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  • 1.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Su, Joseph
    National Research Council of Canada.
    Hoehler, Matthew
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Kimball, Amanda
    Fire Protection Research Foundation, USA.
    Experimental Fire-Simulator for Post-Flashover Compartment Fires2018In: SiF 2018 - The 10th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Belfast, UK, New University of Ulster, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of talltimber buildings around the world is rapidly increasing as a result of changes inregulations and the development of new engineered timber products. However, dueto the combustibility of timber, the fire safety of tall timber buildings hasbeen questioned. Building regulations for structural elements are based onfixed periods for which specimens shall resist exposure to a ‘standard fire’ ina fire resistance furnace. Because no distinction is made between the exposure in fire resistancetests of combustible and non-combustible specimens, less conventional testingmethods have been used for research of timber structures. Thisstudy aims to identify aspects that are important to simulate realistic fireconditions relevant to assess the structural performance of timber inpost-flashover fires. A test method is developed to replicate conditions incompartment fire tests using a furnace, that results in similar damage typesand rates of damage in the timber specimen. Based on conclusions drawn fromthese tests and test results obtained using other testing methods, theapplicability of fire resistance tests and other non-conventional tests arediscussed.

  • 2.
    Hoehler, Matthew
    et al.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Su, Joseph
    National Research Council of Canada.
    Lafrance, Pier-Simon
    National Research Council of Canada, Canada.
    Bundy, Matthew
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Kimball, Amanda
    Fire Protection Research Foundation, USA.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings: Large-scale Cross-laminated Timber Compartment Fire Tests2018In: SiF 2018– The 10th International Conference on Structures in FireFireSERT, Ulster University, Belfast, UK, June 6-8, 2018, New University of Ulster, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the contribution of cross laminated timber (CLT) building elements to compartment fires. Six compartments (9.1 m long × 4.6 m wide × 2.7 m high) were constructed using 175 mm thick 5‑ply CLT structural panels and fire tested using residential contents and furnishings to provide a fuel load density of 550 MJ/m2. The results show that gypsum board can delay or prevent the involvement of the CLT in the fire, and that the ventilation conditions and exposed surface area of the CLT play a decisive role in the outcome of the test. The results highlight the need to use heat-resistant adhesives in cross laminated timber to minimize delamination.

  • 3.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wärnelöv, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandpåverkan på lastbärande trä-glasväggar2017In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Glas har flera av de egenskaper som eftersöks hos ett bärande material: hög styvhet, hög hållfasthet - och är dessutom transparant! Tillsammans med rätt lim och en träram bildas väggar som klarar stora laster. Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö har forskat inom detta ämne och gjort många tester på glasväggar. Resultaten visar att en bärande glasvägg kan ha lastkapacitet för att klara en bostadslast för 3-4 våningar. Nu har möjligheterna att även klara brandkraven undersökts i ett examensarbete.

  • 4.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire performance of bio-based building materials2017In: Performance of bio-based building materials / [ed] Dennis Jones and Christian Brischke, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017, p. 305-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an introduction into the background and the usage of these two characteristics and highlights important points for bio-based building products. Further, the authors give guidance for research topics, relevant boundary conditions, limitations, related standards and further literature.

  • 5.
    Wiesner, Felix
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association (NSW), Australia.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Janssens, Marc
    Southwest Research Institute, USA.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Requirements for Engineered Wood Products and their Influence on the Structural Fire Performance2018In: WCTE2018, World Conference on Timber Engineering, 20-23 August, Seoul, Republic of Korea, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered wood products e.g. cross-laminated timber (CLT), glued-laminated timber (glulam) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) are increasingly used as the material of choice for mid-rise to tall construction timber projects. However, the requirements to manufacture these timber elements are considerably different among countries and, consequently, do have an influence on their fire performance. Requirements for sizes of the boards, allowed knot sizes and structural adhesives, among others, are of particular interest. The present paper gives an overview of the production requirements for CLT, glulam and LVL in different countries and discusses how the requirements affect the fire performance of these products.

  • 6.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Europeisk brandklassning av CLT och LVL2017In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska brandklassningen av träbaserade produkter har nyligen utvidgats till att gälla även de två relativt nya träprodukterna CLT och LVL. Den täcker därmed praktiskt taget alla byggtillämpningar med träbaserade produkter. Brandklasserna har fastlagts genom ett system för förenklad europeisk brandklassificering för produkter som har ”känt och stabilt beteende vid brand”. Träprodukter är ett utmärkt exempel på sådana produkter. Brandklasserna avser både det europeiska systemet med så kallade Euroklasser A1-F och klasser för brandskyddande förmåga, så kallade K-klasser, se faktaruta.

  • 7.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire performance of wood products and timber structures2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the European requirements on fire safety in buildings is presented based on the construction products regulation and its essential requirements. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of wood products in accordance with the European classification system is given. Euroclass D is usually achieved. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance of building elements can be either tested according to the European standards or calculated using design methods according to Eurocode 5, EN 1995-1-2. Both separating and load-bearing structures are included. Timber structures can obtain high fire resistance, e.g. REI 60, REI 90 or even higher.

  • 8.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire safety in modern wooden houses: mapping of fire incidents in Sweden2017In: International fire protection, ISSN 1468-3873, no 71, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-storey timber frame houses have been built in Sweden since 1994, when performance-based building regulations were introduced. The construction technology is now well established and steadily growing. Life safety protection is clearly defined in the building regulations. Now, property protection is being discussed from new perspectives.

    As a first step in better understanding, fire incidents have been mapped. The survey shows that modern apartment buildings with wooden frames have a lower rate of fire incidents than the entire stock of apartment buildings.

  • 9.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Weathering Effects on Fire Retardant Wood Treatments2019In: Encyclopedia of Wildfires and Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Fires: Living edition / [ed] Samuel L. Manzello, Cham: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Book of Abstracts Papers: Invited papers, 2017, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 11.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institues of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, no Special Issue, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 12.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner2018In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CLT, korslaminerat trä eller KL-trä som det ofta kallas i Sverige är en relativt ny byggprodukt som snabbt blivit känd och uppskattad runt om i världen. Den används främst till stommar i både höga och låga byggnader och bidrar till stabilieringen som är viktig särskilt i högre byggnader.

    Brandegenskaperna hos CLT som synligt material i byggnader har klarlagts (Östman B&t 2017), medan forskning om brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner fortfarande pågår. Denna artikel sammanfattar nuläget.

  • 13.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Riktlinjer för egendomsskydd i höga trähus2018In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 64-66Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Riktlinjer för att minska risken för egendomsskador i flervånings byggnader med trästomme har tagits fram i ett Brandforskprojekt. Riktlinjerna sammanfattas här och är främst tillämpbara för byggnadsklasserna Br1 och Br0 enligt Boverketes byggregler (BBR), men är naturligtvis användbara även för mindre byggnader. Mer utförliga riktlinjer ges i en RISE rapport 2018:46.

    En första del av detta arbete var brandstopp i modulbyggnader, som presenterades i Bygg & teknik 2016.

  • 14.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Palokonsultti Oy, Finland.
    Guidance on Fire Safety of Bio-Based Facades: COST Action FP 1404,  “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wooden facade claddings and bio-based insulation materials in external walls are increasing because of esthetical and sustainability reasons. The introduction of performance-based building codes has generally facilitated the wider use of these materials and products in multi-storey buildings, but the use of visible woodas exterior facade claddings is still limited.

    Key initiating events of facade fires are a) interior fire spreading to external wall system via external openings,b) exterior fire directly adjacent external wall system igniting the wall due to radiant heat and/or flame impingement,and c) exterior fire spatially separated from external wall system resulting from radiant heat.

    Contribution of bio-based façade claddings and insulation materials to fire development and spread can beprevented by using protective methods. Examples of these are protection of insulation products by coverings or layers made of materials with good reaction to fire performance and/or with a sufficient protection capacity and/or prevention of facade cladding fires by hindering flames from a flashover room fire by using fire rated windows, automatic window shutters or sprinklers. Fire stops in ventilation cavities or in order to interrupt acombustible insulation are also effective means of fire protection.

    Several wooden facade systems do fulfil at least the European reaction to fire class D-s2, d0. Based on fullscale test results some conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning proper criteria and possible area limits of wooden facades.

    Fire retardant treated wood may be used, but the durability of the fire retardant treatments at exterior weather conditions need to be demonstrated in addition to the fire behaviour. The new European standard EN 16755for testing and classification of fire retardant treated timber products durability is suitable for this purpose.

    This Guidance document on fire safety of bio-based facades is the result of work within several Task Groupsof the COST Action FP1404 “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products” and aims at a common understanding of issues related to the description, design and fire testing facades

  • 15.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Trätek Institutet för träteknisk forskning.
    Nystedt, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Boendesprinkler räddar liv2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta dödsbränder både i Sverige och utomlands inträffar i bostäder, det rör sig om 80–90 % av antalet omkomna. I Sverige dör årligen ca 100 personer i bostadsbränder. Många av dessa skulle kunna räddas om ny sprinklerteknik införs i bostäder. Boendesprinklerns främsta uppgift är nämligen att rädda liv genom att skydda mot övertändning i lägenheten. Boendesprinkler medger dessutom ett flexiblare materialval, t ex mer synligt trä in- och utvändigt. Resultat från det fleråriga nationella utvecklingsprojektet ”Boendesprinkler räddar liv” beskrivs här kortfattat.

  • 16.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    Klippel, Michael
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    TUT, Estonia;RISE Tech Res Inst Sweden.
    Werther, Norman
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Tech Res Inst Sweden.
    Fire Design of CLT in Europe2018In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, p. 68-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire safety design of cross-laminated timber (CLT or X-Lam) in Europe is governed by the Construction Products Regulation and its essential requirements, as for all other building products. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all European countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements, and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of CLT in accordance with the European classification system is specified. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance design of CLT building elements is not included in Eurocode 5, the structural Eurocode for timber, but can be either tested according to European standards or calculated by using design methods being developed recently. This article provides information about both reaction to fire and fire resistance of CLT in Europe. Furthermore, the importance of proper detailing in building design and in practice is stressed. Finally, performance-based design is introduced and some further research needs suggested.

  • 17.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tsantaridis, L D
    SP/RISE Technical Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire-retardant-treated wood products in exterior applications: a 10-year report2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood products, but the long term durability needs to be addressed. Several long term studies of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated aging according to different procedures and natural weathering up to 10 years.

    Main conclusions are:

    • The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood products for most FRT wood products studied and used commercially

    • The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural aging if the The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood retention levels are high enough, but several products lose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering

    • Paint systems contribute considerably to weather protection and are usually needed to maintain the reaction to fire performance at exterior applications

1 - 17 of 17
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