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  • 1.
    Granfeldt, Jonas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bernardini, Petra
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Wiberg, Eva
    Lund University.
    Linguistic Correlates to the CEFR Levels2013Ingår i: EuroSLA, University of Amsterdam, 28-31 August 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Granfeldt, Jonas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Linguistic correlates to communicative proficiency levels of the CEFR: The case of syntactic complexity in L2 English and L3 French2013Ingår i: Språk i undervisning: Rapport från ASLA:s vårsymposium, Linköping, 11-12 maj, 2012 / [ed] Christina Rosén, Per Simfors, Ann-Kari Sundberg, Uppsala: ASLA , 2013, s. 103-113Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Tina
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Housen, Alex
    University of Brussels VUB, Belgium.
    van de Weijer, Joost
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Multilingual students' self-reported use of their language repertoires when writing in English2015Ingår i: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that multilingual students tend to use their complete language repertoires, particularly their L1, when writing in a non-native language (e.g. Cenoz & Gorter 2011; Wang 2003). While there is some international research on the L2 and L3 writing process among bilinguals, the L2/L3 writing process of bilingual and multilingual individuals in the Swedish context remains unexplored (Tholin 2012). This study, carried out in a Swedish secondary school, focuses on 131 bi- and multilingual students’ (age 15-16) self-reported languages of thought while writing an essay in English, which is a non-native language. Drawing on the translanguaging framework (Blackledge & Creese 2010; García 2009) and a model of the L2 writing process (Wang & Wen 2002), the questionnaire data of the present study reveal that the participants’ L1 is reported to be heavily activated during the L2 writing process, particularly at the prewriting, planning stage. Additionally, the emergent bilingual participants who grew up as monolinguals (L1 Swedish) report a greater tendency to transition to thinking in the target language (English, their L2) once they have reached the actual writing stage than some of the emergent trilingual participants who grew up as bilinguals (of Swedish and another L1, used primarily in the home). On the basis of these findings, we suggest a need to move away from the monolingual teaching practices common in Swedish schools, allowing space for students to translanguage as they are engaging with writing tasks in a non-native language.

  • 4.
    Gunnarsson, Tina
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Mälardalen University.
    Bakgrundsspråkens roll hos flerspråkiga elever som skriver uppsats på engelska: en enkätstudie2016Ingår i: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, s. 137-163Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Gunnarsson, Tina
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Multilingual Students' use of their linguistic repertoires when writing in a non-native language2014Ingår i: Symposium on Second Language Writing : Professionalizing Second Language Writing: November 13-15, 2014, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 2014, s. 57-57Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study uses think aloud and retrospective interview data from bi- and multilingual students age 15-16 in Swedish compulsory school, in order to study a) the extent to which they use their entire linguistic repertoires, and b) whether the participants prefer to think aloud in L1 or L2 while writing. 

  • 6. Gunnarsson, Tina
    et al.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Year-9 students' use of their background languages while writing in English (L2)2015Ingår i: National Forum for English Studies 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Granfeldt, Jonas
    Lund University.
    Bernardini, Petra
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Linguistic correlates to communicative proficiency levels of the CEFR: The case of syntactic complexity in written L2 English, L3 French and L4 Italian2014Ingår i: EUROSLA Yearbook: Volume 14 (2014) / [ed] Leah Roberts, Ineke Vedder, Jan H. Hulstijn, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, s. 1-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a contribution to the empirical underpinning of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and it aims to identify linguistic correlates to the proficiency levels defined by the CEFR. The study was conducted in a Swedish school setting, focusing on English, French and Italian, and examined the relationship between CEFR levels (A1–C2) assigned by experienced raters to learners’ written texts and three measures of syntactic complexity (based on length of t-unit, subclause ratio, and mean length of clause (cf. Norris & Ortega, 2009)). Data were elicited through two written tasks (a short letter and a narrative) completed by pupils of L2 English (N = 54) in years four, nine and the final year of upper-secondary school, L3 French (N = 38) in year nine and the final year of upper-secondary school, and L4 Italian (N = 28) in the final year of upper-secondary school and first year of university. The results showed that, globally, there were weak to medium-strong correlations between assigned CEFR levels and the three measures of syntactic complexity in English, French and Italian. Furthermore, it was found that syntactic complexity was homogeneous across the three languages at CEFR level A, whereas syntactic complexity was different across languages at CEFR level B, especially in the data for English and French. Consequences for the empirical validity of the CEFR framework and the nature of the three measures of complexity are discussed.

  • 8.
    Hult, Francis
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Language Policy Formation at a Swedish University: Negotiating Multilayered Discourses2013Ingår i: AAAL American Association of Applied Linguistics, Dallas, 3.16-3.19.2013, 2013, s. 130-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This ethnographic/discourse analytic study investigates how a task force of stakeholders at a major Swedish university developed an institutional language policy. An ecological approach in conjunction with nexus analysis is used to trace intertextual and interdiscursive connections that were made during negotiations and ultimately entextualized in a policy document.

