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  • 1.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Flerspråkighet: Barnkonventionen och barnens rätt till alla sina språk2019In: Perspektiv på barnkonventionen: Forskning, teori och praktik / [ed] Lina Ponnert, Anna Sonander, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 225-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel resoneras kring barns rättigheter till utveckling, att behålla sin identitet och att använda sina språk. Rättigheterna kommer att diskuteras utifrån vikten av modersmålen 1) för tillägnandet av svenska som ett andraspråk, 2) för identitetsutvecklingen och 3) som stöd för samspelet mellan vårdnadshavare och barn. Målet är att genom en presentation av forskningsresultat skapa en förståelse för och kunskap om modersmålets vikt och hur rätten till språket skulle kunna tolkas enligt barnkonventionen. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    François Grosjean & Ping Liet al., The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism: Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Pp. v + 248.2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 120-126Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish-speaking children: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people in the world and about a fifth of all school-aged Americans speak at least two languages. Nevertheless, little is known about second language (L2) processing in development, even though language proficiency is strongly related to success in almost all domains. Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. The present study therefore recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processes of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups: greater proficiency was linked with shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of all ERP components. Latency in these cases represents speed of processing while amplitude of ERP effects in children can be thought of as an indication of detection of the introduced violations. The appearance of the anterior rhyming effect, latency of the posterior rhyming effect, along with the distribution of the anterior ERP effect for phrase structure violations were related to AoA. More specifically, bilingual 6- to 8-year olds of higher English proficiency processed rhyming nonwords slower than 3- to 5-year-old monolingual children, which could have a strong impact on later vocabulary acquisition. Differences across lingualism groups in distribution of the anterior negativity elicited by phrase structure violations could indicate different neural generators for processing of syntax. Noteworthy is that differences in processing as illustrated by these ERP effects were recorded even though in both these cases bilingual children's English proficiency were within the normal range expected of monolingual children of similar age. Early acquisition was thus important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing as revealed by differences in the anterior negativity.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Second language acquisition in children and adults: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2017In: Tilburg center for Cognition and Communication (TiCC) Colloquium 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant little is known about second language (L2) processing in development neurocognitively. Indeed, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. In addition to AoA and proficiency, neurocognitive studies have also reported on crosslinguistic influence (CLI) in morphosyntactic L2 processing. These studies typically report that learners display nativelike L2-processing when structures are similar to that of their own native language.

    I will present studies where we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processing of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. In addition, I will present a study of CLI effects of processing of L2-syntax. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups. However, other differences in the ERPs waveforms were related to AoA rather than proficiency. These differences were restricted to phonological awareness and syntax. Adults with similar L2-Swedish proficiency differed in their processing depending on if their first language had similar syntax (verb second, German learners) or not (English learners).

    The results from the studies that will be presented suggest early acquisition is important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing while proficiency is important for semantics and for controlled aspects of syntactic processing in children and that CLI can affect syntactic processing in late adult learners of a language.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Snabbast eller bäst?2017In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 0348-0364, no 4, p. 27-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vuxna lär sig andraspråk snabbast medan barn blir bäst. Detta gäller speciellt språkljud men också grammatik och meningsbyggnad.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Standing avocados, or when ratings of sentences and brain processing tells different stories2017In: LU Humanities Lab 10 years 2017: A celebratory symposium October 19, 2017 : How Lund University Humanities Lab has changed research, Lund: Lund University , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    What the recording of brainwaves can tell us about language processing2014In: COMPUTE seminar, 20 October 2014, Lund: Lund University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Blomberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Crosslinguistic influence in the processing of L2 verb semantics?: An auditory ERP study2019In: EuroSLA 29, The 29th Conference of the European Second Language Association: Book of Abstracts, Lund University , 2019, p. 235-235Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Cohn, Neil
    Tilburg University, Netherlands.
    Blomberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The First Step to Study Neurophysiological Processing of Visual and Verbal Language in Children with Developmental Language Disorder2019In: The 40th Annual Symposium on Research in Child Language Disorders (SRCLD), June 6-8, 2019, Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison , 2019, article id PS1F07Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will compare processing of verbal and visual language in children with typical language development (TD) and with developmental language disorder (DLD). This will allow for a contribution to the discussion regarding whether the underlying nature of DLD is domain specific or domain general. The nature of visual language parallel that of verbal language in that it contains content and structure. In neurophysiological studies of adults it has been demonstrated that neural processing of visual narratives strongly resembles that of language processing in that semantic violations elicited an N400, while violations of structure elicited an anterior negativity followed by a P600.

    The study of visual-language processing in five TD-children (10;1-12;6) showed that violations of semantics and structure of the presented comic strip elicited ERP-effects that could be differentiated. By including this paradigm to the study of DLD-children we will enable a comparison between their neurophysiological processing of verbal language and visual language. We expect similar processing in both domains and that both differ from that of TD-children. These results could impact the understanding of DLD and the development of interventions. 

  • 10.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: 2009 SRCD Biennial Meeting, Society for Research in Child Development: Denver, Colorado, USA, April 2-4, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    An ERP study of nonword rhyming in 3- to 8-year old monolinguals and 6- to 8-year old bilinguals investigating the effects of age and proficiency2009In: The 2nd Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2009, June 10–12, Stockholm University, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of phonological awareness (PA) for later acquired skills including reading and writing have repeatedly been reported (e.g. Lundberg, Olofsson, & Wall, 1980) such that preliterate skills in PA predicts reading and writing up to at least 11 years after (MacDonald & Cornwall, 1995). In the current study behavioural measures of PA along with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. ERPs record the electrical activity of the brain online sampling millisecond by millisecond such that differences in processing between groups that may not be evident in behavioural measures are possible to discern. Previous ERP studies of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (RE; N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel, & Neville, 2005). ERPs to spoken nonword targets (introduced to eliminate effects of semantic skills) preceded by nonrhyming nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus-onset) in comparison to rhyming targets, and this effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study (1) extends this finding to younger children aged 3, 4 and 5 years and (2) to bilingual, late learners of English aged 6-8.

    Behaviourally, the proportion of monolingual children with proficiency in rhyming (production and recognition skills) increased as a function of age. When comparing the RE across age groups, no differences were found in amplitude. However, the timing of the onset of the RE decreased linearly with age, indicating faster processing of the auditory stimuli in older children. An examination of 4-year-old children with different levels of rhyming proficiency revealed similar differences in the RE. Specifically, the onset of the RE was earlier in children with higher rhyming skills as compared to children of similar age with lower rhyming skills. A late rhyming effect (600-800 ms), i.e. an increased negativity to nonrhyming targets with a different distribution than the previously reported RE, was found in high but not low proficient 4-year olds. We hypothesized that this effect was related to verbal short-term memory indicating task difficulty being higher for younger (4-year olds) than older (6-8 year olds) monolingual children. This same effect was found in native Spanish speaking bilingual children aged 6-8 with roughly 2.5 years of experience of English. The significance of these effects will be discussed in the frameworks of language proficiency and age.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses differentially mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: NLC 2009 Scientific Program: The Neurobiology of Language Conference, Marriott Downtown Hotel, 540 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, US, 2009, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have consistently found an N400 effect elicited by violations of semantic expectancy in monolingual adults (Kutas & Hilllyard, 1980), bilingual adults (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) and monolingual children (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992). In adults, when the second language is acquired before the age of 11 years, no differences are found in the amplitude, latency, or distribution of the N400 effect when compared to monolinguals. However, if the age of acquisition (AOA) is later than 11 years, an increase in peak latency is often reported (e.g. Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996). Studies of semantic processing in monolingual children have found a more widely distributed N400 effect compared to monolingual adults’. In addition, both the amplitude and onset latency are found to decrease with age (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992).

    In order to begin investigating the factors important in establishing normal semantic processing in bilinguals, we compared the N400 responses to semantic anomalies in 6-8 year old monolingual English speakers and in native Spanish speaking children who began acquiring English at about 4 years of age. To examine the effects of proficiency, each group was divided into higher and lower proficiency groups. In addition bilinguals and monolinguals individually matched on age and proficiency were compared. ERPs were recorded while children listened to naturally spoken English sentences that were either canonical or that were semantic anomalies (p = .5) and watched an accompanying claymation movie. 

    Analyses of the N400 mean amplitude indicated a typical N400 response for both groups, though that of monolingual children was larger, more widespread, and had an earlier onset (180msec) in comparison with that of bilingual children (320msec). Though these children were matched on age they differed in proficiency (Receptive Language) and Socioeconomic status (SES; as measured by maternal education). When dividing children by proficiency within each group similar relationships with amplitude, distribution, and onset were found. (Higher and lower proficiency bilingual groups did not differ on AOA). When comparing monolingual and bilingual children that were individually matched on age and proficiency, N400 onset latency was similar (320msec) but the distribution differed across groups. More specifically, monolingual children showed a larger and more widespread effect that was largest over medial central sites while bilingual children had an effect that was largest over posterior sites. These results suggest that speed of semantic processing in children between 6 and 8 years of age is affected by proficiency rather than AOA, while the distribution of the effect could be affected by differences in AOA and/or SES across groups. No differences in the N400 effect are found comparing monolingual adults and bilingual adults who began acquiring their second language before age 11 (Weber-Fox, & Neville, 1996). Therefore, we are continuing to study the development of semantic processes indexed by the N400 in bilingual children in order to determine at what proficiency level and/or years of experience of the second language does the difference between monolingual and bilingual late learners disappear.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    The role of age of acquisition and proficiency on nonword rhyming in 6- to 8-year-old bilingual children2013In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 20th Annual Meeting, April 13-16, 2013, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2013 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2013, p. 75-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech signals change rapidly and timing differences as small as 50 ms can be critical for distinguishing between minimal pairs (e.g., bat-pat). Thus, fast phonological processing is important for understanding speech. Strong and positive relationships between phonological awareness (PA, e.g., the ability to recognize rhymes) and vocabulary size have been widely reported in both monolingual and bilingual children. Though PA has been explored with behavioral studies in bilingual children, online processing of phonology has not. ERPs were measured in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish speaking children with English as their second language listening to rhyming and nonrhyming pairs of nonsense words with English phonology. Nonwords were used to help children focus on phonological rather than semantic processing. Though bilingual 6- to 8-year olds were expected to recognize rhymes, neurocognitive measures of rhyme processing failed to establish the anterior effect (an increased negativity for rhyming targets) previously reported in monolingual children. Further, the posterior rhyming effect (a decreased negativity for rhyming targets) was evident only in the group with higher English proficiency, within the normal range for monolingual children. In this group the posterior rhyming effect had a longer latency than what was observed in younger monolingual children. The results suggest that even though bilingual children do well on behavioral tests of PA, processing of sub-syllabic phonology is slowed and more variable in their second language. Proficiency and age of acquisition are more important for mature phonological processing than previous behavioral studies have suggested.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    How to think about preschool children with no knowledge of Swedish and low levels of motivation to learn the new language2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the heart of democracy is being able to be a part of the society at large which requires sharing the dominant language. In recent years, we have lectured on language learning and specifically second language learning and multilingualism for teachers in Sweden, from Malmö in the south to Umeå in the north. While teachers at all levels need to have knowledge of second language acquisition and learning it becomes apparent in discussions that teachers often meet children who are not motivated to learn Swedish. As a result, the children have not acquired the language used in, for instance the preschool curriculum, nor do they have the necessary skills in Swedish to acquire new knowledge when they start school. 

    This means that the research we present to our teacher students and to practicing teachers is relevant to language learning but cannot fully address the challenges faced by the profession. Further knowledge and research are needed on how to work with Swedish as a second language, such as in the preschool context where 25% of children have another language besides Swedish as their first language (SCB, 2021) and, crucially, their motivation to learn the language is low. Language proficiency in preschool predicts subsequent grades in school in for instance math and reading (Murphy et al., 2016; Pace et al., 2019). Therefore, knowledge about how to motivate children (and parents) is a prerequisite for making a linguistic intervention so that children's Swedish skills are sufficient to absorb the education in preschool and later knowledge acquisition in school which is important for being a part of the society at large. 

     

    We will present previous studies of motivation for language learning (Lamb et al., 2021) and our preliminary data from questionnaires and interviews with personnel in preschools and adult learners of Swedish as a second language focusing on motivation to learn the language. Against this background, we will introduce our ideas of “language learning motivation interventions” (LLMI) in school settings. We will claim that it is crucial for teachers to have a better grasp of how to motivate learning Swedish. This understanding can result in the inclusion of children and students in school and the society on equal bases for learning and thus for democracy in their current setting but also in future settings. 

     

     

    References

     

    Lamb, M., Csizer, K., Henry, A., & Ryan, S. (2021). The Palgrave Handbook of Motivation for Language Learning. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 

    Murphy, K. A., Farquharson, K., Language, & Reading Research, C. (2016). Investigating profiles of lexical quality in preschool and their contribution to first grade reading. Reading and Writing, 29(9), 1745-1770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9651-y 

    Pace, A., Alper, R., Burchinal, M. R., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2019). Measuring success: Within and cross-domain predictors of academic and social trajectories in elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 46, 112-125. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.04.001 

    Statistiska Central Byrån. (2021). Demografi: Antal personer med utländsk eller svensk bakgrund (fin indelning) efter region, ålder och kön (år 2002-2020). 

     

  • 15.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    On motivating children to learn a host language2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children immigrating to Sweden are not motivated to learn the host language Swedish and learn English instead. We gathered information on what positively or negatively affects children’s motivation to learn Swedish to develop a “motivation-intervention” in collaboration with early-childhood teachers. Previous intervention studies of children’s motivation typically focus on learning a foreign language in school (García & Pérez-Llantada, 2015). We need to gain a better understanding of the effects of motivational interventions on particularly immigrant children learning a host language in early childhood. Our interventions are based in the theory of self-determination and included but were not limited to activities such as goal setting, self-reflection, and self-evaluation, that previously showed positive effects on students' motivation and attitudes towards learning a foreign language (Dörnyei & Csizér, 1998; MacIntyre & Noels, 1994). Early-childhood teachers answered a questionnaire focusing on children's motivation to learn Swedish and factors affecting this motivation. Development of interventions were based on the results from this questionnaire. To reduce the concern that not all children have access to the effective intervention we will invite childcare personnel in the area to a presentation and discussion of results. The main finding was the importance of the caregivers as role models. If they acquired Swedish, and found the language acquisition important for their children, children would be more motivated and would also attend childcare more frequently. Including teachers into the development of interventions led to relevant interventions that easily can be integrated with the regular curriculum in contrast to intense researcher-implemented interventions.

     

  • 16.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    An ERP study of the relationship between verb semantics and events2016In: The 8th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how semantics interacts with online event processing. This study targets this question examining placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. Swedish lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011). For every placement event the verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We use event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Typically violations of semantic congruency positively affect the amplitude of the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980). Studies also report a centro-parietal positivity (P600) when real-world knowledge is violated and verbs are incongruous to preceding contexts (Kuperberg, 2007, for a review). Previous ERP studies of visually presented images or movies of actions and events have reported an N400 followed by a P600 when the function of an object is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Bach, et al., 2009; Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011).

    Method: Native speakers (N = 24, 18-35 years) watched still images of placement events followed by sentences visually presented word by word. Sentences described the depicted events while ERPs were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. Participants also did an appropriateness rating offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Sym/Asym), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and sentences with the three different placement verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design.

    Results: Base was important for appropriateness ratings of verb usage with symmetric objects while orientation was important for asymmetric objects. In contrast, there were no ERP effects to base (Base/Without) for symmetric objects. Asymmetric-base objects showed increased N400s and P600s with verbs incongruent with the depicted events (orientation, e.g., ‘lay’ with vertical glass). Asymmetric-Without base elicited an increased P600 when verbs were incongruent to depicted events when horizontally oriented (e.g., ‘set’ with horizontal avocado), but an increased N400 when verbs were incongruent to the atypical vertical placement of the objects (e.g., ‘lay’ with a vertical avocado).

    Discussion: Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects (N400/P600) when placement verbs were incongruent with typical placement scenarios of objects that in the real-world are placed vertically or horizontally (Asymmetric-Base, e.g., a candle; cf. Bach et al., 2009). However, for objects without a base the anterior negativity was increased with a mismatch between the verb and the presented images (the depicted events), while the P600 increased for mismatches between the verb and typical real-world events. These results suggest the anterior N400 and the P600 indeed index different relationships with event processing as previously suggested for images (Sitnikova, et al., 2008). Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the processing of verb meaning in language cannot be separated from knowledge of object handling in the real world (cf., Van Berkum, et al., 2008).

  • 17.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cross-linguistic influence and fine-grained placement verb semantics: Evidence from ERPs and appropriateness ratings: part of the symposium Cross-linguistic similarities in language learning and use2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second language (L2) learners experience challenges when word-meanings differ across L1 and L2, and often display cross-linguistic influence (CLI) effects in speech production (Jarvis & Pavlenko, 2008). In contrast, comprehension studies show more mixed results. Specifically, ERP studies of semantic processing mainly report effects related to proficiency but surprisingly not CLI. This could be because they typically examine the processing of gross semantic violations, such as comparing socks and butter in the sentence He spread the bread with socks/butter (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980), rather than more fine-grained semantics. 

    We therefore explored how L2 learners process fine-grained L2 verb semantics that are either similar or not to their L1, predicting positive effects when semantics are similar. Specifically, we examined online neurophysiological processing and offline appropriateness ratings of three obligatory Swedish placement verbs, sätta ‘set’, ställa ‘stand’, and lägga ‘lay’. Verb choice in Swedish depends on the located object’s properties (shape, orientation, presence of a base; Gullberg & Burenhult, 2012). In contrast, English has one general placement verb (put), whereas German has specific verbs similar to Swedish (Berthele, 2004). 

    ERPs were recorded while English (18) and German (19) learners of L2 Swedish (matched for proficiency) and native Swedish speakers (17) watched images of objects being placed on a table and listened to sentences describing the placement with verbs that matched or not. In addition, participants performed an offline appropriateness rating task. 

    Both tasks revealed CLI effects. German learners’ appropriate ratings were more similar to native Swedish speakers’ than those of English learners. Similarly, German learners’ ERP effects were more similar to native Swedish speakers’ than those of English learners. The results thus reveal CLI both offline and online, in line with production findings, but critically in contrast to previous ERP studies of semantic processing. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Event processing is affected by an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language: a visual ERP study2016In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 23rd Annual Meeting, April 2-5, 2016, New York Hilton Midtown, New York City, New York: 2016 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2016, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how language interacts with online event processing. To explore this question we examined placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs, sätta, ‘set’, ställa ‘stand’, lägga, ‘lay’, and lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011; Viberg, 1999). Every placement event in Swedish must be labelled by one of the three verbs, whose choice depends on object properties, and the object's relationship to the ground. The current study investigates how sensitive Swedes are to the relationship between event properties and verb labels. Native speakers (N = 20, 18-35-years) watched images of a hand placing an object on a table followed by visually presented sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the images while event-related potentials were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. We varied object properties such as ± base (e.g., glass/orange), spatial extension (e.g., tall/short glass), and orientation (vertical/horizontal). The three verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design. The results showed that, as expected, incongruent picture-verb combinations elicited an increased centro-medial N400 modulated by verb appropriateness. Congruent picture-verb combinations also elicited an N400 when objects were placed in non-canonical positions (e.g. laying a glass on its side), suggesting that native placement event processing may depend on an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language. A follow up study presenting auditory sentences simultaneously with images will explore this hypothesis further.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    First Language Matters: Event-Related Potentials Show Crosslinguistic Influence on the Processing of Placement Verb Semantics2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, p. 1-19, article id 815801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second language (L2) learners experience challenges when word meanings differ across L1 and L2, and often display crosslinguistic influence (CLI) in speech production. In contrast, studies of online comprehension show more mixed results. Therefore, this study explored how L2 learners process fine-grained L2 verb semantics in the domain of caused motion (placement) and specifically the impact of having similar vs. non-similar semantics in the L1 and L2. Specifically, we examined English (20) and German (21) L2 learners of Swedish and native Swedish speakers (16) and their online neurophysiological processing and offline appropriateness ratings of three Swedish placement verbs obligatory for placement supported from below: satta "set," stalla "stand," and lagga "lay." The learners' L1s differed from Swedish in that their placement verbs either shared or did not share semantic characteristics with the target language. English has a general placement verb put, whereas German has specific verbs similar but not identical to Swedish, stellen "set/stand" and legen "lay." Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants watched still frames (images) of objects being placed on a table and listened to sentences describing the event with verbs that either matched the image or not. Participants also performed an offline appropriateness rating task. Both tasks suggested CLI. English learners' appropriateness ratings of atypical verb use differed from those of both native Swedish speakers' and German learners, with no difference in the latter pair. Similarly, German learners' ERP effects were more similar to those of the native Swedish speakers (increased lateral negativity to atypical verb use) than to those of the English learners (increased positivity to atypical verb use). The results of this explorative study thus suggest CLI both offline and online with similarity between L1 and L2 indicating more similar processing and judgments, in line with previous production findings, but in contrast to previous ERP work on semantic L2 processing.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Kan du ställa en avokado?: När det uppstår en konflikt mellan språket och vad hjärnan tycker2016In: Humanist- och teologdagarna 2016, Lund: Lund University , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Standing avocados, or when ratings of sentences and brain processing tells different stories2018In: The ASLA Symposium 2018, Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how placement events are described. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. These verbs are highly frequent yet difficult to acquire for learners of Swedish. The verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We extend previous findings by introducing event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Native speakers of Swedish watched still images of placement events followed by visually presented sentences describing these events while ERPs were recorded. Participants also did appropriateness ratings offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Symmetric/Asymmetric), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and each placement verb was combined with each image across participants. Previous ERP-studies have shown that different types of violations are related to different types of ERP effects. Semantic congruency affect a centro-medial negativity—the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980) while a centro-parietal positivity—the P600 is affected when real-world knowledge is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011). Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects when placement verbs were incongruent with the depicted event including objects with a base. For objects without a base the ERP effects were in addition related to incongruency with real world knowledge—e.g., avocados are usually not vertically placed i.e., standing on a table. With the inclusion of the neurophysiological measure sensitivity to event features not captured by ratings was revealed. Combined results corroborate and elucidate existing analyses of the complexity of verb semantics. A better understanding of native speakers’ processing of placement verbs opens new options for probing the difficulties of learning Swedish placement verbs for adult second language learners.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Today read she the paper: An ERP study of the processing of word order in Swedish L22014In: Eurosla 24: Book of Abstracts, York: European Second Language Association , 2014, p. 46-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is ample evidence that word order is a problematic domain in L2 usage. In particular, production of the verb-second (V2) phenomenon, which requires the finite verb in main clauses to appear in second position, (e.g., Ganuza, 2008 for an overview). Surprisingly, we know very little about how these structures are processed and how production relates to comprehension. We therefore examined how advanced German (N=14) and English (N=14) adult learners, matched for proficiency and age of acquisition (AoA; German M=22, English M=23), process word order in Swedish compared to native speakers (N=20) depending on language background (L1 with [German] or without [English] V2), preposed adverb frequency (frequent idag ‘today’ vs. infrequent hemma ‘at home’, ex. 1), and the length of the preposed constituent (short vs. long prefield, ex. 2). (1) Idag/Hemma läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hon läste tidningen. Today/At home read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home she read paper.def (2) Idag/Hemma hos Maria läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hos Maria hon läste tidningen. Today/At home at Maria read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home at Maria she read paper.def. We examined responses to word order violations in an acceptability judgement task and an ERP experiment, and probed the production of word order in a sentence completion task.

    Preliminary results from the judgment task indicated that native speakers were faster and more accurate on judging sentences than both L2 groups who did not differ. Overall, the more frequent adverb, idag, also affected accuracy and reaction times positively, but there were no interactions with group. The outcome from the sentence completion task showed similar results: native speakers were more accurate than the L2 groups who did not differ, and an overall adverb frequency effect was found, but not difference across groups. In contrast, the ERP data showed different patterns. In native speakers V2 violations elicited a bimodal ERP response, an anterior negativity followed by a posterior P600. These effects were increased in amplitude and the anterior negativity was left lateralized (LAN) when the prefield was long. In the German group a bimodal response was detected only when V2 violations followed a frequent adverb in a long prefield. In other cases only a posterior P600 was evident. The English group, in contrast, showed an early anterior positivity, and a later lateral parietal negativity in the N400 time window that was followed by a posterior P600. These responses were affected only by prefield length and only in amplitude.

    Overall, the results indicated that advanced German and English learners, matched on proficiency and AoA, who performed similarly on behavioural measures of comprehension and production of word order, still differed in online processing. More specifically, language background mattered since the German learners whose L1 share V2 with target Swedish, overall showed similar ERP patterns to native speakers. In contrast, the English learners, whose L1 does not share V2, showed more variation in their ERP responses. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of crosslinguistic influence and theories of nativelike syntactic processing.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Lindfors, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Comprehending L2 Comprehension: A study of Arabic-Swedish bilingual preschoolers’ performance on a Swedish proficiency test2022In: HumaNetten, E-ISSN 1403-2279, no 48, p. 9-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About a fifth of all children in Sweden learn the societal language Swedish outside of the home, i.e., they have Swedish as a second language (L2). Many of these children have lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, which predicts lower language proficiency. The aim of the present study is twofold: to contribute to a greater understanding of L2- Swedish proficiency in preschoolers with lower SES backgrounds, and to find out how proficiency tests should be adapted for bilingual children such that the tests are valid, i.e., unbiased to the language status (L1 or L2). We investigate test performance on a Swedish receptive language proficiency test (the Comprehension scale of The New Reynell Developmental Language Scales, NRDLS) which has a monolingual norming sample. The participants are 51 bilingual children (3-5-years of age) with Arabic as their L1, and who attend preschools in Swedish neighborhoods with lower SES. Results indicate that in contrast to the norming sample, bilingual children’s raw scores for subsections of the test are not progressively more difficult. Thus, we need to be aware that bilingual children’s high proficiency in a particular aspect of the language does not necessarily imply that they are proficient in aspects that would be considered easier from a monolingual perspective. In addition, there are indications that unfamiliarity with L2 lexical items, that are typically acquired early in L1, causes bilingual children to fail on tasks aimed at assessing syntactic skills, even though they appear to understand the syntactic pattern. We conclude with suggestions for special considerations and adaptations to assess individual L2- comprehension in preschoolers more accurately, such that practitioners in turn can support the children’s language development.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Lindfors, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Developmental language disorder: a language specific disorder or a domain general disorder?2020In: Thrive Nordics: Special Education, no Autumn/WinterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental language disorder (DLD; prior called specific language impairment, (Bishop et al., 2017) is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. Efficient intervention requires that we understand the underlying nature of the disorder. In this paper we will present our ongoing study of children with DLD that has been made possible by the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation. Our hypothesis is that the underlying deficit in DLD is not domain specific, (i.e., affects language only) but rather domain general and as such relates to general cognitive mechanisms. If results from our study confirms our hypotheses this could affect how interventions for children with DLD should be developed and designed.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Newman, Aaron
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    The roles of age of acquisition, proficiency, and first language on second language processing2023In: Changing Brains: Essays in Honor of Helen J. Neville / [ed] Aaron Newman, Giordana Grossi, Routledge, 2023, p. 57-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With current trends in population migration, international mobility, and connectedness, an understanding of the factors that lead to optimal second language acquisition is increasingly important. Based on Helen Neville’s work, this chapter discusses some of the neurocognitive research on second language processing with a focus on studies utilizing event-related potentials (ERP). The chapter is structured around phonology, semantics, and syntax. For each of these subsystems of language, there is a focus on three factors important for second language processing: age of acquisition (AoA), proficiency, and cross-linguistic influence. We argue for a shift in ERP research from a focus on AoA as a sole factor for describing differences in processing languages to a more comprehensive approach, including proficiency and cross-linguistic influence.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Coch, Donna
    Dartmouth College, USA.
    Auditory pseudoword rhyming effects in bilingual children reflect second language proficiency: An ERP study2023In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 240, article id 105265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated second language (L2-English) phonological processing in 31 Spanish-English bilingual, 6- to 8-year-old schoolchildren in an event-related potential (ERP) auditory pseudoword rhyming paradigm. In addition, associations between ERP effects and L2 proficiency as measured by standardized tests of receptive language and receptive vocabulary were explored. We found a classic posterior ERP rhyming effect that was more widely distributed in children with higher L2 proficiency in group analyses and was larger for children with better L2 proficiency in correlation analyses. In contrast, the amplitude of an early (75–125 ms) auditory pos- itivity was larger in children with lower L2 proficiency. This pattern suggests differential use of early and late auditory/phonological processing resources in the pseudoword rhyme task associated with L2 proficiency, which is consistent with the predictions of the lexical restructuring model in a bilingual context. 

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Univ Oregon, USA;Lund university, Sweden.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Coch, Donna
    Dartmouth College, USA.
    Karns, Christina M.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Anterior and posterior ERP rhyming effects in 3- to 5-year-old children2018In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 30, p. 178-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    A developmental ERP study of nonword rhyming2005In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2005, Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, in press). ERPs to spoken nonwords preceded by nonrhyming nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus-onset) in comparison to rhyming targets. This effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to even younger children aged 5 to 7 years who also show typical adult rhyming effects. However, more interestingly, younger children ages 3-4 did not show the same distribution of rhyming effects. A second ERP component commonly reported in rhyming tasks with adults is a slow contingent negative variation (CNV) in response to the first stimulus presented, thought to reflect phonological rehearsal. Unlike the N450 the CNV component has been shown to differ between adults and children age 6 to 8 (Coch et al, 2002; Coch et al, in press). The current study allowed us to address the development of this component at an even earlier age. The data provide further information regarding the development of rhyming skill in young children, thought to be fundamental to the acquisition of reading. Both rhyming and phonological rehearsal effects will be discussed in the frameworks of how phonological processing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Society for the Neurobiology of Language: Amsterdam 2014, Conference Proceedings, Amsterdam: Society for the Neurobiology of Language , 2014, p. 216-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 21st Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Marriott Copley Place Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts: 2014 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2014, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Ditt förstaspråks grammatik påverkar hur din hjärna bearbetar dina andraspråk2015In: Grammatikdagen 2015, Lund, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Neurokognitiva studier av hjärnans bearbetning av första- och andraspråksgrammatik relaterar skillnader till inlärningsålder och andraspråksfärdighet. Dessa studier undersöker typiskt inte hur skillnader och likheter i språkens strukturer påverkar bearbetningen. Vi utforskade hur andraspråkstalare med goda språkfärdigheter i Svenska bearbetade svenskans verbplacering beroende på om deras första språk hade samma verbplacering som svenskan (tyska) eller inte (engelska). Denna studie visar att hjärnans bearbetning av ett andra språk inte kan begränsas till en diskussion om ålder vid inlärande eller språkfärdighet.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Language background affects online word order processing in a second language but not offline2019In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 802-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgments), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2-- even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Language background affects word order processing in a second language online but not offline2014In: Culture, Brain, Learning : Wallenberg Network Initiative: Lund University, nov 19-24, 2014 / [ed] Maja Petersson, Lund: Lund University , 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different languages organize information differently, for example in different word orders. A large body of work shows that learning to use word order in a new, second language (L2) is difficult. An example is the production of verb-second (V2) word order, which requires the finite verb in main clauses to appear in second position even when the sentence does not start with a subject. V2 difficulties are ubiquitous and only partially modulated by patterns in thefirst language (L1; e.g., Ganuza, 2008 for an overview). Despite the body of work on L2 production, we know surprisingly little about how word order is processed behaviorally and neurocognitively, and how production relates to comprehension. This study therefore examined how advanced German (n=14) and English (n=14) adult learners, matched for proficiency and age of acquisition, process word order in Swedish compared to native speakers (n=20) depending on L1 background (i.e., ±similar word order in the L1; German [+V2] vs. English [-V2]), sentence-initial adverb frequency (frequent idag ‘today’ vs. infrequent hemma ‘at home’ (1)), and length of the sentence-initial constituent (short vs. long prefield; (2)).

    (1) Idag/Hemma läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hon läste tidningen. Today/At home read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home she read paper.def

    (2) Idag/Hemma hos Maria läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hos Maria hon läste tidningen. Today/At home at Maria’s read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home at Maria’s she read paper.def.

    We probed the production of word order in a sentence completion task and examined responses to word order (violations) in a timed acceptability judgment task during which participants were presented with sentences word by word while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. At the end of the sentence participants judged the sentence acceptability.

    Overall, the results indicated that the two learner groups behaved similarly on behavioral measures of comprehension and production, but crucially differed in online processing. All groups, including learners, showed sensitivity to V2-violations in the ERPs. Swedish native speakers were also sensitive to length of prefield showing the typical biphasic ERP response only to violations with long prefields allowing build up of expectations. Importantly, the learners, who did not differ behaviorally, showed different responses. The German learners [+V2] showed similar ERP patterns to native Swedish speakers, whereas the English learners [-V2] showed more variation in their ERP responses. We discuss these findings in terms of theories of crosslinguistic influence and theories of native-like syntacticprocessing.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Native word order processing is not uniform: An ERP study of verb-second word order2015In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society, 22nd Annual Meeting, March 28-31, 2015 Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2015 Annual Meeting Program, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2015, p. 218-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Germanic languages share verb-second (V2) word order: the finite verb occurs in second position in a main clause regardless of whether it starts with a subject (e.g., she; SVO), or an adverbial (e.g., today; AdvVSO). Swedish allows for certain exceptions to V2 resulting in clauses with V3 word order (AdvSVO) (Bohnacker, 2006). Despite the general acknowledgment that V3 occurs, little is known about the factors that license it and about how these structures are processed. This study therefore investigated V2-/V3-processing in 20 adult native Swedish speakers, manipulating initial semantic adverbial type (idag Œtoday¹, hemma Œat home¹, and kanske Œmaybe¹), and subject type (lexical noun, Œthe boy¹, vs. pronoun, Œhe¹) in a sentence completion task and in acceptability judgments made after event-related potentials were recorded. The results showed effects of adverbial- and subject-type across tasks and measures. Behavioral results showed positive effects of pronominal subjects; moreover, idag-sentences were the most accurate, and kanske-sentences the least accurate. Neurocognitively, there was a main effect of V2 reflected in a medial negativity in the N400 time window, a left anterior positivity, and a late posterior negativity. Importantly, the negativities were strongest in amplitude with kanske, while the left anterior positivity was only elicited with hemma and idag. The results thus suggest that V2-violations in Swedish are more acceptable with some adverbials (here kanske Œmaybe¹), and that such sentences are also processed differently from sentences starting with other adverbials. Native word order processing is thus not uniform.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Challenges for deploying math intervention in already challenged early childcare centers2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By comparing the results from two language versions of a computer based intervention program (Magical garden, MG) we aim to learn how to best increase early mathematic skills in 4-5-year olds with a first language (L1, Arabic) different from the official language used in school (L2, Swedish). Research on acquisition of novel concepts favors learning in L1 followed by L2, to learning in L2 only (Perozzi & Sanhez, 1992). However, this has not been researched in mathematics even though often suggested (Clements, Sarama, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2013). The game is based on results by Griffin and colleagues (Griffin, Case, & Siegler, 1994) and focuses on promoting an understanding of early numeracy. Children learn by teaching a panda how to play the game, which is adaptive to their success rate. The game is socially inclusive a) everyone plays the same scenarios, though at different levels and b) the garden grows with amount played independent of level. By virtue of the experimental design, half of the children play the version hypothesized to be less effective. However, all ECCs will have free access to both versions after the intervention period. Previous studies show monolingual children using MG developing their number sense (Gulz, 2018). Here we will discuss the preliminary findings with bilingual children. Importantly, we will discuss our challenges when implementing the study at challenged ECCs. Interventions based on educational software can easily be scaled-up and teachers can deploy them even with little own knowledge and interest in math (Praet & Desoete, 2014). 

  • 36.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    An ERP study of nonword rhyming in 3- to 5-year olds: the effect of age and proficiency2008In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting Program 2008: A supplement of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2008, p. 287-287, article id 1102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (RE; N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, 2005). ERPs to spoken nonword targets preceded by nonrhym- ing nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus- onset) in comparison to rhyming targets, and this effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to younger children aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Behavior- ally, the proportion of children with proficiency in rhyming (production and recognition skills) increased as a function of age. When comparing the RE in these age groups, no differences were found in amplitude. However, the onset of the RE decreased linearly with age. An examina- tion of 4-year-old children with different levels of rhyming proficiency revealed similar differences in the RE. Specifically, the onset of the RE was earlier in children with rhyming skills (production and recognition) as compared to children of similar age with little rhyming skills. These results will be discussed in the framework of how phonological process- ing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 37. Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    N400 responses mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition in second language learners between 6 and 8 years of age2007In: The 1st Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2007, November 29 – December 1, Lund University, Sweden, Lund: The Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6-to 8-years-olds: relationship between proficiency and N400 responses to semantic anomalies2006In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2006, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 39.
    Andrén, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Victoria
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University.
    Att lära sig språk2013In: Språket, människan och världen: Människans språk 1-2 / [ed] Victoria Johansson, Gerd Carling, Arthur Holmer, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 73-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Baldwin, Dare A.
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Saffran, Jenny R.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Meyer, Meredith
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Segmenting dynamic human action via statistical structure2008In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 1382-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet little is currently known about mechanisms that may subserve action segmentation. The present research documents that adults can register statistical regularities providing clues to action segmentation. This finding provides new evidence that structural knowledge gained by mechanisms such as statistical learning can play a role in action segmentation, and highlights a striking parallel between processing of action and processing in other domains, such as language.

  • 41.
    Blomberg, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    First language matters: An auditory ERP study of crosslinguistic influence effects on semantic processing2019In: SNL 2019, August 20-22, Helsinki, Finland: Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, Society for the Neurobiology of Language , 2019, p. 229-230Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Blomberg, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cohn, Neil
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Verbal and visual language structure: A study of children with developmental language disorder probing domain general processing2019In: The Lund Symposium on Cognition, Communication and Learning, April 24-26, 2019, Lund, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Farshchi, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brain responses to negated and affirmative meanings in the auditory modality2023In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 17, article id 1079493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negation is frequently used in natural language, yet relatively little is known about its processing. More importantly, what is known regarding the neurophysiological processing of negation is mostly based on results of studies using written stimuli (the word-by-word paradigm). While the results of these studies have suggested processing costs in connection to negation (increased negativities in brain responses), it is difficult to know how this translates into processing of spoken language. We therefore developed an auditory paradigm based on a previous visual study investigating processing of affirmatives, sentential negation (not), and prefixal negation (un-). The findings of processing costs were replicated but differed in the details. Importantly, the pattern of ERP effects suggested less effortful processing for auditorily presented negated forms (restricted to increased anterior and posterior positivities) in comparison to visually presented negated forms. We suggest that the natural flow of spoken language reduces variability in processing and therefore results in clearer ERP patterns.

     

  • 44.
    Farshchi, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    ERP studies of visual and auditory processing of negated sentences2019In: [Presented at] The XIV International Symposium of Pshycholinguistics, Tarragona: Rovira i Virgili University , 2019, p. 85-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two event-related potential studies, we investigated the processing of sentences with prefixal negation (unauthorized), sentential negation (not authorized) and no negation (authorized). We asked whether prefixal and sentential negation resulted in delayed processing. In Experiment 1, sentences such as “The White House announced that the new Obama biography was authorized/unauthorized/not authorized therefore the details in the book were correct/wrong in actual fact” were presented visually word by word and were followed by a forced binary-choice task (“Did the sentence make sense?”). The underlined words indicate the manipulations and the bold words indicate the critical words. In Experiment 2, the same sentences were presented auditorily. In both experiments, ERPs to the critical words were analyzed. The results suggest that in both experiments, the False version of non-negated sentences (authorized combined with wrong) elicited a larger N400 and P600 than the True version (authorized combined with correct). Sentences with prefixal and sentential negation in the visual experiment were related to slower processing suggesting a delay in integrating negation. However, in the auditory study, False sentences elicited increases in the P600 suggesting that both negation forms were successfully processed. The difference in processing the negated forms between the two modalities could be explained by the fact that the auditory paradigm allowed for a faster presentation and participants could thus keep the negated forms in working memory, while the visual study was, due to a slower presentation, more demanding on the working memory requiring an activation of the negated meanings as the critical words appeared.

  • 45.
    Farshchi, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Event-related potentials to visual processing of incongruities in negated and affirmative sentences2019In: Presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language Meeting (SNL 2019), Helsinki, Finland, October 21-23, 2019, Helsinki: Society for the Neurobiology of Language , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the fact that negation has been the focus of many studies, the way it is processed in human communication still eludes us. Previous studies of negation using event-related potentials (ERPs) have reported inconclusive results as to whether or not negation poses a difficultiesy for processing. While some have found that negation was initially is ignored and incongruities in negated sentences did do not modulate the N400 effect (Fischler et al., 1983; Lüdtke et al., 2008), others have found that the N400 was is modulated in incongruent negated sentences similarly to affirmative sentences (Nieuwland & Kuperberg, 2008). Moreover, Tthis research, however, has been limited to sentential negators, such as not and no while other forms, such as prefixally negated forms with un are largely unexplored despite their frequency of use (Tottie, 1980). To remedy this, tTwo questions are at the core, namely whether 1) there is a difficulty in the processing of negation as measured by ERPs, and 2) prefixally negated forms are processed similarly to sententially negated forms or to affirmative forms.

    In order to answer these questions, the processing of sentences with affirmative (authorized), prefixally negated (unauthorized) and sententially negated (not authorized) forms adjectives was investigated in sentential contextsces, such as The details in the new Obama biography were correct/wrong because the book was authorized/unauthorized/not authorized by the White House. In each sentence, aA member of an opposite pair (underlined) in the first part of the sentence in combinationwas combined with the a negated or affirmative adjective (bold; critical word) in the second part creatinged a semantically congruent or incongruent context. The amplitudes of the ERP effects, N400 (300-500 ms) and the P600 (500-700 ms), as well as accuracy rates and response times to sentences were recorded and analyzed using mixed-effects modelling. 

    The behavioral results (analyseis of accuracy and response times) revealed suggested that sentential negation was more difficult to process than prefixal negation and affirmative forms. The ERP analyses were in line with the behavioralwere consistent with these results in that the most effortless processing was observed for affirmatives where incongruities elicited a larger N400, indicating a successful detection of the incongruities. Prefixal negation was more difficult than affirmative forms, resulting in a parietal N400 combined with a centro-parietal P600, indicating a re-evaluation of the content of the sentence. Sentential negation was seemed to be the most difficult form to process as the ERP effects of congruency were restricted to a P600, suggesting that incongruities in these sentences were processed differently to the other two conditions and were concentrated on re-evaluation processes.

    In line with previous research, we show conclude that sentential negation (not) is more difficult to process than affirmatives and prefixal negation (un). However, we do not find that not has been entirely ignored in processing. We present two novel findings: 1. Different mechanisms are involved in processing incongruities in negated sentences (P600) than in affirmative sentences (N400), 2. No differences are observed between prefixal negation and affirmative forms in the behavioral results but the ERP patterns indicate that the course of processing of these formsprefixal negation is more demanding than affirmative forms. 

  • 46.
    Farshchi, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Integration of negation in sentence comprehension: An ERP study2019In: SALC7 - book of abstracts: The seventh conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition, Aarhus University, May 22 – 24, 2019, Building 1441, Tåsingegade 3, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark, Aarhus: Aarhus University , 2019, p. 41-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the integration of negation in sentences. It compares the affirmative forms with two forms of negation: 1. Prefixal negation (unauthorized) and 2. Sentential negation (not authorized). The aim is to determine (i) whether there is a delay in the integration of negation, and (ii) whether prefixal negation is processed in a similar way to the negated form or the affirmative form.

    Previous studies using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have shown that negation is ignored in early processing in the presence of semantic priming effects and incongruent world knowledge (Ferguson, Sanford & Leuthold, 2008, Fischler, Bloom, Childers, Roucos & Perry, 1983; Lüdtke, Friedrich, De Filippis & Kaup, 2008). Based on these findings, the “two-step simulation hypothesis” was developed (Kaup, Lüdtke, & Zwaan, 2006; Lüdtke et al., 2008). According to this hypothesis, language users first simulate the affirmative concept and only later integrate negation (e.g. ‘open door’ and ‘closed door’, respectively, in The door is not open) (Kaup et al., 2006). Other studies have provided evidence suggesting negation can be integrated immediately if the context in which it occurs is optimal and negation fulfills its most natural function of rejecting a plausible statement (Nieuwland & Kuperberg, 2008; Nieuwland & Martin, 2012).  

    The present study. Using ERPs, this study revisited this issue by investigating the integration of negation in a sentence comprehension task. Participants (N=26) read sentences such as The White House announced that the new Obama biography was authorized/unauthorized/not authorized therefore the details in the book were correct/wrong in actual fact, where the first part of the sentence contained the negated adjective and the second part contained one member of an antonym pair (correct/wrong), according to which the sentence was either congruent or incongruent. ERPs were time-locked to the antonym in the second part of the sentence and amplitudes were analyzed in two time-windows of 300-400-msec and 500-700-msec.

    Results and discussion. In affirmative sentences, Incongruent condition resulted in a larger N400 followed by a larger P600 in the Parietal region and Central region. For Prefixal negation, a larger negativity was observed in both time-windows in the Frontal and Central regions. For sentential negation, no effect of Congruency was found between 300-400 msec. However, in the 500-700-msec time-window, a larger negativity was observed for Incongruent compared to Congruent sentences in the Parietal region.

    Conclusion. These findings suggest that while participants react to anomalies in affirmative sentences, they have difficulty processing sentences with prefixal and sentential negation. Both negation types elicit a larger negativity different from the typical N400 which suggests that negation has not been fully integrated at that point in time. 

  • 47.
    Farshchi, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Processing sentences with sentential and prefixal negation: an event-related potential study2020In: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, ISSN 2327-3798, E-ISSN 2327-3801, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 84-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with the integration of negation in relation to two models of the processing of negation: (i) the two-step model (Lüdtke et al., 2008), according to which negation involves two representations where negation is ignored in the first representation, and (ii) the pragmatic view (Nieuwland & Kuperberg, 2008), which posits that negation can be integrated without delay if it is used in a natural context. The processing of two negated forms (not authorised and unauthorised) and an affirmative form (authorised) was studied in complex congruent and incongruent contexts. Incongruities in affirmative sentences elicited a biphasic N400?P600. In both types of negated sentences, ERP patterns associated with higher processing difficulties (anterior and central negativities) were observed. The results did not support one or the other model, suggesting that the processing of negation cannot be fully captured by either of them.

  • 48.
    Gärdenfors, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Mårtensson, Johan
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka
    Lund University.
    Tänka, språka, lära: Ny forskning ger konkreta verktyg för lärande och lärandemiljöer2015In: Almedalsveckan 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Hansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Cohn, Neil
    Tilburg University, Netherlands.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Processing of verbal and visual language structure: Applying the visual language paradigm on children with and without developmental language disorders2019In: European Group for Child Language Disorders (EUCLDIS 2019), Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv University , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Holmström, Ketty
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Flerspråkighet i relation till språkstörning, inlärning, hjärnans plasticitet, och kognition2015In: Presented at: Kunskapsveckan, CCL, Lund, June 16-17, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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