richness and abundance per night were mainly influenced by night temperature, humidity and lamp type. With a limited sample size (<10 nights) it was slightly better to concentrate sampling on the warmest summer nights, but with more sampling nights it was slightly better to sample during the warmest nights in each month (March to October). By exploiting the higher moth activity during warm nights and an understanding of the species' phenology, it is possible to increase the number of species caught and reduce effects of confounding abiotic factors.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Molander, Mikael
    Swedish agricultural university (SLU).
    Norén, Lars
    Biologisk mångfald i Linnés hembygd i Småland 8. Gaddsteklar (Hymenoptera)2016In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 175-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Pöyry, Juha
    et al.
    Finnish Environment Institute (Syke), Finland.
    Carvalheiro, Luísa G.
    University of Brasília, Brazil ; Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Finnish Environment Institute (Syke), Finland.
    Kühn, Ingolf
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany ; Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany ; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Finnish Environment Institute (Syke), Finland.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Valtonen, Anu
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    van Bodegom, Peter M.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    The effects of soil eutrophication propagate to higher trophic levels2017In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Nitrogen deposition is a major global driver of change in plant communities, but its impacts on higher trophic levels are insufficiently understood. Here, we introduce and test a novel conceptual trait-based model describing how the effects of soil eutrophication cascade to higher trophic levels across differential plant–herbivore interactions.

    Location

    Northern Europe.

    Methods

    We synthesize previous literature on the effects of nitrogen on plants and herbivorous insects as well as relevant multispecies patterns of insect communities concerning species dietary breadth, body size, dispersal propensity and voltinism in order to derive the model. We empirically evaluate the proposed, hitherto untested, four main model pathways using statistical modelling and data on 1064 northern European butterfly and moth species, their life-history traits, phylogeny and population trends.

    Results

    We show that across all species: (1) larval dietary breadth and host plant foliar nitrogen content are positively and equally strongly related to insect body size, and that (2) multivoltinism, host plant preferences for soil nitrogen, body size and larval dietary breadth are positively related to population trends of butterflies and moths as predicted by the model. Positive relationships between plant foliar nitrogen content and body size as well as multivoltinism and population trends are the first multispecies demonstrations for these patterns.

    Main conclusions

    Soil nitrogen enrichment amplifies the diverging trends of herbivorous insects feeding on nitrophilous versus nitrophobous plants through differential plant–herbivore interactions, causing predictable changes in community composition at higher trophic levels. A positive foliar nitrogen–insect body size relationship, now empirically supported, is the integrating link within this cascade. As nitrogen deposition is a global driver, our model suggests that a major future trend may be an increased dominance of insects that are large, dispersive, multivoltine, dietary generalists or specialized on nitrophilous plant species at the expense of species preferring oligotrophic environments.

  • 23.
    Rasmont, Pierre
    et al.
    Université de Mons, Belgium.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Lecocq, Thomas
    Université de Mons, Belgium.
    Harpke, Alexander
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Roberts, Stuart
    University of Reading, UK.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands.
    Castro, Leopoldo
    I.E.S. Vega del Turia, Spain.
    Cederberg, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Dvorak, Libor
    Municipal Museum Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic.
    Fitzpatrick, Úna
    Municipal Museum Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic.
    Gonseth, Yves
    Haubruge, Eric
    Mahé, Gilles
    Manino, Aulo
    Michez, Denis
    Neumayer, Johann
    Ødegaard, Frode
    Paukkunen, Juho
    Pawlikowski, Tadeusz
    Potts, Simon
    Reemer, Menno
    Settele, Josef
    Straka, Jakub
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bumble bees represent one of the most important groups of pollinators. In addition to their ecological and economic relevance, they are also a highly charismatic group which can help to increase the interest of people in realizing, enjoying and conserving natural systems. However, like most animals, bumble bees are sensitive to climate. In this atlas, maps depicting potential risks of climate change for bumble bees are shown together with informative summary statistics, ecological background information and a picture of each European species.

    Thanks to the EU FP7 project STEP, the authors gathered over one million bumblebee records from all over Europe. Based on these data, they modelled the current climatic niche for almost all European species (56 species) and projected future climatically suitable conditions using three climate change scenarios for the years 2050 and 2100. While under a moderate change scenario only 3 species are projected to be at the verge of extinction by 2100, 14 species are at high risk under an intermediate change scenario. Under a most severe change scenario as many as 25 species are projected to lose almost all of their climatically suitable area, while a total of 53 species (77% of the 69 European species) would lose the main part of their suitable area.

    Climatic risks for bumblebees can be extremely high, depending on the future development of human society, and the corresponding effects on the climate. Strong mitigation strategies are needed to preserve this important species group and to ensure the sustainable provision of pollination services, to which they considerably contribute.

  • 24.
    Sattler, Cornelia
    et al.
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Farkas, Viktor Matyas
    Christian A Ibrechts Univ, Germany.
    Settele, Josef
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res Halle Jena, Germany.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Pesticide diversity in rice growing areas of Northern Vietnam2018In: Paddy and Water Environment, ISSN 1611-2490, E-ISSN 1611-2504, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticide use in developing countries increases rapidly. In many regions, we miss knowledge of how frequently pesticides are applied and which active ingredients are used. We present a new cost-efficient and rapid assessment method of recording pesticides diversity in rice-dominated landscapes and present some evidence of the misuse of active ingredients in our study regions. We investigated 17 rice fields in two regions of Northern Vietnam in 2014 and 2015. At each region, we explore the abundance of pesticides used with three methods including (1) the novel approach of collecting pesticide packages close to our target rice fields, (2) observations of farmers spraying pesticides in the surrounding and (3) interviewing local farmers. By collecting pesticide packages, we found 811 packages containing 74 different active ingredients. On average, 19 active ingredients (ranging from four to 40 active ingredients) were applied with an average content of 275.3 g of active ingredients per site. Insecticide packages (39%) were most abundant followed by those of fungicides (31%), herbicides (16%) and other active ingredients (14%). On all sites, active ingredients banned in the European Union were applied by the farmers. Collecting pesticide packages proved to be an efficient and rapidly implemented method to obtain some baseline information about pesticide application (for Northern Vietnam). We suspect that improved agricultural extension services could contribute to good agricultural practices in pest management. Generally, better information and education for local farmers for appropriate use of pesticides seem a necessity.

  • 25.
    Schrader, Julian
    et al.
    University of Goettingen, Germany.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Sattler, Cornelia
    UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ferderer, Paul
    University of Osnabrueck, Germany.
    Wetsphal, Catrin
    University of Goettingen, Germany.
    Woody habitats promote pollinators and complexity of plant–pollinator interactions in homegardens located in rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras2018In: Paddy and Water Environment, ISSN 1611-2490, E-ISSN 1611-2504, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bees are important pollinators of wild plants and crops, but little is known about bee habitat requirements and pollinator management in tropical mountainous agricultural regions. Here, smallholder farmers produce fruits and vegetables in homegardens that depend upon or benefit from bee pollination. We hypothesized that abundance and richness of wild and domesticated bees and the complexity of plant–pollinator interactions are higher in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats than in homegardens found farther from woodlands. Bees were sampled in 20 homegardens in the rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse effects of woody habitats around homegardens on bee richness and abundance. Based on pooled observations for each garden category, we built pollinator–plant interactions networks to illustrate shifts in interaction frequencies. We recorded 354 bee individuals of 13 wild and one domesticated bee species (Apis cerana). Wild bee richness was significantly higher in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats. Bee abundance increased significantly with increasing flower cover. Wild bees visited cultivated plants significantly more often than domesticated bees. Six vegetable species and 76% of all flower visits on cultivated plants in total were performed by wild bees and three plant species and 24% by domesticated bees. Pollinator–plant networks were more complex in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats. We conclude that woody habitats increase abundance and richness of wild and domesticated bees. Increasing availability of floral resources also promotes bee abundance. In order to promote pollination services in the landscape mosaic of smallholder rice farms, woody habitats and forest fragments together with numerous floral resources should be protected and restored.

  • 26.
    Settele, Josef
    et al.
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;Univ Philippines, Philippines.;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany.
    Heong, Kong Luen
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Kuehn, Ingolf
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany;Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Klotz, Stefan
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany.
    Spangenberg, Joachim H.
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;Sustainable Europe Res Inst SERI Germany EV, Germany.
    Arida, Gertrudo
    Philippine Rice Res Inst, Philippines.
    Beaurepaire, Alexis
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Beck, Silke
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Bergmeier, Erwin
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Burkhard, Benjamin
    Univ Kiel, Germany;Leibniz Univ Hannover, Germany;Leibniz Ctr Agr Landscape Res ZALF, Germany.
    Brandl, Roland
    Philipps Univ Marburg, Germany.
    Bustamante, Jesus Victor
    LEGATO Off, Philippines.
    Butler, Adam
    Biomath & Stat Scotland, UK.
    Cabbigat, Jimmy
    LEGATO Off, Philippines.
    Le, Xuan Canh
    Catindig, Josie Lynn A.
    IRRI, Philippines.
    Ho, Van Chien
    Le, Quoc Cuong
    Dang, Kinh Bac
    Escalada, Monina
    Visayas State Univ, Philippines.
    Dominik, Christophe
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Fried, Oliver
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Goerg, Christoph
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci Vienna, Austria.
    Grescho, Volker
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany;OLANIS GmbH, Germany.
    Grossmann, Sabine
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Gurr, Geoff M.
    Fujian Agr & Forestry Univ, Peoples Republic of China;Charles Sturt Univ, Australia.
    Hadi, Buyung A. R.
    IRRI, Philippines.
    Le, Huu Hai
    Harpke, Alexander
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Hass, Annika L.
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Hirneisen, Norbert
    Sci & Commun, Germany.
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia;Trop Ecosyst Res Network, Sri Lanka.
    Hotes, Stefan
    Univ Philippines, Philippines;Philipps Univ Marburg, Germany.
    Isoda, Yuzuru
    Tohoku Univ, Japan.
    Jahn, Reinhold
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Kettle, Helen
    Biomath & Stat Scotland, UK.
    Klotzbuecher, Anika
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Klotzbuecher, Thimo
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Langerwisch, Fanny
    Potsdam Inst Climate Impact Res PIK, Germany.
    Loke, Wai-Hong
    CABI Southeast & East Asia, Malaysia.
    Lin, Yu-Pin
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taiwan.
    Lu, Zhongxian
    Zhejiang Acad Agr Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Lum, Keng-Yeang
    CABI Southeast & East Asia, Malaysia.
    Magcale-Macandog, Damasa B.
    Marion, Glenn
    Biomath & Stat Scotland, UK.
    Marquez, Leonardo
    Philippine Rice Res Inst, Philippines.
    Mueller, Felix
    Univ Kiel, Germany.
    Nguyen, Hung Manh
    Nguyen, Quynh Anh
    Nguyen, Van Sinh
    Ott, Juergen
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;LUPO GmbH, Germany.
    Penev, Lyubomir
    Pensoft Publishers Ltd, Bulgaria;Bulgarian Acad Sci, Bulgaria.
    Pham, Hong Thai
    Radermacher, Nico
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Rodriguez-Labajos, Beatriz
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Sann, Christina
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Sattler, Cornelia
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Schaedler, Martin
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany.
    Scheu, Stefan
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Anja
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Schweiger, Oliver
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Seppelt, Ralf
    German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany;UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Soitong, Kukiat
    Rice Dept, Thailand.
    Stoev, Pavel
    Pensoft Publishers Ltd, Bulgaria;Bulgarian Acad Sci, Bulgaria.
    Stoll-Kleemann, Susanne
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Germany.
    Tekken, Vera
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Germany;Leibniz Inst Agr Engn & Bioecon, Germany.
    Thonicke, Kirsten
    Potsdam Inst Climate Impact Res PIK, Germany.
    Tilliger, Bianca
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Tobias, Kai
    Tech Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Trisyono, Y. Andi
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Dao, Thanh Truong
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Le, Quang Tuan
    Tuerke, Manfred
    German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Germany;Tech Univ Munich, Germany;Univ Leipzig, Germany.
    Vaclavik, Tomas
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Vetterlein, Doris
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany;Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Germany.
    Villareal, Sylvia 'Bong'
    Vu, Kim Chi
    Vu, Quynh
    Weisser, Wolfgang W.
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Westphal, Catrin
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Zhu, Zengrong
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Wiemers, Martin
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Rice ecosystem services in South-east Asia2018In: Paddy and Water Environment, ISSN 1611-2490, E-ISSN 1611-2504, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 211-224Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    van Langevelde, Frank
    et al.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Braamburg-Annegarn, Marijke
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands;De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands.
    Huigens, Martinus E.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, , Netherlands.
    Groendijk, Rob
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, , Netherlands.
    Poitevin, Olivier
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands.
    van Deijk, Jurrien R.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands.
    Ellis, Willem N.
    Zool Museum, Netherlands.
    van Grunsven, Roy H. A.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands;Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Germany;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    de Vos, Rob
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands.
    Vos, Rutger A.
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservat, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Declines in moth populations stress the need for conserving dark nights2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 925-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the global continuous rise, artificial light at night is often considered a driving force behind moth population declines. Although negative effects on individuals have been shown, there is no evidence for effects on population sizes to date. Therefore, we compared population trends of Dutch macromoth fauna over the period 1985-2015 between moth species that differ in phototaxis and adult circadian rhythm. We found that moth species that show positive phototaxis or are nocturnally active have stronger negative population trends than species that are not attracted to light or are diurnal species. Our results indicate that artificial light at night is an important factor in explaining declines in moth populations in regions with high artificial night sky brightness. Our study supports efforts to reduce the impacts of artificial light at night by promoting lamps that do not attract insects and reduce overall levels of illumination in rural areas to reverse declines of moth populations.

1 - 27 of 27
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