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  • 1.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundsbye, Mette
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wedel, Heidi. V.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 μg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65–120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment.

  • 2.
    Arvin, Erik
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bregnhøj, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Buendia Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water Education ved DTU: en e-læringplatform i Moodle til individualiseret kompetenceopbygning i samfundets vandsektor2010In: Læring og Medier, ISSN 1903-248X, E-ISSN 1903-248X, no 6, p. 1-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Omstruktureringen af kommunerne i forbindelse med amternes nedlæggelse og privatiseringen af det danske samfunds vand- og spildevandsforsyning har givet store omvæltninger og nye udfordringer for mange personalegrupper. I vandbranchen er der derfor i dag et stort behov for individualiseret kompetenceopbygning inden for hele vandets kredsløb, afstrømmet regnvand, overfladevand, grundvand, vandforsyning, spildevandstransport og -rensning samt vandkvalitet og vandhygiejne.

    At behovet for efter- og videreuddannelse er stort beror på et skøn baseret på samtaler med fagpersoner i branchen. Desværre foreligger der ikke konkrete behovsopgørelser, og det er også uklart, hvor stor betalingsviljen til kompetenceudvikling er hos virksomhederne og kommunerne.

    Der er i dag det samme behov for et kompetenceløft på universitetsområdet, fordi der er sket en markant internationalisering, hvorved mange udenlandske studerende følger engelsksprogede masterprogrammer. På Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) foregår alle masterkurser på engelsk, og ca. halvdelen af de studerende på DTU Miljø's (Institut for Vand og Miljøteknologi) masterkurser er udenlandske gæstestuderende. Det er i dag en væsentlig opgave/problem at sikre, at disse studerende har de nødvendige faglige forudsætninger, når de starter på de planlagte kurser. Ellers sænkes undervisningsniveauet markant, og ressourceforbruget af hjælpelærere øges. Så også her er der brug for tilbud om individualiseret kompetenceopbygning.

    Men også over for de danske studerende er der behov for markante ændringer i undervisningsmetoderne. Der er en klar tendens til, at mange studerende bruger lærebøgerne som referenceværker. En voksende andel af de studerende sidder ikke mere og læser lærebøgerne igennem som i "gamle dage". E-læring kan være et middel til at give effektiv læring til disse mange studerende, der fra barnsben er tilvænnet IT-verdenen.

    I fremtiden vil der blive mere utraditionelle undervisningsbehov. Nogle større virksomheder vil i fremtiden skulle satse mere på salg af integrerede løsninger, f.eks. vand- og spildevandsløsninger for hele byområder. Dette kræver, at der er kompetente personer hos bygherrerne til at drive de fremtidige komplekse systemer. Her kan tilbud om uddannelse af bygherrens personale indgå som en konkurrenceparameter i virksomhedernes tilbud. Og netop her vil et fleksibelt e-læringssystem kunne få stor betydning.

    Målsætningen for udvikling af e-læringssystemet Water Education ved DTU er at opfylde ovennævnte undervisningsbehov. Projektet er i en udviklingsfase, hvorfor de praktiske erfaringer om udvikling af e-læringsmodulerne og brugernes vurderinger af fordele og ulemper er begrænsede. IT- og Telestyrelsen har medfinansieret projektet og deltaget aktivt i følgegruppemøder.

  • 3.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 4.
    Bollmann, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Petersen, Camilla Tang
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Lund University.
    Vollertsen, Jes
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Bester, Kai
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 60, p. 64-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

  • 5.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University.
    Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge: Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential2013In: Journal of Residuals Science and Technology, ISSN 1544-8053, E-ISSN 2376-578X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed.

  • 6.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Kjerstadius, Hamse
    Lund University.
    Haghighatafshar, Salar
    Lund University.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University.
    Olsson, Mikael Emil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wachtmeister, Hilla
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ia Cour Jansen, J.
    Lund University.
    Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1282-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However, sludge needs to be safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion of mixed primary and waste-activated sludge at 35, 55 and 60°C and during pasteurization at 70°C. The study showed the difficulty of analysing pharmaceutical compounds in low concentrations in the sludge matrix. No general reduction of these compounds was seen during treatment, but for individual substances some reduction occured. The PAHs were generally not reduced during digestion or pasteurization, but for three substances (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (analysed together) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) reduction (up to 60%) during digestion was seen. Digestion at 35 and 55°C resulted in about the same order of reduction of the three individual PAHs, which was higher than for digestion at 60°C.

  • 7.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Potential and problems related to reuse of water in households2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand in society for the introduction of decentralised sanitary reuse systems and the main reason for this is that centralised urban sanitation systems are expensive and resource-intensive. A second is water shortage and one way to reduce the need for freshwater is to reuse wastewater on-site. One possibility for recycling is to use grey wastewater or rainwater for non-potable purposes. Very little is currently known of the presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in these water fractions. Knowledge of the type of constituents present, concentration ranges and of any potential risk they may pose are all-important issues when discussing local handling e.g. on-site reuse as well as discharge into receiving water.

    We are exposed to thousands of compounds in our daily life as over one hundred thousand compounds are on the market in the European Union, with 30,000 being used in volumes of over 1 ton per annum. Pharmaceuticals, household chemicals, personal care products, clothing, foodstuffs, additives, building materials, cars, industry, combustion and incineration are a few examples of the sources of chemical compounds in our environment.

    The objective of the study is to develop a methodology for identifying compounds that might pose a threat in connection with the use of non-potable water in households or with discharges into the environment, with the focus on XOCs; and in addition to test the method in two different cases. The methodology used was to apply a number of different methods: research of literature, empirical studies incl. chemical analyses; specifically developed analysis methods; toxicity measurements, hazard and problem identification, and risk assessments. The battery of methods was applied to two selected cases, namely grey wastewater and collected rainwater.

    It can be concluded that previous knowledge about the characteristics of grey wastewater (physical, chemical and biological constituents) is limited. The focus has been on the content of oxygen-consuming compounds, nutrients and micro-organisms, while information about the presence and levels of specific XOCs is very limited. It was also found that grey wastewater from different sources has different characteristics, which illustrates the need for different types of treatment before any recycling of the water.

    XOCs that potentially are present in grey wastewater were listed based on information available on chemical products, consumption statistics and chemical databases as well as information on XOCs in wastewater. The list reached 900 different compounds and compounds groups. 201 different XOCs were identified in grey wastewater from bathrooms (showers and handbasins) by chemical analyses. Several fragrances such as citronellol, coumarin and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde were identified as well as some preservatives e.g. parabens and triclosan. The measurements also showed that bioactive chemicals (pharmaceuticals) were present, as well as unexpected compounds not directly derived from household chemicals e.g. flame retardants and drugs. The presence among others of detergents, softeners and preservatives was confirmed.

    In an investigation of consumption of household chemicals in multi-family accommodation, 92 different household chemicals and personal care products were recorded. The inhabitants’ average weekly consumption of chemicals was about 40 g per person. The inventory of household chemicals and personal care products listed registered a total of 290 chemical constituents. It was shown that it is possible to track the potentially toxic compounds used in households and which may present a problem, e.g. in relation to infiltration of grey wastewater. However, the observations made in this study illustrate that an inventory of the use of household chemicals, although detailed and carefully carried out, cannot represent a full characterisation of the compounds actually present in grey wastewater.

    In toxicity testing some types of grey wastewater (kitchen and laundry effluents) were found to be toxic to willow trees and freshwater green algae. The toxicity of the laundry effluent may be related to the toxicity of the detergents used.

    A total of 39 compounds out of the 201 found to be present in the grey wastewater from bathrooms were listed as potentially problematic pollutants in environmental hazard identification, based on the inherent properties; persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. A large number of the compounds were also found to be health hazardous. An environmental risk assessment of the 201 compounds revealed that five compounds constitute a risk if discharged into surface water or into a soil bed.

    For collected rainwater a large number of organic, inorganic, and microbiological constituents were found to be present. The data showed that there was significant variation between different sites due to different climate, urban environment, and land use. It was established that the majority of the studies focus on run-off from roads and roofs, as well as on unspecific stormwater. The number of constituents that were identified and quantified in collected rainwater is, however, probably only a fraction of those constituents that could be present, as a limited search of potential sources and their contribution resulted in a list of several hundreds of individual compounds.

    Hazard identification based on environmental and health hazards revealed that the number of pollutants, which constitute a potential hazard with respect to the use of collected rainwater, is high. However, there was no evidence of any adverse effects on willows caused by three samples of collected rainwater.

    Both health and environmental hazard identification were hampered by the lack of data on the identified compounds. However, the methodology used was found to be able to identify constituents that may constitute a problem both from constituents found to be observed or potentially present in the water fraction or from constituents detected in chemical analyses. The methodology can be refined and applied to other scenarios and could be extended to provide a realistic risk management tool.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis and source mapping of chemical UV-filters2008In: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV)-filters are used in sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation which may otherwise cause sunburns and skin cancer. Commonly used chemical UV-filters are known to cause endocrine disrupting effects in both aquatic and terrestrial animals as well as in human skin cells. Here, source mapping and substance flow analysis were applied to find the sources of six UV-filters (oxybenzone, avobenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) and to identify the most dominant flows of these substances in Denmark. Urban water, composed of wastewater and surface waters, was found to be the primary recipient of UV-filters, whereby wastewater received an estimated 8.5–65 tonnes and surface waters received 7.1–51 tonnes in 2005. In wastewater treatment plants, their sorption onto sludge is perceived to be an important process and presence in effluents can be expected due to a lack of biodegradability. In addition, the use of UV-filters is expected to continue to increase significantly. Not all filters (e.g., octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) are used in Denmark. For example, 4-MBC is mainly associated with self-tanning liquids and private import of sunscreens.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Substance flow analysis of parabens in Denmark complemented with a survey of presence and frequency in various commodities2008In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 156, no 1-3, p. 240-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parabens are commonly used as preservatives due to anti-bactericidal and anti-fungicidal properties and they are ubiquitously present in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, food, industrial and domestic commodities. They are suspected of causing endocrine disrupting effects to aquatic organisms and adverse effects in humans and, thus, it is highly relevant to identify and quantify their sources and transportation pathways in the urban environment. Here a substance flow analysis (SFA) was performed in order to map and comprehend the substances’ flow on a national basis. Many household commodities were found to contain parabens; cleaning detergents, slimy toys, and water-based paint. The presence and concentration of parabens are regulated in cosmetics and food. Use of parabens in pharmaceuticals as excipients is documented in Denmark. The import of parabens is increasing; although the number of industrial parabens containing commodities is decreasing and manufacturer reports phase-out of parabens. The vast majority of the paraben containing commodities has a durability of 18–30 months, thus the average lifetime of the paraben stock is perceived to be limited. The inflow was ca. 154 tonnes via pure chemicals and 7.2–73 tonnes via commodities in 2004. This corresponds to an average wastewater concentration of 640–900 μg/L, when excluding discharge to solid waste, soil, biodegradation and metabolism. This is in the same order of magnitudes as can be found in industrial wastewater but higher than that seen in domestic wastewater. The data needed for the SFA is sparse, dispersed, and difficult to access and associated with a great deal of uncertainty.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Madsen, Toke Sloth
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Greywater pollution variability and loadings2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 661-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1. Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Household chemicals and personal care products as sources for xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater2003In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite contributing 75% of the total wastewater flow to domestic sewers, little is currently known concerning the detailed production patterns and characteristics of grey wastewater. In this study, an inventory of the consumption of household chemicals including a diary survey of water-consuming activities was carried out over seven consecutive days in a block of flats. In total 290 parameters in 92 household chemicals were registered in the inventory in which 30 out of 38 tenants participated. The study was accompanied by quantitative analyses of selected parameters and a screening for organic components in grey wastewater. More than 190 individual components were identified by GC-MS. Identified substances were grouped into eight substance classes based on their application and their concentrations were semi-quantitatively assessed. Several fragrances like citronellol, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and menthol as well as some preservatives, e.g. citric acid and triclosan, were identified. The measurements also showed that unwanted and unexpected compounds like drugs and pesticides could be present, as well as chemicals not directly deriving from household chemicals or personal care products, e.g. flame-retardants. The inventory provided detailed information about the consumption of various types of household chemicals, but no information on compound concentrations could be assessed due to the limited data in the list of contents of the household chemicals. It was shown that tracking of potentially toxic compounds used in households was possible.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characteristics of grey wastewater2002In: Urban Water, ISSN 1462-0758, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 85-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic matter and nutrients compared to ordinary wastewater, since urine, faeces and toilet paper are not included. The levels of heavy metals are however in the same concentration range. The information regarding the content of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) is limited. From this study, 900 different XOCs were identified as potentially present in grey wastewater by the use of tables of contents of household chemical products. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Phytotoxicity of grey wastewater evaluated by toxicity tests2006In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An algal growth inhibition test and a short-term acute assay for willows were used in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of grey wastewater from different sources. Bathroom grey wastewaters were toxic towards algae (EC10 = 36 – 375 mL/L), whereas kitchen and laundry wastewaters were found to be toxic to both organisms (EC10 = 55 – 198 mL/L). The investigation showed that untreated grey wastewater could pose an environmental hazard if discharged into small-size receiving waters. Discharge to willow evaporation beds is problematic and toxic effects may be encountered, but, compared to direct discharge to surface water, the risks of toxic effects are much less pronounced.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Chemical hazard identification and assessment tool for evaluation of stormwater priority pollutants2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of chemical hazards is a critical issue, which have to be dealt with when evaluating different strategies for sustainable handling of stormwater. In the present study, a methodology for identifying the most critical and representative chemical pollutants was developed. A list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP-list) is the out-put from the procedure. Two different strategies for handling of stormwater were considered; discharge into a surface water recipient and infiltration. However, the same methodology can be used for other types of wastewater and other strategies for handling and treatment. A literature survey revealed that at least 656 xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) could be present in stormwater. In the next step, 233 XOCs were evaluated with respect to the potential for being hazardous towards either aquatic living organisms or humans, or causing technical or aesthetical problems. 121 XOCs were found have at least one of these negative effects, while 26 XOCs could not be assessed due to the lack of data. The hazard assessment showed that 40 XOCs had a PEC/PNEC ratio above one., e.g. they should be considered as priority pollutants. The final step is the expert judgement, which resulted in a final SSPP-list containing 16 selected priority pollutants.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark2007In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 215, no 1-3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waters are highly manipulated in many cities in Europe, and the flow is largely impacted by discharges of stormwater and combined sewer overflow. Toxicity tests shown adverse effects in some of these recipients due to the presence of xenobiotic organic carbons (XOCs). Harrestrup Å, situated in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further analysis with respect to potential source control options.

    Fourteen XOCs (56%) were identified to constitute a potential hazard based on the RICH evaluation (Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards), while 9 XOCs (36%) were found to constitute a hazard towards the aquatic ecosystem based on an environmental-concentration/predicted-no-effect-concentration-quotient. The quantified levels did, however, fulfil the Danish and European surface water quality criteria (QC) and environmental quality standards (ESQ). Thus, although the QC and ESQ are met there is an actual risk due to stormwater-related pollutants. This clearly illustrates that there is a need for monitoring the stormwater quality in order to protect the ecosystems. It also shows that actions are needed to implement source control options and emission barriers.

    Twelve XOCs were selected for further evaluation of possible source control option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol).

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ahlman, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Selected stormwater priority pollutants: a European perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 383, no 1-3, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical characteristics of stormwater are dependent on the nature of surfaces (roads, roofs etc.) with which it comes into contact during the runoff process as well as natural processes and anthropogenic activities in the catchments. The different types of pollutants may cause problems during utilisation, detention or discharge of stormwater to the environment and may pose specific demands to decentralised treatment. This paper proposes a scientifically justifiable list of selected stormwater priority pollutants (SSPP) to be used, e.g., for evaluation of the chemical risks occurring in different handling strategies. The SSPP-list consists of 25 pollutant parameters including eight of the priority pollutants currently identified in the European Water Framework Directive. It contains general water quality parameters (organic and suspended matter, nutrients and pH); metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Zn); PAH (naphthalene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene); herbicides (pendimethalin, phenmedipham, glyphosate and terbutylazine); and other representative industrially derived compounds (nonylphenol ethoxylates, pentachlorophenol, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, PCB-28 and methyl tert-butyl ether). Tools for flux modelling, enabling calculation of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), and for ranking the susceptibility of a pollutant to removal within a range of structural stormwater treatment systems or best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, but further work is required to allow all SSPPs to be addressed in the development of future stormwater pollution control measures. In addition, the identified SSPPs should be considered for inclusion in stormwater related monitoring campaigns.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Christensen, Nina
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge2008In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 226, no 1-3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is, therefore, not socially acceptable in some countries, e.g., Sweden. In this study, literature reviews showed that 541 XOCs potentially could be present in sewage sludge due to their presence in e.g. construction materials, pharmaceuticals, personal care products etc. 192 compounds have been quantified in sewage sludge, which indicate that, although many XOCs have been measured in sludge, there are potentially a vast number of compounds present that have not been analyzed for yet. In a hazard identification of the quantified compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Metals in greywater: Sources, presence and removal efficiencies2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, risk assessment for greywater reuse systems has almost exclusively been focussed on pathogenic microorganisms and conventional water quality parameters. Little is known about the risks from micropollutants present in greywater, nor about the potential for greywater treatment systems to act as barriers for micropollutants. In this paper, the sources, presence and potential fate of cadmium, mercury, lead, and nickel in onsite greywater treatment systems are investigated. Annual metal loads from bathroom greywater are small in comparison with typical municipal wastewater loads but still do not always meet environmental quality standards for surface waters. This study shows that onsite treatment may remove a third to a half of lead, mercury and nickel from bathroom greywater but showed no significant removal of cadmium. Geochemical modelling indicates that metals should not pose a problem for reuse in toilet flushing, irrigation and clothes washing. Rather, the major potential problems associated with the presence of metals in greywater are related to the issue of sludge disposal.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 2889-2898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Analysis of long-chain fatty acids in grey wastewater with in-vial derivatisation2003In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 83, no 12, p. 987-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and levels of long-chain fatty acids (C6–C20) in grey wastewater from bathrooms have been investigated. The acids were purified and concentrated by solid-phase extraction on strong anion exchange discs, in-vial derivatised to their corresponding methyl ester and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The method was able to quantify the acids at concentration <1 µg/L with a recovery of 31–97%. The levels of fatty acids were found in the range of <0.5 to 27 100 µg/L and the highest levels were found for the saturated lauric (C12), palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) acids. The treatment efficiency of a local treatment plant was evaluated by comparing concentrations of fatty acids at the inlet and the outlet. It was found that the treatability decreases with increasing chain length for the saturated acids (19–100% degradation) whereas the corresponding mono unsaturated acids were more easily degraded.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2109-2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Srigirisetty, Sunil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge2010In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 139-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and acids; selected metals and basic parameters as well as characterization of the organic matter content by oxygen utilization rate (OUR). The grey-water sludge contains metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for spreading on agricultural land for cadmium and nickel. If dewatered and managed as soil it would be classified as ‘Class 3; polluted soil’ with respect to cadmium, copper and nickel. The OUR results indicate that the grey-water biological sludge contains an equivalent amount of readily degradable organic matter compared to municipal activated sludge. But it contains 35% more readily, and 90% more slowly, hydrolysable organic matter than municipal sludge.

  • 24.
    Grieger, Khara Deanne
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?2010In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 118, no 3-4, p. 165-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situapplications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a ‘best’ and ‘worst’ case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the ‘best’ treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers.

  • 25.
    Ledin, Anna
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Miljøfremmede stoffer i spildevand - hvad bidrager forbrugerne med?2004In: DanskVand, ISSN 1602-3609, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 306-310Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Banovec, Primož
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1119-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

    Methods

    Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

    Results

    The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

    Conclusions

    The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

  • 27.
    Markiewicz, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Björklund, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Siopi, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Emissions of organic pollutants from traffic and roads: Priority pollutants selection and substance flow analysis2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 1162-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of organic pollutants (OPs) emitted from vehicles and traffic-related activities exhibit environmental persistence and a tendency to bioaccumulate, and may have detrimental long-term effects on aquatic life. The aim of the study was to establish a list of significant sources of OPs occurring in road runoff, identify the OPs emitted from these sources, select a number of priority pollutants (PP), and estimate the quantity of PPs emitted in a road environment case study using substance flow analysis (SFA). The priority pollutants included in the SFA were selected from a list of approximately 1100 compounds found after comprehensive screening, including literature and database searches, expert judgments, the Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards method, and chemical analysis of sediments. The results showed the following priority order: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) > alkanes C20–C40 > alkylphenols > phthalates > aldehydes > phenolic antioxidants > bisphenol A > oxygenated-PAHs > naphtha C5–C12 > amides > amines. Among these, PAHs were chosen for a SFA, which was performed for a highway case study area in Gothenburg (Sweden). The SFA showed that the main sources of PAHs emitted in the area were vehicle exhaust gases, followed by tyre wear, motor lubricant oils, road surface wear, and brake linings. Only 2–6% of the total 5.8–29 kg annually emitted PAHs/ha ended up in the stormwater sewer system. The measured PAH loads were found in much smaller amounts than the calculated loads and the outflow to stormwater contained much more of the hazardous PAHs than the total loads emitted in the catchment area.

  • 28.
    Maya Altamira, Larisa
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Source Analysis and Hazard Screening of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds in Wastewater from Food-Processing Industries2008In: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 505-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present and apply a methodology for identifying environmentally hazardous compounds in food industry wastewaters (FIW). The methodology comprises a source analysis and a hazard screening of xenobiotic organic compounds based on environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in aqueous and solid phases. This approach was applied to four selected FIW representing fish, pork meat, and vegetable production. Included in this approach was an analytical–chemical screening of 137 xenobiotic organic compounds showing that 13 compounds and groups of compounds could be detected in the FIW composite samples. The combined source analysis revealed that 161 xenobiotic organic compounds could potentially be present in these four FIW. The main sources were raw materials and their processing, but also packaging and cleaning of the production facility contributed to the total number of compounds potentially present. Using the hazard screening procedure it was found that 29 and 102 compounds should be considered for further hazard assessment in the aqueous and solid phases, respectively. It is important to note that 12% of the 161 compounds could not be evaluated for environmental hazards due to lack of inherent data on degradability, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. Furthermore, for 91% of the compounds no information was found on anaerobic biodegradability. The presented procedure contributes with a systematic source analysis and a ranking of the xenobiotic organic compounds that could cause environmental concern. In this way the procedure can provide guidance to operators and decision makers on handling options for wastewater streams in food processing industries.

  • 29.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kemiske forureningsstoffer i regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader2006In: Vand & Jord, ISSN 0908-7761, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 108-112Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Regnafstrømning fra befæstede overflader kan indeholde hundredvis af miljøfremmede stoffer. Institut for Miljøteknologi på DTU har derfor udviklet en problemorienteret metode til på en struktureret og gennemskuelig måde at udarbejde fokuserede lister over problematiske stoffer. Metoden kan lette arbejdet med at implementere Vandrammedirektivet.

  • 30.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Seriki, Kemi
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Castillo, Luis
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholms Stad.
    Wickman, Tonie
    Stockholms Stad.
    Lecloux, André
    Envicat Consulting, Belgium.
    Atanasova, Natasha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kompare, Boris
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Banovec, Primos
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Options de contrôle à la source pour la réduction d'émissions de substances prioritaires en zone urbaine: [ Source control options for reducing emissions of priority pollutants ]2009In: Techniques Sciences Methodes, Genie Urbain Genie Rural, ISSN 0299-7258, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 77-87Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the ScorePP project is to develop comprehensive and appropriate source control strategies that authorities, cities, water utilities and the chemical industry can employ to reduce emissions of priority pollutants (PPs) into the receiving water environment in urban areas. Focus is on the 33 priority and priority hazardous substances and substance groups identified in the European Water Framework Directive. However, this list may be expanded to include emerging pollutants or reduced if appropriate model compounds can be identified. The initial work focuses on 67 substances, including substances identified in the proposed European environmental quality standard (EQS) directive as well as the defined example compounds and several organometallic derivatives. Information on inherent properties, environmental presence and fate, and legislative issues is made available in open database format, and a data management system combining chemical identification (CAS#), economic activity classifications (NACE) and NOSE-P emission source classifications has been developed as a basis for spatial characterisation of PP sources using GIS. Further work will focus on dynamic urban scale source-flux models, identifying emission patterns and optimising monitoring programmes in case studies and multi-criteria comparison of source control versus end-of-pipe mitigation options in relation to their economic, social and environmental impacts. Part of the project consists in acquiring data on PPs in case cities and to redistribute them within the project. This will allow to identify possible PPs sources in case cities, to map sources using GIS, understand the flow of some PPs and propose emission control strategies specific to each case city.

  • 31.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

  • 32.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mørch-Madsen, Andreas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater2015In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1306-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many municipalities in Denmark and around Europe currently work towards separating stormwater and sewage. In existing urban areas this may imply disconnecting stormwater from the old combined sewer systems suffering from hydraulic overloading and discharging directly to nearby surface waters. Stormwater runoff may, however, be heavily polluted and Best Available Technologies (BAT) are therefore needed to treat the stormwater before discharge. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 µm woven polyester disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly below 10 µm (6.9–19 µm) and nano-sized particles were also observed (ca. 76–228 nm). The flocculent increased the observed particle micrometer sizes by 46% and the removal of particle-associate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was confirmed. The majority of the particles were, however, still below 10 µm after addition of flocculant, which shows that application of flocculants with the woven disc filter technology for stormwater treatment needs further refinement.

  • 33.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksen, Marie Kampmann
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Martín-Fernández, J. A.
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 54, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360 μg/g, 460 μg/g and 2700 μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  • 34.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 45, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

  • 35.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Granby, Kit
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Recycling of plastic waste: screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 69, no November, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000 ng TBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000 ng ∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling.

  • 36.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsson, Mikael Emil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Götze, Ramona
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

  • 37.
    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 44, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.

  • 38.
    Rauch, Wolfgang
    et al.
    University Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ledin, Anna
    The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Australia.
    Hunt III, William F. (Bill)
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Stormwater in urban areas2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6588-6588Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection, storage and treatment of stormwater in urban areas has been one of the classical disciplines of sanitary and environmental engineering in the past. Waste and pollution transported by stormwater poses quantity and quality problems, is affecting public health and threatens the quality of the environment – most important surface water ecosystems. While traditional solutions have been mostly concerned with discharge and storage, quality issues gained increasing attention over the last years. Reason being both the pollution of the receiving water due to urban stormwater management and the potential use of stormwater as an alternative source of freshwater. This special issue of Water Research covers the most important issues related to management of stormwater in 26 articles. The objective is to give the reader an overview of the state of the art by presenting the most recent findings of high quality research within the new hot topics related to stormwater.

    The first part of this issue presents findings with relation to stormwater quality. The manuscripts deal with highway runoff, toxic substances, pathogens and priority pollutants. Results are given from monitoring campaigns (mostly from US, Europe and Australia) but also in the context of comprehensive literature reviews.

    The second half of the issue deals more broadly with a wider spectrum of topics. Papers are covering hydraulic aspects, filtration and clogging of stormwater facilities like swales, permeable pavement and biofilters. Another range of papers accounts for design principles of stormwater management, specifically focusing on sustainable solutions but also on the effect to pluvial flooding. Modeling, data treatment and uncertainty analysis with relation to stormwater concludes the special issue.

    The editors hope that by reading these papers major challenges will be visualized to the readers but also that there are promising solutions available to these challenges. We appreciate the valuable support of our colleagues who have devoted their time to review the manuscripts and thus ensure the quality of this issue. We also express sincere thanks to the staff of Water Research for their valuable editorial support.

  • 39.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Viavattene, Cristoph
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Comparison of pollutant emission control strategies for cadmium and mercury in urban water systems using substance flow analysis2013In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 116, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member States to protect inland surface and groundwater bodies but does not directly stipulate how the associated environmental quality standards should be achieved. This paper develops and assesses the performance of a series of urban emission control strategies (ECS) with an emphasis on the scientific and technological benefits which can be achieved. Data from the literature, in combination with expert judgement, have been used to develop two different semi-hypothetical case cities (SHCC), which represent virtual platforms for the evaluation of ECS using substance flow analysis (SFA). The results indicate that the full implementation of existing EU legislation is capable of reducing the total emissions of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) by between 11% and 20%. The ability to apply voluntary reduction practices is shown to be particularly effective for Cd with the potential to further lower the overall emissions by between 16% and 27%. The most efficient protection of the receiving surface water environment is strongly influenced by the city characteristics with the introduction of stormwater treatment practices being particularly effective for one city (59% reduction of Hg; 39% reduction of Cd) and the other city being most influenced by the presence of efficient advanced wastewater treatment processes (63% reduction of Hg; 43% reduction of Cd). These reductions in receiving water loads are necessarily accompanied by either increases in stormwater sediment loadings (2.6–14.9 kg/year or 0.6–2.4 kg/year for Hg) or wastewater sludge loadings (45.8–57.2 kg/year or 42.0–57.4 kg/year for Cd).

  • 40.
    Revitt, Mike
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1549-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a election of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Scholes, Lian
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics.
    Preface2008In: Water, Air & Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 405-405Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As countries throughout the European Union (EU) struggle to implement the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the need for robust data sets on the sources, flux and fate of a wide range of xenobiotics (defined here as man-made organic compounds, heavy metals and metalloids) is frequently referred to by both researchers and practitioners. However, the EU WFD is not the only driver, with renewed interest in the use of stormwater and reuse of wastewater (in part a response to addressing challenges posed by climate change) further emphasising the need for an in-depth understanding of the impact of xenobiotics on both humans and the environment at a global level.

    As a response to this need, leading researchers and practitioners from across Europe came together as part of COST Action 636 ‘Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle’ with the twin aims of assessing the role of xenobiotics in the urban water cycle and developing strategies for minimising their impact on humans and ecosystems. COST Action 636 is focussed around the four key topics: Identification, sources and fluxes; Methods for treatment; Impact assessment and Analytical issues. The articles which appear in this special issue of Water Air and Soil Pollution FOCUS bring together selected papers and discussions which took place in association with the first of these themes, Identification, sources and fluxes, but also broadens its remit to include papers related to the implications of recent research findings as well as a consideration of possible mitigation strategies.

    As co-editors of this volume, we are delighted to bring together papers from contributors working throughout Europe on a variety of aspects relating to xenobiotics, reflecting both a diversity of country-specific as well as more pan-European research concerns, priorities and findings. We would like to thank both authors and reviewers for their contributions to this special volume, and gratefully acknowledge the financial support of COST Action 636, of which this special volume is an output.

  • 42.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dynamic stormwater treatment unit model for micropollutants (STUMP) based on substance inherent properties2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 622-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling the removal of micropollutants (MPs) in stormwater treatment systems is essential in a context that is characterized by a general lack of measurements. This paper presents an innovative dynamic model for the prediction of the removal of MPs in stormwater treatment systems (Stormwater Treatment Unit model for Micro Pollutants—STUMP). The model, based on a conceptual model of two-compartment (water and sediment) serial Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors (CSTRs), can predict the fate of MPs based on their inherent properties, which are often the only information available regarding this kind of substances. The flexible structure of the model can be applied to a wide range of treatment units and substances. Based on the most relevant removal processes (settling, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and abiotic degradation), the model allows the dynamic simulation of the MP behaviour in the different compartments of stormwater treatment systems. The model was tested for heavy metals (copper and zinc) and organic substances (benzene and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate). The results show that volatilization plays a big role for removal of benzene while the removal of substances with high sorption capacity is mainly driven by settling. The model was proven to be able to predict the importance of the various fate processes for selected substances with different inherent properties. A thorough assessment of the influence of the various fate process parameters will allow a reliable assessment of the treatment performances for a wide range of MPs.

  • 43.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 13, p. 2597-2606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff.

  • 44.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of uncertainty in modelled partitioning and removal of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in a stormwater retention pond and a biofilter2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6891-6903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) discharges from stormwater drainage systems require accurate estimation of the potential MP removal in stormwater treatment systems. However, the high uncertainty commonly affecting stormwater runoff quality modelling also influences stormwater treatment models. This study identified the major sources of uncertainty when estimating the removal of copper and zinc in a retention pond and a biofilter by using a conceptual dynamic model which estimates MP partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases as well as environmental fate based on substance-inherent properties. The two systems differ in their main removal processes (settling and filtration/sorption, respectively) and in the time resolution of the available measurements (composite samples and pollutographs). The most sensitive model factors, identified by using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA), were related to the physical characteristics of the simulated systems (flow and water losses) and to the fate processes related to Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The model prediction bounds were estimated by using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique. Composite samples and pollutographs produced similar prediction bounds for the pond and the biofilter, suggesting a limited influence of the temporal resolution of samples on the model prediction bounds. GLUE highlighted model structural uncertainty when modelling the biofilter, due to disregard of plant-driven evapotranspiration, underestimation of sorption and neglect of oversaturation with respect to minerals/salts. The results of this study however illustrate the potential for the application of conceptual dynamic fate models base on substanceinherent properties, in combination with available datasets and statistical methods, to estimate the MP removal in different stormwater treatment systems and compare with environmental quality standards targeting the dissolved MP fraction.

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