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  • 1.
    Batinovic, Lucija
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Howe, Marlon
    Independent researcher.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ageism in Hiring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Age Discrimination2023In: Collabra: Psychology, E-ISSN 2474-7394, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to identify effect sizes of age discrimination in recruitment based on evidencefrom correspondence studies and scenario experiments conducted between 2010 and2019. To differentiate our results, we separated outcomes (i.e., call-back rates and hiring/invitation to interview likelihood) by age groups (40-49, 50-59, 60-65, 66+) and assessedage discrimination by comparing older applicants to a control group (29-35 year-olds).We conducted searches in PsycInfo, Web of Science, ERIC, BASE, and Google Scholar,along with backward reference searching. Study bias was assessed with a tool developedfor this review, and publication bias by calculating R-index, p-curve, and funnel plots. Wecalculated odds ratios for callback rates, pooled the results using a random-effectsmeta-analysis and calculated 95% confidence intervals. We included 13 studies from 11articles in our review, and conducted meta-analyses on the eight studies that we wereable to extract data from. The majority of studies were correspondence studies (k=10) andcame largely from European countries (k=9), with the rest being from the U.S. (k=3) andAustralia (k=1). Seven studies had a between-participants design, and the remaining sixstudies had a within-participants design. We conducted six random-effectsmeta-analyses, one for each age category and type of study design and found an averageeffect of age discrimination against all age groups in both study designs, with varyingeffect sizes (ranging from OR = 0.38, CI [0.25, 0.59] to OR = 0.89, CI [0.81, 0.97]). Therewas moderate to high risk of bias on certain factors, e.g., age randomization, problemswith application heterogeneity. Generally, there’s an effect of age discrimination and ittends to increase with age. This has important implications regarding the future of theworld’s workforce, given the increase in the older workforce and later retirement.

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  • 2.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination2018In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 285-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the relative importance of two explanations behind perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring: prototypes and same- gender bias. According to the prototype explanation, people perceive an event as discrimination to the extent that it fits their preconceptions of typical discrimination. In contrast, the same-gender bias explanation asserts that people more readily detect discrimination toward members of their own gender. In four experiments (n = 797), women and men made considerably stronger discrimination attributions, and were moderately more discouraged from seeking work, when the victim was female rather than male. Further, a series of regressions analyses showed beliefs in discrimination of women to be moderately correlated with discrimination attributions of female victims, but little added explanatory value of participant gender, stigma consciousness, or feminist identification. The results offer strong support for the prototype explanation. 

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selected or rejected: Men and women's reactions to affirmative action procedures in hiring2021In: Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, ISSN 1529-7489, E-ISSN 1530-2415, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 874-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that affirmative action policies tend to be perceived more negatively by men than by women, and by nonbeneficiaries relative to beneficiaries. However, studies focusing on men as beneficiaries are scarce. The present paper reports the results of two preregistered studies conducted in Sweden. Study 1 investigated gender differences in reactions to being selected for a position based on either a strong or weak type of affirmative action policy. The results revealed that men (relative to women) displayed more negative attitudes, but not stronger resentment, and that a procedure using explicit quotas was perceived more negatively than a softer type of preferential treatment. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated whether participants imagined being selected or rejected due to the same preferential treatment policy. Again, men displayed more negative attitudes than women, but not stronger resentment. The results further showed that attitudes were negative regardless of whether one was selected or rejected. However, those who were rejected felt stronger resentment than those who were selected. This effect was significant for both men and women, but stronger among women. Implications for research, organizations, and policy-makers are discussed.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Prototypes and Same-Gender Bias in Attributions to Gender Discrimination in Hiring2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Nilsson, Artur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Death, ideology, and worldview: Evidence of death anxiety but not mortality salience effects on political ideology and worldviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has suggested that the sense of threat aroused by reminders of death can lead to worldview defense and elevated conservatism. The current studies disentangled the effects of mortality salience and death anxiety on two core components of conservatism—resistance to change and acceptance of inequality—and on the broader worldviews of normativism and humanism among Swedish adults. Study 1 (N = 186), which used a mortality salience manipulation, and Study 2 (N = 354), which measured self-reported death anxiety, suggested that existential threat was most consistently associated with resistance to change and normativism, consistent with theoretical expectations.This was true predominantly among left-wingers. However, existential threat was not significantly more strongly associated with resistance to change and normativism than with acceptance of inequality and (low) humanism respectively, contrary to the hypotheses. Furthermore, Study 3, which was a pre-registered online replication of Study 1 with respondents from the United Kingdom, yielded no evidence for any effects of mortality salience on ideology (N = 319) or worldview (N = 199). An internal pre-registered meta-analysis of mortality salience effects indicated that mortality salience had a marginally significant effect only on normativism. Taken together, the results provided little clear evidence of mortality salience effects on ideological preferences and worldviews, but dispositional death anxiety was associated with resistance to change, normativism, and acceptance of inequality particularly among leftists.

  • 6.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Applicants’ Faith in Recruiters’ Intuition Predicts Process Favorability for the Unstructured Employment Interview2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unstructured employment interview is one of the most popular selection tools among employers and applicants alike. Although past research have shed light on some explanations for practitioners’ preferences for unstructured methods, less is known about the reasons for their popularity among applicants. One reason might be that applicants overestimate recruiters’ intuitive abilities to make judgments about applicant characteristics based on resumes and interviews. The results of this study (N = 345) suggest that recruiters are perceived as much better than laypeople at making judgments about applicants based on resume screening and interviews, and that faith in recruiters’ intuition predicts process favorability for unstructured employment interviews. Moreover, this association remained significant when accounting for attitudes to structured interviews, perceived recruiter expertise, and attitudes to holistic versus mechanic methods in general. The results thus suggest that overestimation of recruiters’ intuitive expertise may help explain why many people prefer unstructured selection methods. 

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  • 7.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bystander reactions to workplace incivility: The role of gender and discrimination claims2021In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 134-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Will men and women receive the same support at work when they claim to have been discriminated against? This paper reports a scenario-based experimental study (N = 240, 50.4% women, M age = 25.65) that investigated bystanders’ reactions to an incident where a co-worker is treated in a condescending manner by another co-worker. The results showed that women reacted more strongly to the incivility incident and were more willing to support and defend the co-worker. As expected, the gender difference in helping intentions was especially prominent when the co-worker attributed the incident to gender discrimination, compared to a control condition with an attribution unrelated to gender. Further, when the incident was attributed to discrimination, the female co-worker evoked somewhat stronger helping intentions than the male co-worker, suggesting the presence of gender bias. The results are discussed in relation to the prototype perspective of perceived discrimination.

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  • 8.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does it Matter whether Others are Working Hard or Hardly Working? Effects of Descriptive Norms on Attitudes to Time Theft at Work2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does it Matter whether others are Working Hard or Hardly Working? Effects of Descriptive Norms on Attitudes to Time Theft at Work2024In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time theft – time that employees waste or spend not working during their scheduled work hours – poses serious costs to many employers. Although previous research has suggested the importance of social norms for understanding time theft behavior, experimental studies are lacking. This paper presents the results of two preregistered experiments that examined if information about whether most people engage in time theft or not (descriptive norms) has effects on intentions and attitudes to steal time at work. The results confirmed that people are less willing to conduct time theft if they are led to believe that others avoid such behaviors (Experiment 1, N = 170). However, the same norm information did not alter people’s moral judgments of coworkers who engage in time theft (Experiment 2, N = 183). The findings tentatively suggest that the less time theft employees see, the less time theft they will commit. 

  • 10.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Inaccurate perceptions and work seeking discouragement: Consequences of gender discrimination prototypes at work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Social psychological barriers to a gender balanced labor market : The role of gender identity threats, friendship priorities, and perceived discrimination2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender remains a key predictor of vocational choice. The present thesis aimed to investigate three social psychological barriers to nontraditional career choice.Study Ӏ showed that threats to gender identity may lead to more gender-typical occupational preferences among adolescents. The results suggested a unique effect of gender identity threat, as a control threat did not have the same effect. Moreover, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender-typed preferences. Study ӀӀ proposed an effect of gender-typical educational choice as a consequence of social needs. Because people tend to have predominantly same-gender friends, those who adjust their choice of education to be with their friends are likely to acquire a more gender-typical education and, consequently, occupation. The findings suggest that adolescents are more likely to adjust their educational choice in line with same-gender friends. Furthermore, perceived education compromise in line with friends was related to having selected a more gender typical field of study. Study ӀӀӀ revealed that people’s perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring are guided by discrimination prototypes of the typical discrimination victim, rather than same-gender bias. Both men and women tend to interpret an ambiguous outcome on the labor market as discrimination if the applicant is female. Furthermore, observing a woman being declined job interviews in male-typed occupations led to work-seeking discouragement, and this effect was mediated by attributions to discrimination. Discrimination attributions in prototypical cases were found to be exaggerated compared to the prevalence of actual gender discrimination in hiring.To conclude, the present thesis suggests that gender identity threat, friendship priorities, and perceived discrimination may prevent individuals from exploring their full range of career opportunities. First, gender identity threat may affect adolescents so that they do not even form aspirations for gender atypical occupations. Second, even if there is some interest in nontraditional occupations, the need to preserve close relationships will push people away from domains where they have no friends (usually domains where their gender is in minority). Finally, when young men and women are about to enter the labor market, exaggerated perceptions of the prevalence of discrimination can become an obstacle to their motivation to pursue certain careers.

  • 12.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do Social Norms Influence Young People’s Willingness to Take the COVID-19 Vaccine?2023In: Health Communication, ISSN 1041-0236, E-ISSN 1532-7027, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 152-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although young adults are not at great risk of becoming severely ill with COVID-19, their willingness to get vaccinated affects the whole community. Vaccine hesitancy has increased during recent years, and more research is needed on its situational determinants. This paper reports a preregistered experiment (N = 654) that examined whether communicating descriptive social norms – information about what most people do – is an effective way of influencing young people’s intentions and reducing their hesitancy to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found weak support for our main hypothesis that conveying strong (compared to weak) norms leads to reduced hesitancy and stronger intentions. Furthermore, norms did not produce significantly different effects compared to standard vaccine information from the authorities. Moreover, no support was found for the hypothesis that young people are more strongly influenced by norms when the norm reference group consists of other young individuals rather than people in general. These findings suggest that the practical usefulness of signaling descriptive norms is rather limited, and may not be more effective than standard appeals in the quest of encouraging young adults to trust and accept a new vaccine.

  • 13.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does expertise and thinking mode matter for accuracy in judgments of job applicants’ cognitive ability?2019In: Presented at IAREP-SABE 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does expertise and thinking mode matter for accuracy in judgments of job applicants’ cognitive ability?2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examined the role of thinking mode for accuracy in recruiters and laypeople’s judgments of applicants’ cognitive ability. In Study 1, students who relied on their intuition were somewhat less accurate. In Study 2, an experimental manipulation of thinking mode (intuitive vs analytical) revealed no apparent differences in accuracy. Moreover, there were no differences in accuracy or agreement between recruiters and laypeople. Examination of the use of specific resume content suggested that intuitive thinking corresponds to basing one’s judgments more on the way that applicants present themselves in their personal letter and less on diagnostic biographical information such as SAT scores. The findings point to the possibility that professional recruiters may not possess intuitive expertise in this context.

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  • 15.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    “If others are honest, I will be too”: Effects of social norms on willingness to fake during employment interviews2021In: Personnel Assessment and Decisions, E-ISSN 2377-8822, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applicant faking in employment interviews is a pressing concern for organizations. It has previously been suggested that subjective norms may be an important antecedent of faking, but experimental studies are lacking. We report a preregistered experiment (n = 307) where effects of conveying descriptive social norms (information about what most applicants do) on self-reported willingness to fake were examined. While we observed no difference between the faking norm condition and the control condition, in which no norm was signaled, participants in the honesty norm condition reported lower willingness to fake compared to those in both the faking norm condition and the control condition. The latter supports the idea that conveying honesty norms may be an effective means of reducing faking, although future research needs to evaluate its usefulness in real employment interviews. 

  • 16.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reactions to affirmative action policies in hiring: Effects of framing and beneficiary gender2021In: Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, ISSN 1529-7489, E-ISSN 1530-2415, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 660-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affirmative action policies aim to reduce gaps between social groups, yet they are often perceived negatively. The present research examined reactions to an organization’s preferential treatment policy based on gender, focusing on whether positive versus negative framing of the scenario and gender of the beneficiary matter for these reactions. The results of two preregistered experiments conducted in Sweden (N = 556) did not provide support for the hypothesis that framing the affirmative action scenario as adding minority women compared to framing it as rejecting majority men would produce more favorable perceptions and reduced feelings of resentment. Moreover, we found no support for the hypothesis that the effects of framing would be weaker in the case of male beneficiaries compared to female beneficiaries. However, we found clear support for the hypothesis that the policy was perceived more favorably when the beneficiary was female rather than male. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. 

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  • 17.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences2013In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents’ occupationalpreferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age ¼ 14.4,SD ¼ .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys’and girls’ occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to theirgender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal linkbetween threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat toone’s capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat.Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypicalpreferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N ¼ 242). Inconclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents’ gender identity may contributeto the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  • 18.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self‐presentations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (= 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = −0.41 [−0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (= 0.44 [−0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (= 0.49 [−0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (= 0.04 [−0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (= 0.23 [−0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.

  • 19.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    The role of friends in career compromise: Same-gender friendship intensifies gender differences in educational choice2014In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a mechanism of how the desire to maintain friendships can intensify gender differences in educational choice. The required conditions for this mechanism would be that (1) adolescent males and females differ in their overall educational preferences, (2) wanting to stay close to friends motivates some adolescents to adjust their educational choice in line with their friends' choices, and (3) adolescents have a higher share of same-gender, than other-gender, friends. Study 1 confirmed that these criteria were met, and Study 2 found an association between friendship priority and gender typed field of study. In conclusion, adjusting educational choices in order to maintain friendships put adolescents at risk of compromising their true career interests, and also becomes an obstacle to a gender balanced labor market.

  • 20.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granberg, Mark
    Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Towe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Love thy (Ukrainian) neighbour: Willingness to help refugees depends on their origin and is mediated by perceptions of similarity and threat2023In: British Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0144-6665, E-ISSN 2044-8309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prejudice and discrimination against minorities can be a powerful tool for populistic and reactionary political movements, and it is therefore crucial to study its determinants. The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of a possible mechanism of such discrimination: cultural distance. In a pre-registered survey experiment with a between-subjects design, we draw on the large increase in intra-European refugee migration from Ukraine, to test whether refugees from another ongoing conflict in (culturally distant) Yemen are treated differently than (culturally similar) Ukrainian refugees by British participants (N = 1545). We measured stated willingness to help and to hire refugees. Moreover, the participants were offered the chance to donate their own earnings from survey participation to real charity drives aimed at the respective refugee groups. Thus, we are able to examine both stated and actual helping behaviours that captured both autonomy- and dependency-oriented forms of helping. As expected, participants were more willing to help, hire and donate money to Ukrainian refugees, and these effects were mediated by higher perceived similarity and lower perceived threat from Ukrainians compared with Yemenis.

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  • 21.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Judging Job Applicants by Their Politics: Effects of Target–Rater Political Dissimilarity on Discrimination, Cooperation, and Stereotyping2023In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite well-known problems associated with political prejudice, research that examines effects of political dissimilarity in organizational contexts is scarce. We present findings from a pre-registered experiment (N = 973, currently employed) which suggest that both Democrats and Republicans negatively stereotype and discriminate against job applicants with a political orientation that is dissimilar to their own. The effects were small for competence perceptions, moderate for hiring judgments, and large for warmth ratings and willingness to cooperate and socialize with the applicant. The effects of political orientation on hiring judgments and willingness to cooperate and socialize were mediated by stereotype content, particularly warmth. Furthermore, for all outcomes except competence judgments, Democrats discriminated and stereotyped applicants to a larger extent than Republicans did. These findings shed light on the consequences of applicants revealing their political orientation and have implications for the promotion of diversity in organizations. 

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  • 22.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tolerating the Intolerant: Does Realistic Threat Lead to Increased Tolerance of Right-Wing Extremists?2022In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that threat can bolster anti-immigration attitudes, but less is known about the effects of threat on ideological tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that realistic threats — tangible threats to e.g., the safety or financial well-being of one’s group — bolster support for right-wing extremists. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 200) learned that crime and unemployment rates were either increasing (high threat condition) or remaining the same (low threat condition). Consistent with our hypothesis, higher threat lead to a significant increase in tolerance for right-wing, but not left-wing, extremists. In a second, pre-registered extended replication experiment (N = 385), we added a baseline (no threat) condition. Additionally, attitudes to immigrants were examined as a mediator. This experiment produced non-significant threat effects on tolerance of right-wing extremists. Overall, the current research provides weak support for the hypothesis that realistic threats have asymmetric effects on tolerance of political extremists. However, consistent with previous research, people were more tolerant of extremists within their own ideological camp.

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  • 23.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund university, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Cederskär, Elmedina
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Explaining gender-typed educational choice in adolescence: The role of social identity, self-concept, goals, grades, and interests.2019In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 110, no Part A, p. 54-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most industrialized countries, there are substantial gender differences in field of study, resulting in gender segregated labor markets. The present research (N = 457, M age = 14.98) investigated a diverse range of predictors of Swedish adolescents’ choice of preparatory (STEM; humanistic) and terminal (e.g., electrician; health care) programs. The results revealed that social identity related variables (same-gender friendship networks, belonging, and adherence to gender stereotypes) mattered primarily for choice of gender-typed terminal programs, whereas academic self-concept and grades positively predicted selecting STEM and negatively predicted choice of gender-typed terminal programs for both girls and boys. Subject-specific interests were the most powerful and robust predictors overall and mediated the effects of academic self-concept and to a lesser extent social identity variables. The results illuminate the interaction between perceived barriers, opportunities, and interests in determining educational choice, the need to consider gender-typical choice for high-skilled and low-skilled career paths separately, and the importance of jointly considering a multitude of predictors that are typically studied in different fields.

  • 24. Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Tellhed, Una
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The relation between implicit researcher-gender associations and perceptions of a research career2011In: European Association of Social Psychology, Stockholm, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Tellhed, Una
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    The Relation between Students’ Implicit Researcher-Gender Associations and Perceptions of a Research Career2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between the researcher occupation and gender, and the relation between such associations and career considerations, were examined. Study 1 revealed that students’ perception of the researcher stereotype corresponds more to their perception of the male than the female stereotype. In study 2, the more females implicitly associated the role of researcher with women, the higher they rated their perceived competence as researchers, and the stronger their interest in a future research career tended to be. The results are discussed in relation to in-group preferences and stereotype threat.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf