lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 44 of 44
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, Sweden.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Su, Joseph
    National Research Council of Canada, Canada.
    Hoehler, Matthew
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Kimball, Amanda
    Fire Protection Research Foundation, USA.
    Experimental Fire-Simulator for Post-Flashover Compartment Fires2018In: SiF 2018 - The 10th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Belfast, UK, New University of Ulster, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of talltimber buildings around the world is rapidly increasing as a result of changes inregulations and the development of new engineered timber products. However, dueto the combustibility of timber, the fire safety of tall timber buildings hasbeen questioned. Building regulations for structural elements are based onfixed periods for which specimens shall resist exposure to a ‘standard fire’ ina fire resistance furnace. Because no distinction is made between the exposure in fire resistancetests of combustible and non-combustible specimens, less conventional testingmethods have been used for research of timber structures. Thisstudy aims to identify aspects that are important to simulate realistic fireconditions relevant to assess the structural performance of timber inpost-flashover fires. A test method is developed to replicate conditions incompartment fire tests using a furnace, that results in similar damage typesand rates of damage in the timber specimen. Based on conclusions drawn fromthese tests and test results obtained using other testing methods, theapplicability of fire resistance tests and other non-conventional tests arediscussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Buchanan, Andrew
    et al.
    PTL Structural Consultants, New Zealand.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association, Australia.
    Just, Alar
    TalTech, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Maluk, Cristian
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Fire safety in timber buildings2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan, Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 33-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overall description of the strategy for delivering fire safety in timber buildings. As in the design of all buildings, the goals are to provide life safety for occupants, safe access for firefighters and protection of affected property. It is essential to control the severity and duration of any accidental fire and prevent it from spreading elsewhere in the building. An important design objective for timber buildings is to control the burning or charring of exposed timber or protected timber, because this can add to the fuel load, and it will reduce the load capacity of structural timber members due to loss of cross-section. Many of the topics introduced here are expanded on in the following chapters.

  • 3.
    Buchanan, Andrew
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Östman, BirgitLinnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides guidance on the design of timber buildings for fire safety, developed within the global network Fire Safe Use of Wood (FSUW) and with reference to Eurocode 5 and other international codes. It introduces the behaviour of fires in timber buildings and describes strategies for providing safety if unwanted fires occur. It provides guidance on building design to prevent any fires from spreading while maintaining the load-bearing capacity of structural timber elements, connections and compartmentation. Also included is information on the reaction-to-fire of wood products according to different classification systems, as well as active measures of fire protection, and quality of workmanship and inspection as means of fulfilling fire safety objectives.

    • Presents global guidance on fire safety in timber buildings 
    • Provides a wide perspective, covering the whole field of fire safety design 
    • Uses the latest scientific knowledge, based on recent analytical and experimental research results 
    • Gives practical examples illustrating the importance of good detailing in building design 

    Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings is ideal for all involved in the fire safety of buildings, including architects, engineers, firefighters, educators, regulatory authorities, insurance companies and professionals in the building industry.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Dagenais, Christian
    et al.
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Buchanan, Andrew
    PTL Structural Consultants, New Zealand.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Claridge, Ed
    Auckland Council, New Zealand.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association, New Zealand.
    England, Paul
    EFT Consulting, Australia.
    Janssens, Marc
    Southwest Research Institute, USA.
    Just, Alar
    TalTech, Estonia.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Fireconsult, Finland.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering: 19-22 June 2023, Oslo, Norway, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2023, p. 4627-4635Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building codes around the globe dictate the design and construction of buildings. For most buildings, designers will follow prescriptive code provisions to demonstrate code compliance. However, some buidling codes allow the use of performance-based design to demonstrate code compliance. Performance-based design is usually more complex but allows for greater flexibility in the use of materials and systems. Regardless of the code compliance methods, the combustibility of timber structures and wood products needs to be well understood and properly accounted for in building designs. This paper describes the develpment of a new international guidance document on fire safety in timber building within the Fire Safe Use of Wood (FSUW) network, written by 13 lead authors assisted by more than 20 experts in over a dozen different countries.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Dagenais, Christian
    et al.
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Just, Alar
    TalTech, Estonia.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Timber structures and wood products2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan, Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 1-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents an overview of the occupancy groups in buildings and the types of timber structures that can be used to design and construct these buildings. Obviously, the types of construction presented in this chapter may have different names in different countries, but the fundamentals and design principles remain essentially the same.

    A description of the various timber and engineered wood products available on the market is also provided. It summarises the manufacturing processes, typical end uses and product certifications, when applicable. Given the large variety of timber products around the globe, some of the engineered wood products presented herein may not be available in all countries.

    This chapter is not intended to provide an exhaustive historical review of timber constructions and wood products, but rather aims at providing sufficient information for designers, builders, building officials/authorities and fire services to better understand and differentiate the various wood products and timber building systems available.

  • 6.
    Dunn, Andrew
    et al.
    Timber Development Association, Australia.
    Claridge, Ed
    Auckland Council, New Zealand.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Fireconsult, Finland.
    Milner, Martin
    Milner Associates, UK.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Building execution and control2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan, Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 407-432Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter covers control of workmanship, fire safety during construction, responsibilities and enforcement, fire detection and suppression and emergency procedures. Quality and inspection of workmanship are vital for high-quality buildings, whether of timber or other construction materials. Timber buildings require certain precautions due to the risk for greater exposure of combustible materials. Furthermore, not all fire safety measures for the final building will be in place throughout construction; consequently, adequate processes are required to maintain the fire safety of building sites. All construction sites require formalised fire safety management systems, including auditing of contractors and subcontractors.

  • 7.
    Hoehler, Matthew
    et al.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Su, Joseph
    National Research Council of Canada, Canada.
    Lafrance, Pier-Simon
    National Research Council of Canada, Canada.
    Bundy, Matthew
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Kimball, Amanda
    Fire Protection Research Foundation, USA.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings: Large-scale Cross-laminated Timber Compartment Fire Tests2018In: SiF 2018– The 10th International Conference on Structures in FireFireSERT, Ulster University, Belfast, UK, June 6-8, 2018, New University of Ulster, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the contribution of cross laminated timber (CLT) building elements to compartment fires. Six compartments (9.1 m long × 4.6 m wide × 2.7 m high) were constructed using 175 mm thick 5‑ply CLT structural panels and fire tested using residential contents and furnishings to provide a fuel load density of 550 MJ/m2. The results show that gypsum board can delay or prevent the involvement of the CLT in the fire, and that the ventilation conditions and exposed surface area of the CLT play a decisive role in the outcome of the test. The results highlight the need to use heat-resistant adhesives in cross laminated timber to minimize delamination.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Janssens, Marc
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, USA.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Reaction to fire performance2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 153-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the reaction to fire performance of wood products used in buildings as internal surface finishes, exterior wall claddings and roof coverings. It describes the systems used in compliance with prescriptive regulations in different regions, and it also covers the characteristics of wood products for performance-based design, and methods for improving the reaction to fire performance of wood products.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wärnelöv, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandpåverkan på lastbärande trä-glasväggar2017In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Glas har flera av de egenskaper som eftersöks hos ett bärande material: hög styvhet, hög hållfasthet - och är dessutom transparant! Tillsammans med rätt lim och en träram bildas väggar som klarar stora laster. Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö har forskat inom detta ämne och gjort många tester på glasväggar. Resultaten visar att en bärande glasvägg kan ha lastkapacitet för att klara en bostadslast för 3-4 våningar. Nu har möjligheterna att även klara brandkraven undersökts i ett examensarbete.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10. Källander, Björn
    et al.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Walker, James
    Yndemark, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fire Safety: Wood in Construction2023Other (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lainioti, Georgia C.
    et al.
    Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece;University of Patras, Greece.
    Koukoumtzis, Vasilis
    Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece;University of Patras, Greece.
    Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.
    Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece;University of Patras, Greece.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, Sweden.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Voyiatzis, George A.
    Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece.
    Kallitsis, Joannis K.
    Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece;University of Patras, Greece.
    Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halogen-Free Coatings for Wood Fire-Retardant Applications2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 22, article id 4959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood and wood-based products are extensively used in the building sector due to their interesting combination of properties. Fire safety and fire spread, however, are of utmost concern for the protection of buildings. Therefore, in timber structures, wood must be treated with fire-retardant materials in order to improve its reaction to fire. This article highlights the flame retardancy of novel hybrid organic–inorganic halogen-free coatings applied on plywood substrates. For this purpose, either a huntite-rich mineral (H5) or its modified nano-Mg (OH)2 type form (H5-m), acting as an inorganic (nano) filler, was functionalized with reactive oligomers (ROs) and incorporated into a waterborne polymeric matrix. A water-soluble polymer (P (SSNa-co-GMAx)), combining its hydrophilic nature with functional epoxide groups, was used as the reactive oligomer in order to enhance the compatibility between the filler and the matrix. Among various coating compositions, the system composed of 13% polymeric matrix, 73% H5 and 14% ROs, which provided the best coating quality and flame retardancy, was selected for the coating of plywood on a larger scale in one or two layers. The results indicated that the novel plywood coating systems with the addition of ecological coating formulations (WF-13, WF-14 and WF-15), prepared at two layers, reached Euroclass B according to EN13501-1, which is the best possible for fire systems applied to wood. © 2022 by the authors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Mikkola, Esko
    et al.
    KK-Fireconsult, Finland.
    Buchanan, Andrew
    PTL Structural Consultants, New Zealand.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Pau, Dennis
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Ranger, Lindsay
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Werter, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Prevention of fire spread within structures2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan, Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 317-344Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes means of preventing spread of fire and smoke between compartments in timber buildings. Much of this applies to all buildings independent of materials used, but some topics are especially relevant for timber buildings. This chapter highlights critical paths of possible spread of fire into, within and through timber structures, including solutions and detailing to prevent uncontrolled spread of fire and smoke.