  • 9.
    Hult, Francis M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Entextualising Ideologies about English and Multilingualism in a University Language Policy2013Ingår i: The English Language in Teaching in European Higher Education, 19 April - 21 April 2013, Copenhagen: Programme and abstracts, 2013, s. 20-21Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary multilingualism in Sweden led to the creation of a language law in 2009 (SFS 2009:600), making Swedish the official language and passing on the responsibility for protecting the continued use of Swedish in all domains of society to public sector institutions. Given the growing need for English in today’s globalized tertiary-level education and scientific research, Swedish universities now need to develop their own procedures and policies that attend both to the language law and to the need to be globalized.

    This paper, then, which reports on part of a larger ethnographic/discourse analytic project, examines how ideologies about English and multilingualism are entextualized in a language policy that was developed by a committee at a major Swedish university. Using nexus analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004), we map the discourses in place reflected in the policy in order to lift forward how core language ideologies are intertwined with institutional language planning. Analysis brings to light intertextual connections to language ideologies reflected in the national language law, in particular (i) ‘clear language’ in all the university’s communication regardless of language used and (ii) Swedish as the main language to be used in all official documents that have legal force. Moreover, the need to be globalized and accessible to non- Swedish-speaking individuals is to be met by Swedish-English bilingualism, resemiotized (Scollon & Scollon 2004) in the policy as ‘parallel language use’, in most of the university’s communication. Further, Swedish is stipulated as the main medium of instruction in first-cycle undergraduate courses, with growing use of English at the second- and third-cycle levels, and in the university’s research activities. Finally, reflecting Sweden’s linguistic hierarchy (Hult 2012), multilingualism was backgrounded in the policy text but still framed as important asset to the university. 

  • 10.
    Hult, Francis M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Global flows in local language planning: articulating parallel language use in Swedish university policies2016Ingår i: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 56-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the language policies of three Swedish universities are examined as instances of language planning in local contexts. Although Sweden has the national Language Act of 2009 (SFS 2009:600) as well as a general Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 1993:100; SFS 2014:1096), language planning for higher education is left to the purview of individual institutions. Since language planning in local contexts often involves the intersection of locally situated communication needs and wider circulating ideologies, the present study considers how national language planning goals are taken up and reinterpreted by higher education institutions. In particular, the focus is on universities whose policies are framed using the Nordic language planning concept of “parallel language use”, which has emerged over the last 20 years as a way to theorize a sociopolitical balance between English and Scandinavian languages. The concept indexes a range of issues related to the relative position of Swedish and English, including linguistic tensions surrounding international aspirations and national responsibilities for universities and the mitigation of purported domain loss by Swedish to English. Drawing upon a discourse analysis of policy approach, we analyze the policies of these three universities as examples of local language planning, focusing on how they engage with ideas related to parallel language use while also expanding upon the concept to include the linguistic needs of local students and staff.

  • 11.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Bilingualism in the university classroom and student engagement in deep learning approaches2013Ingår i: Language Acquisition and Use in Multilingual Contexts: theory and practice / [ed] Anna Flyman Mattsson, Catrin Norrby, Lund: Lund University , 2013, s. 80-106Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Drawing on bilingual rather than monolingual resources in the advanced-level EFL university classroom2013Ingår i: Urban Multilingualism and Education, University fo Ghent, 6-8 March 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Grammar in the English Classroom in Upper-Secondary School: A Research-Based Approach2016Ingår i: Skolporten : Fortbildning för dig som undervisar i engelska, Göteborg, 15-16 november, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Grammar in the English Classroom in Years 7-9: A Research-Based Approach2016Ingår i: Skolporten : Fortbildning för dig som undervisar i engelska, Göteborg, 15-16 november, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    L2 Users' Agency in Classroom Interaction: The Effect of Drawing on their Own Languages2014Ingår i: Eurosla 24, European Second Language Association: Book of Abstracts, 2014, s. 90-90Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that interaction is a crucial source of input and serves as a pre- requisite for learning (Ellis 2008), and that L2 users’ engagement levels in interactive tasks enhance learning (Tudor 2001; van Lier 2008). Recent interaction research has shown that drawing on L2 users’ entire linguistic repertoires can enhance students’ levels of engagement in class discussions (cf. Author 2013), and that flexible, multilingual practices enhances learning (Hall & Cook 2012; Hornberger 2002). We also know from a number of recent studies that multilinguals naturally activate other languages known to them as they engage with L2/L3/L4 learning tasks (Cenoz & Gorter 2011; Falk & Bardel 2010; García 2013).

    Building on this research and framed by the Interaction Hypothesis (Gass 2003) and task-based language teaching (e.g. van den Branden 2007), the present study presents a detailed, qualitative analysis of teacher-led interaction aimed to enhance the learning of L2 morphosyntax in three bilingual classrooms at a Swedish university. It forms part of longitudinal study, combining ethnographic data collection with an experimental design. Three groups of students (CEFR level B2) were taught L2 grammar over one semester by the same instructor, who also audio- recorded the lessons. Two of the three groups were formed by matched-pair random assignment, while the third group was an intact group. In two of the groups, bilingual grammar tasks were used, typically involving L1-to-L2 translation tasks, whereas in the third group exactly the same grammar structures were covered using tasks without involving L1-L2 comparison or translation, except for the end-of-course exam preparation session. The analysis focuses on examining student and teacher agency as an effect of the whether the tasks were bilingual (L1-to-L2 translation) or monolingual (in L2 only), and as an effect of properties of the three different groups. The data were examined using Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon 2004), which is (critical) discourse analysis of ethnographic data, focusing on social actions in groups (in this case student-initiated communicative turns). The results reveal that student interaction patterns in the three different groups differed as an effect of the different tasks. Consistently across all three groups, student-initiated turns were more common when students drew on their L1, and there was a tendency for students who otherwise remained quiet to initiate discussion in the L2 when having the opportunity to draw on their L1. The analysis also shows a certain amount of variation between the groups when engaging with the same task. The nexus analysis of the interaction patterns presented offers a socio-culturally context-sensitive way of understanding why and how teacher-student and student-teacher interaction developed and differed between the three groups. 

  • 16.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Languaging in translation tasks used in a university setting: particular potential for student agency?2013Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 97, nr 1, s. 217-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the value of judiciously used first language (L1)‐to‐second language (L2) translation in meaning‐focused, advanced‐level academic language education. It examines languaging in the teacher‐led discourse (TLD) that arises when translation tasks are used and compares it to languaging during the TLD engendered by 4 other grammar‐focused tasks. Data were collected in 3 different groups of students who were taught by the same teacher within a functioning university course in English at a Swedish university. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of audio‐recorded lessons revealed that translation tasks led to (a) particularly high levels of student‐initiated referential questions that break the initiation‐response‐feedback pattern and (b) a less‐frequent focus on targeted L2 grammar as student attention tended to be drawn to vocabulary. Qualitative analysis of teacher scaffolding suggests that the teacher used translation to create a forum for student‐centered discussion of various aspects of English language use in order to meet one of the course goals. The relatively strong presence of student‐initiated interaction suggests that translation may have particular potential to engender student activity. It is argued that translation, therefore, may have an important, yet limited, place in academic‐level language education where knowledge of the L1 is shared.

  • 17.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Shaping opportunities for dialogue with undergraduate students: a sociocultural perspective2018Ingår i: Om samverkan, mångfald och mellanmänskliga möten: Proceedings från Lunds universitets pedagogiska utvecklingskonferens 2017 / [ed] Johanna Bergqvist Rydén & Maria Larsson, Lund: Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds Universitet , 2018, s. 90-99Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    The Engaging Nature of Translation: A Nexus Analysis of Student-Teacher Interaction2013Ingår i: Translation in Language Teaching and Assessment / [ed] Dina Tsagari, Georgios Floros, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, s. 115-133Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Translanguaging2017Ingår i: Språkcentralen, Pedagogisk inspiration: Malmö kommun, 11 augusti, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    What exactly is the difference between Received Pronunciation and BBC Pronunciation?: Om studentstyrd interaktion2017Ingår i: Lunds universitets pedagogiska utvecklingskonferens 2017: Torsdagen den 23 november 2017, 2017, s. 22-22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här föredraget handlar om hur jag som lärare skapar förutsättningar för studentstyrd in- teraktion genom att erbjuda tentamensförberedande lektionstillfällen i två delkurser i engelska (grammatik och fonetik/uttal). Delkurserna undervisas med lärar-centrerade moment (föreläs- ningar) varvade med ett student-centrerade pass (gruppundervisning med övningsmaterial). De löper parallellt med andra delkurser. Lärandemålen omfattar grundläggande begrepp inom grammatik respektive fonetik samt praktisk språkfärdighet.

    Föredraget grundar sig i det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande, där utgångspunkten är att människor lär sig i sociala sammanhang genom interaktion med andra människor och med artefakter (Säljö 2000). Studenter kan lösa fler uppgifter om de får stöd – från läraren, kurskamraterna, kursmaterialet och andra resurser (Elmgren & Henriksson 2010). Lektionspas- set utgör ett exempel på en studentaktiv (Elmgren & Henriksson 2010) eller studentcentrerad (Sveriges förenade studentkårer 2013) läraktivitet, vilken antas stimulera djupinriktat lärande (Elmgren & Henriksson 2010; Sveriges förenade studentkårer 2013). Med det sociokulturella perspektivet som grund baseras undervisningspassen på följande antaganden: a) att studen- terna är inlästa + att betygsgrundande bedömning stundar leder till att studenter initierar mer interaktion än tidigare i kursen, b) att det ur ett lärandeperspektiv är bättre att interagera med studenterna i grupp än individuellt per e-post, och c) att studenterna känner sig mer motiverade att tentamensläsa om de vet att de kan interagera med läraren för att reda ut eventuella svårigheter före tentamen.

    I föredraget presenterar jag: a) min policy när jag skapar de tentamensförberedande passen, b) exempel på den interaktion som uppstår, och c) studenters synpunkter framförda på en kursvärderingsblankett. Interaktionen analyseras på följande sätt: interaktion som initieras av studenter under de tentamensförberedande passen jämförs med interaktion under kursens tidigare undervisningspass för att se i vilken mån de tentamensförberedande passen kan antas stimulera ett djupinriktat förhållningssätt till lärande.

    I föredraget argumenterar jag att passen utgör enkla, kostnadseffektiva och för läraren ar- betsbesparande sätt att stödja lärande och öka måluppfyllelsen i kurserna. Föredraget avslutas med reflektion om för- och nackdelar med att erbjuda studenter den här typen av möten strax före en tentamen. 

  • 21.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    What is Translanguaging?2017Ingår i: Kulturnatten 2017: Lunds universitet, 16 september, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gomez, Stephen
    University of the West of England, UK.
    Andersson, Holger
    Lund University.
    Lush, David
    University of the West of England, UK.
    Personalised Virtual Learning Spaces to Support Undergraduate Students when Producing Research Reports: Two Case Studies2009Ingår i: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 12, s. 35-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate personalised virtual learning spaces (PVLSs) in a course that was previously delivered face-to-face only. The study addressed three related questions: (1) Can a PVLS successfully be introduced into a course where IT has not previously featured? (2) Can the PVLSs be used to enhance the assessment from an extended essay to a higher-level empirical research project? (3) What are the perceptions of the students and the tutor of the PVLSs in terms of access, clarity and usefulness of the supervision of undergraduate research projects? Results showed that the introduction of the PVLSs into the course was trouble-free and that the PVLSs were able to enhance assessment. The vast majority of students and their tutor showed high levels of satisfaction, particularly with (1) the messaging tool, which allowed asynchronous, one-to-one communication with the tutor, and (2) the interactive web-forms, which provided structured guidance of how to conduct a small-scale empirical research project. The study concludes that the interactive web-forms and messaging tool can be beneficial functions of virtual learning spaces.

  • 23.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University ; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Alltid engelska i engelskundervisningen?: Flerspråkiga elevers perspektiv2018Ingår i: Leda lärande 2018, Stockholm: Stockholms stad , 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ska elevers olika modersmål samt skolspråket svenska användas på engelsklektioner? Detta är den övergripande frågeställningen i forskningsprojektet Flerspråkiga praktiker – en resurs i engelskundervisningen? som är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet. I föreläsningen presenteras forskning om undervisning och lärande i engelska som ligger till grund för projektet samt projektets första resultat. Dessa belyser flerspråkiga elevers och deras lärares attityder och praktiker gällande användningen av olika språk för att stödja lärande och delaktighet i engelskundervisningen.

  • 24.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University.
    English Only in Multilingual Classrooms?2017Ingår i: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, nr 4, s. 27-31Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many language teaching approaches, notably Communicative Language Teaching, rest on the belief that students learn more English if classrooms are exclusively English- medium. This ideology is often labeled ‘monolingual teaching’ or ‘English Only’. Strict English-Only lacks research support, however, and growing linguistic diversity calls for renewed consideration. 

  • 25.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    University of Oslo, Norway;Karlstad University, Sweden.
    English Only in Multilingual Classrooms?: A study of students' self-reported practices and attitudes2019Ingår i: AAAL conference Atlanta 2019: Sheraton Atlanta Hotel - March 9-12, Atlanta, GA: American Association For Applied Linguistics , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pressing issue in multilingual education is when to draw on students’ multilingual repertoires to enhance learning and promote equity (Cummins 2017; Kramsch 2009).  Classroom research in L2 learning supports multilingual/translanguaging practices (e.g. Lee & Macaro 2013; Zhang 2018), but much of this research involves participants who had acquired the same L1 prior to having classroom exposure to English (L2). The present study breaks new ground by focusing on multilingual participants with different L1s: Participants are either simultaneous bilinguals of Swedish (the majority language) and a heritage language (such as Somali), or L1-speakers of their heritage language, learning both Swedish and English in a high school in Sweden. Triangulated qualitative data were collected in 2018 in two groups of students (age 14-15): ethnographic observation (14 English lessons), student questionnaires and interviews (18 students) and an interview with their teacher. With an analytical framework rooted in bilingualism/multilingualism (Baker & Wright 2017), concepts such as ‘language dominance’, ‘age of onset’, ‘heritage language’, ‘majority language’ and ‘school language’ were applied in qualitative analysis. As a basis for studying students’ attitudes, the classroom observations revealed that the teacher used mainly English; Swedish was restricted to metalinguistic explanations, translations of vocabulary, and information pertaining to task requirements and grading criteria. Student interviews revealed that the majority stated that they benefit from their teacher’s explanations in both English and Swedish, of Swedish translation equivalents, and of task and grading information verbalized in both English and Swedish. Students with lower proficiency in English expressed a greater need for Swedish. Students who were dominant in their heritage language expressed a need to draw on the heritage language, although not necessarily in the classroom. An important implication is the value to students of certain information being provided both in the target language (English) and in the school language (Swedish).

  • 26.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Sandlund, Erica
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Framtidens undervisning i engelska: enspråkig, tvåspråkig eller flerspråkig?2017Ingår i: Humanist- och teologdagarna: Humanistiska och teologiska fakulteterna, Lunds universitet, 21-22 april 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University.
    Multilingual Spaces? Language Practices in English Classrooms2017Ingår i: Translanguaging : Researchers and Practitioners in Dialogue: Örebro University, 28-29 March 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a project that recently received funding from the Swedish Research Council. Data collection will begin in autumn 2017, focusing on language practices in multilingual English classroom spaces in Swedish secondary schools. While English is the normal medium of instruction in lessons, research in bilingual educational settings shows that judicious switches between pupils’ mother tongues (L1s) and the target language (L2) facilitates communication and enhances L2 learning and motivation. Psycholinguistic research points in the same direction: L1 activation during L2 processing is unstoppable in low-proficiency L2 learners. Drawing on this prior research, on the translanguaging framework and the theory of language mode, the project examines a) whether and for what purposes teachers and pupils use their complete language repertoires in English lessons; b) whether other semiotic means are used to include L1s represented in the classroom of which the teacher has no knowledge; c) what mechanisms may underpin the language practices observed; and d) whether support in all the L1s represented facilitates pupils’ learning of L2 vocabulary and affects pupils’ participation in classroom interaction. Using a large survey to map self-reported teacher practices, ethnographic methodology and conversation analysis to study language practices in English classrooms, and experimental intervention and quantitative methods to measure L2 vocabulary learning over time, the project aims to contribute to the development of evidence-based language practices in English teaching in multilingual schools. 

  • 28.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Sandlund, Erica
    Code-switching in two multilingual secondary-school English classrooms in Sweden: Teacher practices and student attitudes2019Ingår i: NOFA7 Abstracts: Stockholm University, 13 - 15 May 2019, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2019, s. 129-129Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is no research-based evidence to guide teachers of English in Sweden as to whether and how to use students’ background languages to facilitate learning, participation and engagement (Author & Others 2017). Existing research shows beneficial effects of providing L1 (mother-tongue) translation equivalents of English vocabulary (Lee & Macaro 2013; Prince 1996), of teacher code-switches into students’ L1 for learning English grammar (Kupferberg & Olshtain 1996; Rolin-Ianziti & Brownlie 2002), and of translanguaging pedagogy (Cummins 2017; Paulsrud et al. 2017). This research also reveals a lack of studies in English classrooms in Scandinavia. The prior research in English classrooms was carried out in other parts of the world, and in all cases students shared the same L1. The present study breaks new ground by focusing on classrooms with diversity in students’ L1 backgrounds, reflecting growing multilingualism in Scandinavia (Dahl et al. 2018; Paulsrud et al. 2018). Based in theory of teachers as policy makers (Menken & García 2010) and in bilingualism research (Baker & Wright 2017), our project focuses on the teaching and learning of English in multilingual Swedish schools (students aged 13-16). In this paper, we report results of a case study (Duff 2008) conducted within a larger project (Author & Others 2017). Participants are one English ‘excellent’ teacher (förstelärare) and two student groups: a mainstream (23 students) and a fast-track (21 students) English year-8 class. Using ethnographic methods of classroom observation (14 lessons), photography, questionnaire and interviews (the teacher and 18 students of different L1 backgrounds), we address the following questions: 1) To what extent and for what purposes does the teacher draw on students’ background languages when teaching English?, and 2) What are students’ beliefs about their teacher’s use of English and other languages in English lessons?. Data analysis reveals that the teacher used mainly English (the target language), but also Swedish (the majority language in Sweden and school language), although sparingly, to translate vocabulary, explain grammar, communicate task requirements and grading criteria. The interviews drew on the shared experiences of the observed lessons (where researchers and students were co-present) and revealed that students were highly aware of their teacher’s code-switches, and that students with a lower proficiency level in English stated that they benefited from receiving information in both English and Swedish. An important implication is that the students believed that their teacher’s code-switches served to facilitate their literacy development in English and in Swedish.

  • 29.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    English-Swedish Translanguaging in Multilingual Secondary English Classrooms: A Study of Students' Attitudes2019Ingår i: The third Swedish Translanguaging Conference: Abstracts, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2019, s. 48-49Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pressing issue in multilingual education is when to draw on students’ entire multilingual repertoires to enhance learning and promote equity (Cummins 2017; Kramsch 2009).  Classroom research on the learning of L2 English supports multilingual/translanguaging practices (Lee & Macaro 2013; Zhang 2018), but much of this research involves students who had acquired the same L1 prior to having classroom exposure to English (L2). This study breaks new ground by focusing on multilingual students with different L1s: They are either simultaneous bilinguals of Swedish (the majority language) and a minority language (such as Somali), or L1-speakers of the minority language, learning both Swedish and English in a secondary school in Sweden. We collected triangulated qualitative data in 2018 in two groups of students (age 14-15): ethnographic observation (14 English lessons), student interviews (N=18) and an interview with their teacher. With an analytical framework rooted in bilingualism/multilingualism (Baker & Wright 2017), concepts such as ‘language dominance’, ‘age of onset’, ‘heritage language’, ‘majority language’ and ‘school language’ were applied in qualitative analysis. The classroom observation data revealed that the teacher, being a Swedish-English bilingual, used mainly English when teaching; Swedish was used for metalinguistic explanations, translations of vocabulary, and information pertaining to task requirements and grading criteria. In the interviews, the majority reported that they benefit from their teacher’s English-Swedish translanguaging practices, particularly from task and grading information being verbalized in both English and Swedish. Students with lower proficiency in English expressed a greater need for Swedish. Students dominant in their heritage language expressed a need to draw on the heritage language, mainly when doing their homework rather than in the classroom. An important implication is that the students placed value in receiving information about task requirements and grading criteria in both the target language (English) and in the school language (Swedish).

  • 30.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Translanguaging in English Classrooms in Sweden?: A Study of Teacher Beliefs and Practices2019Ingår i: The third Swedish Translanguaging Conference: Abstracts, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2019, s. 84-85Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In English Language Teaching in Sweden, the entextualized ideology is monolingual, i.e., English Only (Hult, 2017; Lundahl, 2012). Evidence from a large-scale classroom observation study (Swedish Schools Inspectorate, 2011) and a smaller-scale classroom-interaction study (Authors 3 & 4 2016) reveals a de facto bilingual policy of both English and Swedish enacted in classrooms, however. As studies focusing on English teachers’ beliefs are lacking, we do not know whether in-service English teachers themselves endorse the monolingual belief that is entextualized in education policies (Hult 2017) and materials for pre-service teachers (Lundahl, 2012). In this paper we address this research gap by reporting quantitative results from a nation-wide questionnaire administered to a stratified random sample of in-service teachers of English in Swedish secondary schools (N = 139). The questionnaire, administered online in 2017, targeted beliefs and self-reported practices linked to the use of languages in the English classroom. The results show that an overwhelming majority of teachers (98%) saw multilingualism as something positive, and 83% said that background languages should be drawn upon when learning an additional one. More specifically for English, 63% agreed that pupils learn English best if they are allowed to use their background language(s) in the learning. At the same time, seemingly conflicting, c. 60% stated that they use English only when teaching, and 66% that pupils learn English best if they stick to English only during English lessons. These results will be interpreted through the theoretical lens of ‘educators as policymakers’ (Menken & García, 2010), where teachers are conceived of as active agents implementing language education policies as well as language (learning) ideologies into their teaching practices.

  • 31.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Translanguaging Practices in English Language Teaching in Scandinavian Contexts2019Ingår i: The third Swedish Translanguaging Conference: Abstracts, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2019, s. 79-80Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the over-arching aim of contributing to the development of evidence-based teaching practices, this colloquium provides a forum for scholars doing research on language practices in the teaching of English as a foreign/second language (L2) in mainstream schools in Scandinavia. In Sweden, the English teaching profession has long been guided by monolingual, English Only, ideology, particularly at the secondary and upper-secondary levels where many students are proficient enough to use English as the medium of communication with their teacher (Authors 2017; Lundahl 2012). While the predominant ideology has been English Only, classroom observation studies in Sweden and Norway have shown that in practice many teachers enact a bilingual, English-Swedish or English-Norwegian classroom language policy (Authors 3 & 4 2016; Brevik & Rindal 2018; Lundahl 2012; Skolinspektionen 2011;). Given growing linguistic diversity in schools in Scandinavia, teachers may embrace English Only as the language policy for the future: English is the only shared language the English classroom (cf. Lundahl 2012). Alternatively – and in stark contrast – teachers may welcome translanguaging ideology and pedagogy, and intentionally draw on students’ entire meaning-making repertoires in the classroom. English teachers may thus find themselves at the centre of a tension between monolingual ideology and translanguaging ideology with little guidance from national-level syllabi. Educational policy documents in Sweden leave English teachers to rely on their own professional judgement for when to use languages other than English to facilitate students’ learning of English and fostering their identities as users of multiple named languages (Hult 2017).

    A research basis for translanguaging pedagogy is gradually developing. Four recent book-length publications on translanguaging in Swedish contexts (Paulsrud, Rosén, Straszer & Wedin 2017, 2018; Svensson 2017; Wedin 2017) reveal an impressive amount of interesting research in a range of educational contexts: primary education, mother-tongue instruction of different minority languages, deaf education, Swedish as a second language, subject teaching in English in English-medium schools, and higher education.  At the same time, these books clearly reveal the lack of empirical research from L2 English classrooms in mainstream compulsory schools, i.e. the kind of school attended by the vast majority of students. The colloquium addresses this research gap by bringing together scholars who are researching the teaching of English in mainstream compulsory schools in Scandinavia. English classrooms are by their very nature multilingual spaces, so research is warranted here: All students are developing literacy in the majority language (Swedish in Sweden, Norwegian in Norway etc), in English (compulsory), often another modern language such as French, German or Spanish, and in mother-tongue instruction as an elective subject for students in Sweden who use a minority language at home.

    The colloquium includes presentations by five different researchers/research teams, representing different universities in Norway and Sweden. Using an ethnographic approach, presentation 1 focuses on teachers’ language practices in English for young learners in three primary schools in Sweden, all with a large multilingual student body. Presentations 2 and 3 present two separate studies researching translingual writing instruction in English classrooms in secondary and upper-secondary schools in Norway. Presentation 2 is based in linguistic ethnography, whereas presentation 3 reports results from a quantitative, quasi-experimental study. Presentations 4 and 5 turn our attention to beliefs about the role of multilingualism in the teaching and learning of L2 English in Swedish secondary schools among students (presentation 4) and among teachers of L2 English (presentation 5). While presentation 4 uses interview data from refugee-background secondary school students, presentation 5 reports results from a large-scale questionnaire study of English teachers in secondary schools across Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the first time Scandinavian researchers interested in multilingualism and the teaching of L2 English in mainstream schools gather in a colloquium to share and discuss their on-going, as yet unpublished, research.

  • 32.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hult, Francis
    Lund University.
    Planning for Bilingualism at a Swedish University2013Ingår i: 9th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 10-13 June 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hult, Francis
    Språklagen och skapandet av utrymme för svenska, engelska och andra språk vid ett universitet2014Ingår i: ASLA-symposiet, Södertörns högskola, 8-9 maj 2014, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hult, Francis
    Lund University.
    Unpacking Parallel-Language Use in Language Policies at Swedish Universities2013Ingår i: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Language Policy and Planning Conference 2013, University of Calgary, 5-7 September, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hult, Francis M.
    Lund University.
    Discursive mechanisms and human agency in language policy formation: negotiating bilingualism and parallel language use at a Swedish university2016Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n the wake of the enactment of Sweden's Language Act in 2009 and in the face of the growing presence of English, Swedish universities have been called upon by the Swedish Higher Education Authority to craft their own language policy documents. This study focuses on the discursive negotiation of institutional bilingualism by a language policy committee at one Swedish university during the process of developing a draft language policy. Following an ethnographic/discourse analytic orientation to language policy and planning research, data were collected during language policy committee meetings at the university. Using nexus analysis, circulating discourses are mapped and analyzed, with a specific focus on how these discourses were negotiated through mediated actions during committee meeting interaction and then entextualized in a draft policy. Analysis reveals how ‘bilingualism’ became reinterpreted as ‘parallel language use,’ a concept developed and used in Nordic language planning over the past 15 years. Analysis further shows how committee members negotiated the meaning of parallel language use and the processes of resemiotization that took place as discourses from other sociolinguistic scales entered into the committee's discussion and writing. In all, the study highlights discursive mechanisms of language planning and the interplay of social actors and texts.

  • 36.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hult, Francis M.
    Implementational Space for Multilingualism at a Swedish University Following the Passing of the Swedish Language Act2015Ingår i: American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), March 21–24, 2015, Fairmont Royal York, Toronto, Canada, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses ethnography of language policy and discourse analysis to examine implementational space created for Swedish and other languages in a university language policy and how these relate to the Swedish Language Act. Results show that considerable space is made for languages other than Swedish in teaching and research.

  • 37.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Hult, Francis M.
    Multilingualism as Problem, Right, or Resource? Negotiating Space for Languages Other than Swedish and English in University Language Planning2019Ingår i: Language perceptions and practices in multilingual universities: Insights from Northern Europe / [ed] Kuteeva, M., Kaufhold, K., Hynninen, N., London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Sandlund, Erica
    Language Practices and Ideologies among English Teachers in Sweden2018Ingår i: The 3rd International Conference "Language, Identity and Education in Multilingual Contexts" LIEMC18: Marino Institute of Education – an Associated College of the University of Dublin, Trinity College on 1 – 3 February 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Sandlund, Erica
    Språkpraktiker i flerspråkiga klassrum: engelska på högstadiet2019Ingår i: Book of abstracts: LKF-19. Lärarnas forskningskonferens 2019, Stockholm: Stockholms stad , 2019, s. 3-5Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här föreläsningen handlar om elevers språkliga förkunskaper och huruvida dessa kan användas för att stödja lärandet av engelska under lektionstid. Detta är ämnet för vår pågående forskning om engelskundervisning och lärande på högstadiet. Vår empiri rör språkanvändning på lektioner i engelska, men eftersom alla skolämnen förmedlas via språk är den forskning vi presenterar relevant för undervisning i allmänhet i kontexter där det finns språklig mångfald.

    Engelskklassrummet präglas av att lärare och elever kan minst ett annat språk, och därmed finns utrymme att göra språkval. Styrdokumenten samt läromedel som används i lärarutbildningen förmedlar uppfattningen att engelska ska vara det huvudsakliga arbetsspråket på lektionerna (Hult 2017; Källkvist et al., 2017), vilket har stöd i forskning om andraspråksinlärning (Ellis, 2012). Dock visar studier av engelskundervisning i Sverige (Sandlund & Sundqvist, 2016; Skolinspektionen, 2011; Sundqvist et al., 2018) att svenska ofta används som en kommunikativ resurs och en förkunskap för att stödja elevers lärande. Även detta har stöd i forskning eftersom undersökningar har visat att lärande av nya ord och av grammatik kan gynnas när lärare växlar till elevers starkaste språk (Kupferberg & Olshtain, 1996; Lee & Macaro, 2013; Rolin-Ianziti & Brownlie, 2002; Schmitt, 2008; Sundqvist et al., 2019). Från tidigare klassrumsstudier i Sverige (Källkvist et al., 2019; Skolinspektionen, 2011; Sundqvist et al., 2018) vet vi att engelsklärares språkpraktiker skiljer sig åt: en del undviker helt att använda andra språk än engelska på engelsklektioner, medan andra använder svenska, mer eller mindre ofta. Hult (2017) har visat att styrdokument låter det vara upp till lärarna att själva bestämma huruvida de använder andra språk än engelska i sin undervisning.

