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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University.
    Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination2018In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 285-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the relative importance of two explanations behind perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring: prototypes and same- gender bias. According to the prototype explanation, people perceive an event as discrimination to the extent that it fits their preconceptions of typical discrimination. In contrast, the same-gender bias explanation asserts that people more readily detect discrimination toward members of their own gender. In four experiments (n = 797), women and men made considerably stronger discrimination attributions, and were moderately more discouraged from seeking work, when the victim was female rather than male. Further, a series of regressions analyses showed beliefs in discrimination of women to be moderately correlated with discrimination attributions of female victims, but little added explanatory value of participant gender, stigma consciousness, or feminist identification. The results offer strong support for the prototype explanation. 

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Prototypes and Same-Gender Bias in Attributions to Gender Discrimination in Hiring2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Inaccurate perceptions and work seeking discouragement: Consequences of gender discrimination prototypes at work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Social psychological barriers to a gender balanced labor market : The role of gender identity threats, friendship priorities, and perceived discrimination2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender remains a key predictor of vocational choice. The present thesis aimed to investigate three social psychological barriers to nontraditional career choice.Study Ӏ showed that threats to gender identity may lead to more gender-typical occupational preferences among adolescents. The results suggested a unique effect of gender identity threat, as a control threat did not have the same effect. Moreover, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender-typed preferences. Study ӀӀ proposed an effect of gender-typical educational choice as a consequence of social needs. Because people tend to have predominantly same-gender friends, those who adjust their choice of education to be with their friends are likely to acquire a more gender-typical education and, consequently, occupation. The findings suggest that adolescents are more likely to adjust their educational choice in line with same-gender friends. Furthermore, perceived education compromise in line with friends was related to having selected a more gender typical field of study. Study ӀӀӀ revealed that people’s perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring are guided by discrimination prototypes of the typical discrimination victim, rather than same-gender bias. Both men and women tend to interpret an ambiguous outcome on the labor market as discrimination if the applicant is female. Furthermore, observing a woman being declined job interviews in male-typed occupations led to work-seeking discouragement, and this effect was mediated by attributions to discrimination. Discrimination attributions in prototypical cases were found to be exaggerated compared to the prevalence of actual gender discrimination in hiring.To conclude, the present thesis suggests that gender identity threat, friendship priorities, and perceived discrimination may prevent individuals from exploring their full range of career opportunities. First, gender identity threat may affect adolescents so that they do not even form aspirations for gender atypical occupations. Second, even if there is some interest in nontraditional occupations, the need to preserve close relationships will push people away from domains where they have no friends (usually domains where their gender is in minority). Finally, when young men and women are about to enter the labor market, exaggerated perceptions of the prevalence of discrimination can become an obstacle to their motivation to pursue certain careers.

  • 5. Sinclair, Samantha
    The relation between implicit researcher-gender associations and perceptions of a research career2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does expertise and thinking mode matter for accuracy in judgments of job applicants’ cognitive ability?2019In: Presented at IAREP-SABE 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does expertise and thinking mode matter for accuracy in judgments of job applicants’ cognitive ability?2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examined the role of thinking mode for accuracy in recruiters and laypeople’s judgments of applicants’ cognitive ability. In Study 1, students who relied on their intuition were somewhat less accurate. In Study 2, an experimental manipulation of thinking mode (intuitive vs analytical) revealed no apparent differences in accuracy. Moreover, there were no differences in accuracy or agreement between recruiters and laypeople. Examination of the use of specific resume content suggested that intuitive thinking corresponds to basing one’s judgments more on the way that applicants present themselves in their personal letter and less on diagnostic biographical information such as SAT scores. The findings point to the possibility that professional recruiters may not possess intuitive expertise in this context.

  • 8.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences2013In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents’ occupationalpreferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age ¼ 14.4,SD ¼ .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys’and girls’ occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to theirgender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal linkbetween threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat toone’s capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat.Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypicalpreferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N ¼ 242). Inconclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents’ gender identity may contributeto the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  • 9.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self‐presentations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (= 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = −0.41 [−0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (= 0.44 [−0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (= 0.49 [−0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (= 0.04 [−0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (= 0.23 [−0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.

  • 10.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    The role of friends in career compromise: Same-gender friendship intensifies gender differences in educational choice2014In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a mechanism of how the desire to maintain friendships can intensify gender differences in educational choice. The required conditions for this mechanism would be that (1) adolescent males and females differ in their overall educational preferences, (2) wanting to stay close to friends motivates some adolescents to adjust their educational choice in line with their friends' choices, and (3) adolescents have a higher share of same-gender, than other-gender, friends. Study 1 confirmed that these criteria were met, and Study 2 found an association between friendship priority and gender typed field of study. In conclusion, adjusting educational choices in order to maintain friendships put adolescents at risk of compromising their true career interests, and also becomes an obstacle to a gender balanced labor market.

  • 11.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund university, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Cederskär, Elmedina
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Explaining gender-typed educational choice in adolescence: The role of social identity, self-concept, goals, grades, and interests.2019In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 110, no Part A, p. 54-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most industrialized countries, there are substantial gender differences in field of study, resulting in gender segregated labor markets. The present research (N = 457, M age = 14.98) investigated a diverse range of predictors of Swedish adolescents’ choice of preparatory (STEM; humanistic) and terminal (e.g., electrician; health care) programs. The results revealed that social identity related variables (same-gender friendship networks, belonging, and adherence to gender stereotypes) mattered primarily for choice of gender-typed terminal programs, whereas academic self-concept and grades positively predicted selecting STEM and negatively predicted choice of gender-typed terminal programs for both girls and boys. Subject-specific interests were the most powerful and robust predictors overall and mediated the effects of academic self-concept and to a lesser extent social identity variables. The results illuminate the interaction between perceived barriers, opportunities, and interests in determining educational choice, the need to consider gender-typical choice for high-skilled and low-skilled career paths separately, and the importance of jointly considering a multitude of predictors that are typically studied in different fields.

  • 12.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Tellhed, Una
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    The Relation between Students’ Implicit Researcher-Gender Associations and Perceptions of a Research Career2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between the researcher occupation and gender, and the relation between such associations and career considerations, were examined. Study 1 revealed that students’ perception of the researcher stereotype corresponds more to their perception of the male than the female stereotype. In study 2, the more females implicitly associated the role of researcher with women, the higher they rated their perceived competence as researchers, and the stronger their interest in a future research career tended to be. The results are discussed in relation to in-group preferences and stereotype threat.

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