  • 13.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire performance of bio-based building materials2017In: Performance of bio-based building materials / [ed] Dennis Jones and Christian Brischke, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017, p. 305-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an introduction into the background and the usage of these two characteristics and highlights important points for bio-based building products. Further, the authors give guidance for research topics, relevant boundary conditions, limitations, related standards and further literature.

  • 14.
    Wiesner, Felix
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association (NSW), Australia.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Janssens, Marc
    Southwest Research Institute, USA.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Requirements for Engineered Wood Products and their Influence on the Structural Fire Performance2018In: WCTE2018, World Conference on Timber Engineering, 20-23 August, Seoul, Republic of Korea, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered wood products e.g. cross-laminated timber (CLT), glued-laminated timber (glulam) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) are increasingly used as the material of choice for mid-rise to tall construction timber projects. However, the requirements to manufacture these timber elements are considerably different among countries and, consequently, do have an influence on their fire performance. Requirements for sizes of the boards, allowed knot sizes and structural adhesives, among others, are of particular interest. The present paper gives an overview of the production requirements for CLT, glulam and LVL in different countries and discusses how the requirements affect the fire performance of these products.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Acceptance criteria for products according to the Cone Calorimeter2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 848-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandsäkra träfasader: europeisk översikt2019In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 8, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Europeisk brandklassning av CLT och LVL2017In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska brandklassningen av träbaserade produkter har nyligen utvidgats till att gälla även de två relativt nya träprodukterna CLT och LVL. Den täcker därmed praktiskt taget alla byggtillämpningar med träbaserade produkter. Brandklasserna har fastlagts genom ett system för förenklad europeisk brandklassificering för produkter som har ”känt och stabilt beteende vid brand”. Träprodukter är ett utmärkt exempel på sådana produkter. Brandklasserna avser både det europeiska systemet med så kallade Euroklasser A1-F och klasser för brandskyddande förmåga, så kallade K-klasser, se faktaruta.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire performance of wood products and timber structures2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the European requirements on fire safety in buildings is presented based on the construction products regulation and its essential requirements. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of wood products in accordance with the European classification system is given. Euroclass D is usually achieved. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance of building elements can be either tested according to the European standards or calculated using design methods according to Eurocode 5, EN 1995-1-2. Both separating and load-bearing structures are included. Timber structures can obtain high fire resistance, e.g. REI 60, REI 90 or even higher.

  • 19.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire safety in modern wooden houses: mapping of fire incidents in Sweden2017In: International fire protection, ISSN 1468-3873, no 71, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-storey timber frame houses have been built in Sweden since 1994, when performance-based building regulations were introduced. The construction technology is now well established and steadily growing. Life safety protection is clearly defined in the building regulations. Now, property protection is being discussed from new perspectives.

    As a first step in better understanding, fire incidents have been mapped. The survey shows that modern apartment buildings with wooden frames have a lower rate of fire incidents than the entire stock of apartment buildings.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Flammability of wood construction products2022In: Flammability Testing of Materials Used in Construction, Transport and Mining / [ed] Vivek Apte, Elsevier, 2022, 2, p. 61-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new classification system for the reaction to fire performance of building products in Europe, the so-called Euroclass system, has been applied to five different types of wood products: wood-based panels, structural timber, glued laminated timber, solid wood paneling and cladding, and wood flooring as being products with known and stable fire performance. Most wood products fall in classes D-s2, d0 or Dfl-s1 (for floorings). Some products may also fall in the main classes C or E. Testing has been performed according to EN 13823 SBI Single Burning Item test, EN ISO 9239-1 Radiant panel test, and EN ISO 11925-2 Small flame test. More than 100 wood products in different end use applications have been studied. With the experimental evidence, clear relationships between the main Euroclass fire performance parameters and product parameters (such as density and thickness) have been demonstrated. The new European system for the reaction to fire performance classes consists of two sub-systems, one for construction products, i.e., mainly wall and ceiling surface linings, and another similar system for floorings. The main parameters influencing the reaction to the fire-retardant characteristics of all wood products are product thickness, density and end-use conditions, such as substrates or air gaps behind the product.

  • 21.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Global handbok om brandsäkert träbyggande2022In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 5, p. 64-65Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En internationell handbok om brandsäker användning av träprodukter och träkonstruktioner Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings publicerades 2022. Den inkluderar de senaste vetenskapliga rönen på global nivå för praktiska byggtillämpningar. Handboken omfattar utökad användning av konstruktionsstandarder med praktisk vägledning samt principer och exempel på funktionsbaserad brandteknisk dimensionering.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    National fire regulations for the use of wood in buildings: worldwide review 20202022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 2-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities for building in wood have gradually increased in recent decades mainly due to environmental benefits. But there are still restrictions in terms of fire regulations in many countries, especially for taller buildings. The situation has therefore been mapped in about 40 countries on four continents as an update to a survey in 2002. The main issues are how high buildings with load-bearing wooden frames may be built and how much visible wood may be used both inside and outside on facades. The restrictions apply primarily to prescriptive fire design according to simplified design with detailed rules, which are mainly used for residential buildings and offices. For more complicated constructions e.g. public buildings, shopping centers, arenas and assembly halls, performance based design can be used by fire safety engineering design using, e.g. methods for evacuation and smoke filling, which increases the possibilities of using wood in buildings. The possibilities to use wood in buildings increase if sprinklers are installed, which is highlighted. Major differences between countries have been identified, both in terms of the number of storeys permitted in wood structures, and of the amounts of visible wood surfaces in interior and exterior applications. Several countries have no specific regulations, or do not limit the number of storeys in wooden buildings. The conclusion is that the differences are still large and that many countries have not yet started to use larger wood constructions despite supplies of forest resources, but harmonizing activities on performance based principles are ongoing worldwide.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    National fire regulations for the use of wood in buildings: Worldwide review 20202020Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nationella brandregler for träbyggande: Global översikt 20202021In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 34-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olika internationella krav på KL-trä påverkar den brandtekniska dimensioneringen2019In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 6, p. 30-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Publikationer Trä och brandsäkerhet 1973-20222023Other (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Publikationer Träteknik 1982-20162023Other (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Svensk träteknisk forskning 75 år: i samverkan mellan stat, stiftelser och industri2021Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Weathering Effects on Fire Retardant Wood Treatments2019In: Encyclopedia of Wildfires and Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Fires: Living edition / [ed] Samuel L. Manzello, Cham: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association, Australia.
    Frank, Kevin
    BRANZ, New Zealand.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Fireconsult, Finland.
    Active fire protection by sprinklers2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan, Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 345-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide variety of active fire protection systems are available to fire safety practitioners. In addition to passive fire protection measures, some level of active fire protection is normally required to meet the expected minimum level of fire safety in modern buildings. Active fire protection can also be used to increase the fire safety in order to achieve a more flexible fire safety design and an acceptable level of fire safety in buildings. There are many types of active fire protection systems, but this chapter deals mainly with automatic fire sprinkler systems, since they are often used to facilitate the use of timber as structure, internal linings and external facades in large or complex buildings. Sprinklers are required in some countries for taller timber buildings, as described in Chapter 4.

  • 31.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Dagenais, Cristian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Dunn, Andrew
    Timber Development Association, Australia.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Tohoku Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Fireconsult, Finland.
    Qiu, Peifang
    Tianjin Fire Science and Technology Research Institute, China.
    Serkov, Boris
    The State Academy of Fire Safety, Russia.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Fire safety requirements in different regions2022In: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide, CRC Press, 2022, , p. 468p. 117-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarises the regulatory control systems for fire safety design of buildings in different regions around the globe. It is focused on the possibilities to use wood products and timber structures according to prescriptive requirements. The possible use of structural timber elements and visible wood surfaces in interior and exterior applications are reviewed and presented in tables and maps. They apply mainly to residential and office buildings. Performance-based requirements may be used in several countries and can be used to verify further applications of wood.

  • 32.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Book of Abstracts Papers: Invited papers, 2017, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 33.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institues of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, no Special Issue, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner2018In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 6, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CLT, korslaminerat trä eller KL-trä som det ofta kallas i Sverige är en relativt ny byggprodukt som snabbt blivit känd och uppskattad runt om i världen. Den används främst till stommar i både höga och låga byggnader och bidrar till stabilieringen som är viktig särskilt i högre byggnader.

    Brandegenskaperna hos CLT som synligt material i byggnader har klarlagts (Östman B&t 2017), medan forskning om brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner fortfarande pågår. Denna artikel sammanfattar nuläget.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Riktlinjer för egendomsskydd i höga trähus2018In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 6, p. 64-66Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Riktlinjer för att minska risken för egendomsskador i flervånings byggnader med trästomme har tagits fram i ett Brandforskprojekt. Riktlinjerna sammanfattas här och är främst tillämpbara för byggnadsklasserna Br1 och Br0 enligt Boverketes byggregler (BBR), men är naturligtvis användbara även för mindre byggnader. Mer utförliga riktlinjer ges i en RISE rapport 2018:46.

    En första del av detta arbete var brandstopp i modulbyggnader, som presenterades i Bygg & teknik 2016.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Buchanan, Andrew
    PTL Structural Consultants, New Zealand.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings: Global Design Guide2022In: SFPE Europe Magazine, no 27, p. 21-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Gustavsson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Renström, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Jämförelse av dimsprinkler, boende- och traditionella sprinklersystem2020In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 5, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tre sprinklersystem, traditionell vattensprinkler, boendesprinkler och dimsprinkler (high pressure water mist), har jämförts och applicerats i ett bostadshus med 22 våningsplan. Arbetet ger en bild av systemens effektivitet vad gäller vattenåtgång och fysisk påverkan på byggnaden. Ett optimalt system har låg vattenåtgång och hög utnyttjandegrad vilket innebär att systemet täcker en stor yta per munstycke. Dessa aspekter bidrar till minskad risk för vattenskador på byggnaden. För att kunna bestämma vattenåtgång samt göra en rättvis jämförelse har systemen anpassats till samma verkningsytor och beräknats på samma sätt.

  • 38.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Branddimensionering av Br0-byggnader med trästomme2019In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 6, p. 24-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Karlsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hama Jan, Gelan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av KL-trä: Jämförelse av nuvarande Eurokod 5 och kommande version2023In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 5, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    KL-trä är ett relativt nytt konstruktionsmaterial som lämpar sig som stomme i bostadshus, offentliga och industriella byggnader. Eurokod 5 är den europeiska standarden för dimensionering av träkonstruktioner som är obligatorisk att använda i alla länder. Den omfattar både dimensionering i normalfallet och branddimensionering. Nuvarande version för branddimensionering EN 1995-1-2:2004 publicerades 2004 [1]. Den saknar regler för dimensionering av KL-trä. En ny version av Eurokod 5 beräknas komma 2025, den finns idag som utkastet prEN 1995-1-2:2025 [2]. De två versionerna av Eurokod 5 jämförs för KL-trä i denna artikel. Artikeln baseras på ett examensarbete vid Linnéuniversitetet [3]. Endast konstruktioner med synlig träyta har analyserats.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Niemz, Peter
    Institute for Building Materials, Switzerland.
    Fire Properties and Performance2023In: Springer Handbook of Wood Science and Technology / [ed] Peter Niemz, Alfred Teischinger, Dick Sandberg, Springer, 2023, p. 911-942Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with the fire properties and performance of wood products and structures. It starts with two subchapters on the basic physical and chemical properties under fire conditions including fire-retardant treatments to obtain higher reaction to fire classes. A new European standard to evaluate their long-term fire performance is included. The third subchapter gives an overview of the fire safety design of wood products in buildings. The European system for fire safety of construction products is explained with the two main fire scenarios to be considered: the initial fire where visible wood surfaces may contribute, and the fully developed fire, which is important to limit the fire to the room of origin. Generally speaking, wooden structures can obtain high fire resistance, whereas the surface properties in the initial fire are less favorable. The European reaction to fire class D is fulfilled for most wood products. North American systems are different and their classification of wood products is described briefly. Methods for calculating the fire resistance of wood elements according to Eurocode 5, and US systems, structural detailing, and fire safety at building sites are presented. The chapter ends by explaining the possibilities for using performance-based fire safety design and active fire protection by, for example, sprinklers. 

  • 41.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mikkola, Esko
    Fire safety of bio-based facades2019In: FSF 2019 3rd international symposium on fire safety of facades, Paris, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mikkola, Esko
    KK-Palokonsultti Oy, Finland.
    Guidance on Fire Safety of Bio-Based Facades: COST Action FP 1404,  “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wooden facade claddings and bio-based insulation materials in external walls are increasing because of esthetical and sustainability reasons. The introduction of performance-based building codes has generally facilitated the wider use of these materials and products in multi-storey buildings, but the use of visible woodas exterior facade claddings is still limited.

    Key initiating events of facade fires are a) interior fire spreading to external wall system via external openings,b) exterior fire directly adjacent external wall system igniting the wall due to radiant heat and/or flame impingement,and c) exterior fire spatially separated from external wall system resulting from radiant heat.

    Contribution of bio-based façade claddings and insulation materials to fire development and spread can beprevented by using protective methods. Examples of these are protection of insulation products by coverings or layers made of materials with good reaction to fire performance and/or with a sufficient protection capacity and/or prevention of facade cladding fires by hindering flames from a flashover room fire by using fire rated windows, automatic window shutters or sprinklers. Fire stops in ventilation cavities or in order to interrupt acombustible insulation are also effective means of fire protection.

    Several wooden facade systems do fulfil at least the European reaction to fire class D-s2, d0. Based on fullscale test results some conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning proper criteria and possible area limits of wooden facades.

    Fire retardant treated wood may be used, but the durability of the fire retardant treatments at exterior weather conditions need to be demonstrated in addition to the fire behaviour. The new European standard EN 16755for testing and classification of fire retardant treated timber products durability is suitable for this purpose.

    This Guidance document on fire safety of bio-based facades is the result of work within several Task Groupsof the COST Action FP1404 “Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products” and aims at a common understanding of issues related to the description, design and fire testing facades

  • 43.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinna University of Technology, Estonia;RISE, Sweden.
    Werther, Norman
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Fire Design of CLT in Europe2018In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, p. 68-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire safety design of cross-laminated timber (CLT or X-Lam) in Europe is governed by the Construction Products Regulation and its essential requirements, as for all other building products. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all European countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements, and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of CLT in accordance with the European classification system is specified. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance design of CLT building elements is not included in Eurocode 5, the structural Eurocode for timber, but can be either tested according to European standards or calculated by using design methods being developed recently. This article provides information about both reaction to fire and fire resistance of CLT in Europe. Furthermore, the importance of proper detailing in building design and in practice is stressed. Finally, performance-based design is introduced and some further research needs suggested.

  • 44.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tsantaridis, L D
    SP/RISE Technical Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire-retardant-treated wood products in exterior applications: a 10-year report2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood products, but the long term durability needs to be addressed. Several long term studies of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated aging according to different procedures and natural weathering up to 10 years.

    Main conclusions are:

    • The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood products for most FRT wood products studied and used commercially

    • The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural aging if the The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood retention levels are high enough, but several products lose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering

    • Paint systems contribute considerably to weather protection and are usually needed to maintain the reaction to fire performance at exterior applications

1 - 44 of 44
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf