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  • 1.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    François Grosjean & Ping Liet al., The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism: Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Pp. v + 248.2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 120-126Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish-speaking children: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people in the world and about a fifth of all school-aged Americans speak at least two languages. Nevertheless, little is known about second language (L2) processing in development, even though language proficiency is strongly related to success in almost all domains. Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. The present study therefore recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processes of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups: greater proficiency was linked with shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of all ERP components. Latency in these cases represents speed of processing while amplitude of ERP effects in children can be thought of as an indication of detection of the introduced violations. The appearance of the anterior rhyming effect, latency of the posterior rhyming effect, along with the distribution of the anterior ERP effect for phrase structure violations were related to AoA. More specifically, bilingual 6- to 8-year olds of higher English proficiency processed rhyming nonwords slower than 3- to 5-year-old monolingual children, which could have a strong impact on later vocabulary acquisition. Differences across lingualism groups in distribution of the anterior negativity elicited by phrase structure violations could indicate different neural generators for processing of syntax. Noteworthy is that differences in processing as illustrated by these ERP effects were recorded even though in both these cases bilingual children's English proficiency were within the normal range expected of monolingual children of similar age. Early acquisition was thus important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing as revealed by differences in the anterior negativity.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Second language acquisition in children and adults: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2017In: Tilburg center for Cognition and Communication (TiCC) Colloquium 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant little is known about second language (L2) processing in development neurocognitively. Indeed, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. In addition to AoA and proficiency, neurocognitive studies have also reported on crosslinguistic influence (CLI) in morphosyntactic L2 processing. These studies typically report that learners display nativelike L2-processing when structures are similar to that of their own native language.

    I will present studies where we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processing of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. In addition, I will present a study of CLI effects of processing of L2-syntax. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups. However, other differences in the ERPs waveforms were related to AoA rather than proficiency. These differences were restricted to phonological awareness and syntax. Adults with similar L2-Swedish proficiency differed in their processing depending on if their first language had similar syntax (verb second, German learners) or not (English learners).

    The results from the studies that will be presented suggest early acquisition is important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing while proficiency is important for semantics and for controlled aspects of syntactic processing in children and that CLI can affect syntactic processing in late adult learners of a language.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Snabbast eller bäst?2017In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 0348-0364, no 4, p. 27-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vuxna lär sig andraspråk snabbast medan barn blir bäst. Detta gäller speciellt språkljud men också grammatik och meningsbyggnad.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Standing avocados, or when ratings of sentences and brain processing tells different stories2017In: LU Humanities Lab 10 years 2017: A celebratory symposium October 19, 2017 : How Lund University Humanities Lab has changed research, Lund: Lund University , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    What the recording of brainwaves can tell us about language processing2014In: COMPUTE seminar, 20 October 2014, Lund: Lund University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: 2009 SRCD Biennial Meeting, Society for Research in Child Development: Denver, Colorado, USA, April 2-4, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    An ERP study of nonword rhyming in 3- to 8-year old monolinguals and 6- to 8-year old bilinguals investigating the effects of age and proficiency2009In: The 2nd Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2009, June 10–12, Stockholm University, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of phonological awareness (PA) for later acquired skills including reading and writing have repeatedly been reported (e.g. Lundberg, Olofsson, & Wall, 1980) such that preliterate skills in PA predicts reading and writing up to at least 11 years after (MacDonald & Cornwall, 1995). In the current study behavioural measures of PA along with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. ERPs record the electrical activity of the brain online sampling millisecond by millisecond such that differences in processing between groups that may not be evident in behavioural measures are possible to discern. Previous ERP studies of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (RE; N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel, & Neville, 2005). ERPs to spoken nonword targets (introduced to eliminate effects of semantic skills) preceded by nonrhyming nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus-onset) in comparison to rhyming targets, and this effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study (1) extends this finding to younger children aged 3, 4 and 5 years and (2) to bilingual, late learners of English aged 6-8.

    Behaviourally, the proportion of monolingual children with proficiency in rhyming (production and recognition skills) increased as a function of age. When comparing the RE across age groups, no differences were found in amplitude. However, the timing of the onset of the RE decreased linearly with age, indicating faster processing of the auditory stimuli in older children. An examination of 4-year-old children with different levels of rhyming proficiency revealed similar differences in the RE. Specifically, the onset of the RE was earlier in children with higher rhyming skills as compared to children of similar age with lower rhyming skills. A late rhyming effect (600-800 ms), i.e. an increased negativity to nonrhyming targets with a different distribution than the previously reported RE, was found in high but not low proficient 4-year olds. We hypothesized that this effect was related to verbal short-term memory indicating task difficulty being higher for younger (4-year olds) than older (6-8 year olds) monolingual children. This same effect was found in native Spanish speaking bilingual children aged 6-8 with roughly 2.5 years of experience of English. The significance of these effects will be discussed in the frameworks of language proficiency and age.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses differentially mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: NLC 2009 Scientific Program: The Neurobiology of Language Conference, Marriott Downtown Hotel, 540 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, US, 2009, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have consistently found an N400 effect elicited by violations of semantic expectancy in monolingual adults (Kutas & Hilllyard, 1980), bilingual adults (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) and monolingual children (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992). In adults, when the second language is acquired before the age of 11 years, no differences are found in the amplitude, latency, or distribution of the N400 effect when compared to monolinguals. However, if the age of acquisition (AOA) is later than 11 years, an increase in peak latency is often reported (e.g. Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996). Studies of semantic processing in monolingual children have found a more widely distributed N400 effect compared to monolingual adults’. In addition, both the amplitude and onset latency are found to decrease with age (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992).

    In order to begin investigating the factors important in establishing normal semantic processing in bilinguals, we compared the N400 responses to semantic anomalies in 6-8 year old monolingual English speakers and in native Spanish speaking children who began acquiring English at about 4 years of age. To examine the effects of proficiency, each group was divided into higher and lower proficiency groups. In addition bilinguals and monolinguals individually matched on age and proficiency were compared. ERPs were recorded while children listened to naturally spoken English sentences that were either canonical or that were semantic anomalies (p = .5) and watched an accompanying claymation movie. 

    Analyses of the N400 mean amplitude indicated a typical N400 response for both groups, though that of monolingual children was larger, more widespread, and had an earlier onset (180msec) in comparison with that of bilingual children (320msec). Though these children were matched on age they differed in proficiency (Receptive Language) and Socioeconomic status (SES; as measured by maternal education). When dividing children by proficiency within each group similar relationships with amplitude, distribution, and onset were found. (Higher and lower proficiency bilingual groups did not differ on AOA). When comparing monolingual and bilingual children that were individually matched on age and proficiency, N400 onset latency was similar (320msec) but the distribution differed across groups. More specifically, monolingual children showed a larger and more widespread effect that was largest over medial central sites while bilingual children had an effect that was largest over posterior sites. These results suggest that speed of semantic processing in children between 6 and 8 years of age is affected by proficiency rather than AOA, while the distribution of the effect could be affected by differences in AOA and/or SES across groups. No differences in the N400 effect are found comparing monolingual adults and bilingual adults who began acquiring their second language before age 11 (Weber-Fox, & Neville, 1996). Therefore, we are continuing to study the development of semantic processes indexed by the N400 in bilingual children in order to determine at what proficiency level and/or years of experience of the second language does the difference between monolingual and bilingual late learners disappear.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    The role of age of acquisition and proficiency on nonword rhyming in 6- to 8-year-old bilingual children2013In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 20th Annual Meeting, April 13-16, 2013, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2013 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2013, p. 75-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech signals change rapidly and timing differences as small as 50 ms can be critical for distinguishing between minimal pairs (e.g., bat-pat). Thus, fast phonological processing is important for understanding speech. Strong and positive relationships between phonological awareness (PA, e.g., the ability to recognize rhymes) and vocabulary size have been widely reported in both monolingual and bilingual children. Though PA has been explored with behavioral studies in bilingual children, online processing of phonology has not. ERPs were measured in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish speaking children with English as their second language listening to rhyming and nonrhyming pairs of nonsense words with English phonology. Nonwords were used to help children focus on phonological rather than semantic processing. Though bilingual 6- to 8-year olds were expected to recognize rhymes, neurocognitive measures of rhyme processing failed to establish the anterior effect (an increased negativity for rhyming targets) previously reported in monolingual children. Further, the posterior rhyming effect (a decreased negativity for rhyming targets) was evident only in the group with higher English proficiency, within the normal range for monolingual children. In this group the posterior rhyming effect had a longer latency than what was observed in younger monolingual children. The results suggest that even though bilingual children do well on behavioral tests of PA, processing of sub-syllabic phonology is slowed and more variable in their second language. Proficiency and age of acquisition are more important for mature phonological processing than previous behavioral studies have suggested.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    An ERP study of the relationship between verb semantics and events2016In: The 8th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how semantics interacts with online event processing. This study targets this question examining placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. Swedish lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011). For every placement event the verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We use event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Typically violations of semantic congruency positively affect the amplitude of the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980). Studies also report a centro-parietal positivity (P600) when real-world knowledge is violated and verbs are incongruous to preceding contexts (Kuperberg, 2007, for a review). Previous ERP studies of visually presented images or movies of actions and events have reported an N400 followed by a P600 when the function of an object is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Bach, et al., 2009; Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011).

    Method: Native speakers (N = 24, 18-35 years) watched still images of placement events followed by sentences visually presented word by word. Sentences described the depicted events while ERPs were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. Participants also did an appropriateness rating offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Sym/Asym), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and sentences with the three different placement verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design.

    Results: Base was important for appropriateness ratings of verb usage with symmetric objects while orientation was important for asymmetric objects. In contrast, there were no ERP effects to base (Base/Without) for symmetric objects. Asymmetric-base objects showed increased N400s and P600s with verbs incongruent with the depicted events (orientation, e.g., ‘lay’ with vertical glass). Asymmetric-Without base elicited an increased P600 when verbs were incongruent to depicted events when horizontally oriented (e.g., ‘set’ with horizontal avocado), but an increased N400 when verbs were incongruent to the atypical vertical placement of the objects (e.g., ‘lay’ with a vertical avocado).

    Discussion: Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects (N400/P600) when placement verbs were incongruent with typical placement scenarios of objects that in the real-world are placed vertically or horizontally (Asymmetric-Base, e.g., a candle; cf. Bach et al., 2009). However, for objects without a base the anterior negativity was increased with a mismatch between the verb and the presented images (the depicted events), while the P600 increased for mismatches between the verb and typical real-world events. These results suggest the anterior N400 and the P600 indeed index different relationships with event processing as previously suggested for images (Sitnikova, et al., 2008). Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the processing of verb meaning in language cannot be separated from knowledge of object handling in the real world (cf., Van Berkum, et al., 2008).

  • 12.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Event processing is affected by an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language: a visual ERP study2016In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 23rd Annual Meeting, April 2-5, 2016, New York Hilton Midtown, New York City, New York: 2016 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2016, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how language interacts with online event processing. To explore this question we examined placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs, sätta, ‘set’, ställa ‘stand’, lägga, ‘lay’, and lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011; Viberg, 1999). Every placement event in Swedish must be labelled by one of the three verbs, whose choice depends on object properties, and the object's relationship to the ground. The current study investigates how sensitive Swedes are to the relationship between event properties and verb labels. Native speakers (N = 20, 18-35-years) watched images of a hand placing an object on a table followed by visually presented sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the images while event-related potentials were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. We varied object properties such as ± base (e.g., glass/orange), spatial extension (e.g., tall/short glass), and orientation (vertical/horizontal). The three verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design. The results showed that, as expected, incongruent picture-verb combinations elicited an increased centro-medial N400 modulated by verb appropriateness. Congruent picture-verb combinations also elicited an N400 when objects were placed in non-canonical positions (e.g. laying a glass on its side), suggesting that native placement event processing may depend on an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language. A follow up study presenting auditory sentences simultaneously with images will explore this hypothesis further.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Kan du ställa en avokado?: När det uppstår en konflikt mellan språket och vad hjärnan tycker2016In: Humanist- och teologdagarna 2016, Lund: Lund University , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Standing avocados, or when ratings of sentences and brain processing tells different stories2018In: The ASLA Symposium 2018, Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how placement events are described. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. These verbs are highly frequent yet difficult to acquire for learners of Swedish. The verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We extend previous findings by introducing event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Native speakers of Swedish watched still images of placement events followed by visually presented sentences describing these events while ERPs were recorded. Participants also did appropriateness ratings offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Symmetric/Asymmetric), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and each placement verb was combined with each image across participants. Previous ERP-studies have shown that different types of violations are related to different types of ERP effects. Semantic congruency affect a centro-medial negativity—the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980) while a centro-parietal positivity—the P600 is affected when real-world knowledge is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011). Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects when placement verbs were incongruent with the depicted event including objects with a base. For objects without a base the ERP effects were in addition related to incongruency with real world knowledge—e.g., avocados are usually not vertically placed i.e., standing on a table. With the inclusion of the neurophysiological measure sensitivity to event features not captured by ratings was revealed. Combined results corroborate and elucidate existing analyses of the complexity of verb semantics. A better understanding of native speakers’ processing of placement verbs opens new options for probing the difficulties of learning Swedish placement verbs for adult second language learners.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Today read she the paper: An ERP study of the processing of word order in Swedish L22014In: Eurosla 24: Book of Abstracts, York: European Second Language Association , 2014, p. 46-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is ample evidence that word order is a problematic domain in L2 usage. In particular, production of the verb-second (V2) phenomenon, which requires the finite verb in main clauses to appear in second position, (e.g., Ganuza, 2008 for an overview). Surprisingly, we know very little about how these structures are processed and how production relates to comprehension. We therefore examined how advanced German (N=14) and English (N=14) adult learners, matched for proficiency and age of acquisition (AoA; German M=22, English M=23), process word order in Swedish compared to native speakers (N=20) depending on language background (L1 with [German] or without [English] V2), preposed adverb frequency (frequent idag ‘today’ vs. infrequent hemma ‘at home’, ex. 1), and the length of the preposed constituent (short vs. long prefield, ex. 2). (1) Idag/Hemma läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hon läste tidningen. Today/At home read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home she read paper.def (2) Idag/Hemma hos Maria läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hos Maria hon läste tidningen. Today/At home at Maria read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home at Maria she read paper.def. We examined responses to word order violations in an acceptability judgement task and an ERP experiment, and probed the production of word order in a sentence completion task.

    Preliminary results from the judgment task indicated that native speakers were faster and more accurate on judging sentences than both L2 groups who did not differ. Overall, the more frequent adverb, idag, also affected accuracy and reaction times positively, but there were no interactions with group. The outcome from the sentence completion task showed similar results: native speakers were more accurate than the L2 groups who did not differ, and an overall adverb frequency effect was found, but not difference across groups. In contrast, the ERP data showed different patterns. In native speakers V2 violations elicited a bimodal ERP response, an anterior negativity followed by a posterior P600. These effects were increased in amplitude and the anterior negativity was left lateralized (LAN) when the prefield was long. In the German group a bimodal response was detected only when V2 violations followed a frequent adverb in a long prefield. In other cases only a posterior P600 was evident. The English group, in contrast, showed an early anterior positivity, and a later lateral parietal negativity in the N400 time window that was followed by a posterior P600. These responses were affected only by prefield length and only in amplitude.

    Overall, the results indicated that advanced German and English learners, matched on proficiency and AoA, who performed similarly on behavioural measures of comprehension and production of word order, still differed in online processing. More specifically, language background mattered since the German learners whose L1 share V2 with target Swedish, overall showed similar ERP patterns to native speakers. In contrast, the English learners, whose L1 does not share V2, showed more variation in their ERP responses. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of crosslinguistic influence and theories of nativelike syntactic processing.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Univ Oregon, USA;Lund university.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Coch, Donna
    Dartmouth College, USA.
    Karns, Christina M.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Anterior and posterior ERP rhyming effects in 3- to 5-year-old children2018In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 30, p. 178-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    A developmental ERP study of nonword rhyming2005In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2005, Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, in press). ERPs to spoken nonwords preceded by nonrhyming nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus-onset) in comparison to rhyming targets. This effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to even younger children aged 5 to 7 years who also show typical adult rhyming effects. However, more interestingly, younger children ages 3-4 did not show the same distribution of rhyming effects. A second ERP component commonly reported in rhyming tasks with adults is a slow contingent negative variation (CNV) in response to the first stimulus presented, thought to reflect phonological rehearsal. Unlike the N450 the CNV component has been shown to differ between adults and children age 6 to 8 (Coch et al, 2002; Coch et al, in press). The current study allowed us to address the development of this component at an even earlier age. The data provide further information regarding the development of rhyming skill in young children, thought to be fundamental to the acquisition of reading. Both rhyming and phonological rehearsal effects will be discussed in the frameworks of how phonological processing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Society for the Neurobiology of Language: Amsterdam 2014, Conference Proceedings, Amsterdam: Society for the Neurobiology of Language , 2014, p. 216-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 21st Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Marriott Copley Place Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts: 2014 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2014, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Ditt förstaspråks grammatik påverkar hur din hjärna bearbetar dina andraspråk2015In: Grammatikdagen 2015, Lund, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Neurokognitiva studier av hjärnans bearbetning av första- och andraspråksgrammatik relaterar skillnader till inlärningsålder och andraspråksfärdighet. Dessa studier undersöker typiskt inte hur skillnader och likheter i språkens strukturer påverkar bearbetningen. Vi utforskade hur andraspråkstalare med goda språkfärdigheter i Svenska bearbetade svenskans verbplacering beroende på om deras första språk hade samma verbplacering som svenskan (tyska) eller inte (engelska). Denna studie visar att hjärnans bearbetning av ett andra språk inte kan begränsas till en diskussion om ålder vid inlärande eller språkfärdighet.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Language background affects word order processing in a second language online but not offline2014In: Culture, Brain, Learning : Wallenberg Network Initiative: Lund University, nov 19-24, 2014 / [ed] Maja Petersson, Lund: Lund University , 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different languages organize information differently, for example in different word orders. A large body of work shows that learning to use word order in a new, second language (L2) is difficult. An example is the production of verb-second (V2) word order, which requires the finite verb in main clauses to appear in second position even when the sentence does not start with a subject. V2 difficulties are ubiquitous and only partially modulated by patterns in thefirst language (L1; e.g., Ganuza, 2008 for an overview). Despite the body of work on L2 production, we know surprisingly little about how word order is processed behaviorally and neurocognitively, and how production relates to comprehension. This study therefore examined how advanced German (n=14) and English (n=14) adult learners, matched for proficiency and age of acquisition, process word order in Swedish compared to native speakers (n=20) depending on L1 background (i.e., ±similar word order in the L1; German [+V2] vs. English [-V2]), sentence-initial adverb frequency (frequent idag ‘today’ vs. infrequent hemma ‘at home’ (1)), and length of the sentence-initial constituent (short vs. long prefield; (2)).

    (1) Idag/Hemma läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hon läste tidningen. Today/At home read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home she read paper.def

    (2) Idag/Hemma hos Maria läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hos Maria hon läste tidningen. Today/At home at Maria’s read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home at Maria’s she read paper.def.

    We probed the production of word order in a sentence completion task and examined responses to word order (violations) in a timed acceptability judgment task during which participants were presented with sentences word by word while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. At the end of the sentence participants judged the sentence acceptability.

    Overall, the results indicated that the two learner groups behaved similarly on behavioral measures of comprehension and production, but crucially differed in online processing. All groups, including learners, showed sensitivity to V2-violations in the ERPs. Swedish native speakers were also sensitive to length of prefield showing the typical biphasic ERP response only to violations with long prefields allowing build up of expectations. Importantly, the learners, who did not differ behaviorally, showed different responses. The German learners [+V2] showed similar ERP patterns to native Swedish speakers, whereas the English learners [-V2] showed more variation in their ERP responses. We discuss these findings in terms of theories of crosslinguistic influence and theories of native-like syntacticprocessing.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University ; Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Language background affects word order processing in a second language online but not offline2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgments), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2-- even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Native word order processing is not uniform: An ERP study of verb-second word order2015In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society, 22nd Annual Meeting, March 28-31, 2015 Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2015 Annual Meeting Program, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2015, p. 218-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Germanic languages share verb-second (V2) word order: the finite verb occurs in second position in a main clause regardless of whether it starts with a subject (e.g., she; SVO), or an adverbial (e.g., today; AdvVSO). Swedish allows for certain exceptions to V2 resulting in clauses with V3 word order (AdvSVO) (Bohnacker, 2006). Despite the general acknowledgment that V3 occurs, little is known about the factors that license it and about how these structures are processed. This study therefore investigated V2-/V3-processing in 20 adult native Swedish speakers, manipulating initial semantic adverbial type (idag Œtoday¹, hemma Œat home¹, and kanske Œmaybe¹), and subject type (lexical noun, Œthe boy¹, vs. pronoun, Œhe¹) in a sentence completion task and in acceptability judgments made after event-related potentials were recorded. The results showed effects of adverbial- and subject-type across tasks and measures. Behavioral results showed positive effects of pronominal subjects; moreover, idag-sentences were the most accurate, and kanske-sentences the least accurate. Neurocognitively, there was a main effect of V2 reflected in a medial negativity in the N400 time window, a left anterior positivity, and a late posterior negativity. Importantly, the negativities were strongest in amplitude with kanske, while the left anterior positivity was only elicited with hemma and idag. The results thus suggest that V2-violations in Swedish are more acceptable with some adverbials (here kanske Œmaybe¹), and that such sentences are also processed differently from sentences starting with other adverbials. Native word order processing is thus not uniform.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    An ERP study of nonword rhyming in 3- to 5-year olds: the effect of age and proficiency2008In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting Program 2008: A supplement of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2008, p. 287-287, article id 1102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (RE; N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, 2005). ERPs to spoken nonword targets preceded by nonrhym- ing nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus- onset) in comparison to rhyming targets, and this effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to younger children aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Behavior- ally, the proportion of children with proficiency in rhyming (production and recognition skills) increased as a function of age. When comparing the RE in these age groups, no differences were found in amplitude. However, the onset of the RE decreased linearly with age. An examina- tion of 4-year-old children with different levels of rhyming proficiency revealed similar differences in the RE. Specifically, the onset of the RE was earlier in children with rhyming skills (production and recognition) as compared to children of similar age with little rhyming skills. These results will be discussed in the framework of how phonological process- ing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 25. Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    N400 responses mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition in second language learners between 6 and 8 years of age2007In: The 1st Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2007, November 29 – December 1, Lund University, Sweden, Lund: The Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6-to 8-years-olds: relationship between proficiency and N400 responses to semantic anomalies2006In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2006, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 27.
    Andrén, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Victoria
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University.
    Att lära sig språk2013In: Språket, människan och världen: Människans språk 1-2 / [ed] Victoria Johansson, Gerd Carling, Arthur Holmer, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 73-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Baldwin, Dare A.
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Saffran, Jenny R.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Meyer, Meredith
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Segmenting dynamic human action via statistical structure2008In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 1382-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet little is currently known about mechanisms that may subserve action segmentation. The present research documents that adults can register statistical regularities providing clues to action segmentation. This finding provides new evidence that structural knowledge gained by mechanisms such as statistical learning can play a role in action segmentation, and highlights a striking parallel between processing of action and processing in other domains, such as language.

  • 29.
    Gärdenfors, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Mårtensson, Johan
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka
    Lund University.
    Tänka, språka, lära: Ny forskning ger konkreta verktyg för lärande och lärandemiljöer2015In: Almedalsveckan 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Holmström, Ketty
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Flerspråkighet i relation till språkstörning, inlärning, hjärnans plasticitet, och kognition2015In: Presented at: Kunskapsveckan, CCL, Lund, June 16-17, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Holmström, Ketty
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Hur påverkas ordinlärning av språkstörning och flerspråkighet?2016In: ’Lyssna, förstå och lära i tid’!: Barn med språkinlärning på annorlunda villkor - aktuell forskning om kommunikation, prevention och intervention, Lund: Lund University , 2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Johansson, Victoria
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Annika
    Lund University.
    Horne, Merle
    Lund University.
    Mårtensson, Frida
    Lund University.
    Roll, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Strandviken, Teresa
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University.
    Språk och hjärna2013In: Språket, människan och världen: människans språk 1-2 / [ed] Victoria Johansson, Gerd Carling & Arthur Holmer, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, p. 225-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Meyer, Meredith
    et al.
    Otterbein University, USA.
    Baldwin, Dare A.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Saffran, Jenny R.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Adults track statistical regularity in variable human action2007In: APS 19th Annual Convention: Association for Psychological Science, Association for Psychological Science , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Neville, Helen
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Bagdade, Olivia
    Bell, Ted
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Currin, Jeff
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Klein, Scott
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Lauinger, Brittni
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Paulsen, David
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sabourin, Laura
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Stevens, Courtney
    Willamette University, USA.
    Sundborg, Stephanie
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of music training on brain and cognitive development in under-privileged 3- to 5-year-old children: Preliminary results2008In: Learning, arts, and the brain: the Dana Consortium report on arts and cognition / [ed] Carolyn Asbury, Barbara Rich, New York: Dana Press , 2008, p. 105-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Neville, Helen J.
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Bagdade, Olivia
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Bell, Ted
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Currin, Jeff
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Heidenreich, Linda
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Klein, Scott
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Lauinger, B.
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Paulsen, David
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sabourin, Laura
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Stevens, Courtney
    Willamette University, USA.
    Sundborg, S.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    How can musical training improve cognition2009In: The origins of human dialog: Speech and music / [ed] S. Dehaene, C. Petit, Paris: Odile Jacob , 2009, p. 277-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 35 of 35
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