    Dock saknas studier om lärande och språkval i svensk kontext, så här behövs mer forskning. Särskilt i  dagens språkligt heterogena klassrum ställs frågan om språkval på lektioner alltmer på sin spets (Källkvist et al., 2017; Tholin, 2014). Användandet av svenska kan nu bli en fråga om social rättvisa, och svenskans vara eller icke vara i språkundervisningen omgärdas av flera frågetecken. Om lärare använder svenska för att optimera elevers lärande, försvårar de då för elever som inte hunnit lära sig så mycket svenska? Eller gynnar planerad användning av svenska de här eleverna eftersom de måste lära sig både svenska och engelska i skolan? Hur kan vi  få forskningsbaserade svar på detta?

    Den här föreläsningen fokuserar på de här tre frågorna. Den inleds med en genomgång av tidigare forskning. Därefter presenteras resultat från vårt pågående forskningsprojekt Flerspråkiga praktiker – en resurs i engelskundervisningen? (MultiLingual Spaces? Language Practices in English Classrooms). Vi inleder med resultat från vår studie om ordinlärning, hitills i tre olika klasser. Därefter redovisar vi en analys av elevintervjuer, klassrumsobservationer och lärarintervjuer.

    Syftet med projektet är att ge lärare och lärarkandidater en forskningsgrund för sina språkval. Just klassrum utgör en komplex miljö där flera olika faktorer kan påverka lärande (Baker & Wright, 2017; Dörnyei, 2007). För att kunna mäta lärande och samtidigt förstå komplexiteten i lärande i klassrum använder vi olika forskningsmetoder: en rikstäckande enkät riktad till lärare, observationer och videoinspelningar på fyra högstadieskolor, intervjuer med elever, lärare, lärarlag och skolledare, samt nu pågående interventionsstudier av ordinlärning i sex högstadieklasser.

    Referenser:

    Baker, C., & Wright, W. E. (2017). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Ellis, R. (2012). Language Teaching Research & Language Pedagogy. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Hult, F. M. (2017). More than a lingua franca: Functions of English in a globalized educational language policy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 30, 265-282.

    Kupferberg, I. and Olshtain, E. (1996). Explicit contrastive instruction facilitates the acquisition of difficult L2 forms. Language Awareness, 5, 149-165.

    Källkvist, M., Gyllstad, H., Sandlund, E., & Sundqvist, P. (2017). English Only in Multilingual Classrooms?. LMS Lingua, 2017, 27-31.

    Källkvist, M., Gyllstad, H., Sandlund, E., & Sundqvist, P. (2019). English Only in Multilingual Classrooms?: A Study of Students’ Self-Reported Practices and Attitudes. Paper presented at the American Assocation for Applied Linguistics, Atlanta, 9-12 March.

    Lee, J. H. and Macaro, E. (2013). Investigating Age in the Use of L1 or English-Only Instruction: Vocabulary Acquisition by Korean EFL Learners. The Modern Language Journal, 97, 887-901.

    Rolin-Ianziti, J. and Brownlie, S. (2002). Teacher Use of Learners’ Native Language in the Foreign Language Classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 58, 402-426.

    Sandlund, E., & Sundqvist, P. (2016). Translanguaging, code-switching, or just doing ESL teaching? Teachers’ ‘translation’ turns in response to learner questions in a multilingual ESL classroom. The 6th LANSI conference, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA, 7-8 October.

    Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed Second Vocabulary Learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, 329-363.

    Skolinspektionen. (2011). Engelska i grundskolans årskurser 6-9. Rapport 2011:7. Stockholm: Skolinspektionen.

    Sundqvist, P., Gyllstad, H., Källkvist, M., & Sandlund, E. (2018). Language Practices and Ideologies among English Teachers in Sweden. Paper presented at Language, Identity and Education in Multilingual Contexts, Dublin, 1-3 February.

    Sundqvist, P., Gyllstad, H., Källkvist, M., Sandlund, E. (2019). L2 English teaching and vocabulary learning under three different conditions for language use: An intervention study in real classrooms. Paper presented at Vocab@Leuven, 1-3 July.

    Tholin, J. (2014). Swedishness as a Norm for Learners of English in Swedish Schools: A Study of National and Local Objectives and Criteria in Compulsory Schools. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58, 253-268.

  • 40.
    Sandlund, Erica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    University of Oslo, Norway;Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    "Nej, it's RING!": Language practices in problem-solving sequences in a multilingual L2 English classroom2019Ingår i: ICOP-L2 International Competences and Practices in a Second Language: Mälardalen University, Västerås, 29-31 May 2019. Abstracts, Eskilstuna: Mälardalens högskola , 2019, s. 45-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the recent European migration crisis, the learner population in L2 English classrooms in Scandinavia is now characterized by linguistic and cultural diversity, and both target and majority language proficiency may vary extensively in an English classroom (Källkvist et al, 2017).  Such changes also challenges the suitability of both an ‘English Only’ teaching ideology (Lundahl, 2012), and an alternation between target and majority languages in teaching L2 English. While translanguaging practices have gained research support (García & Wei, 2014), empirical studies of L2 English learning in situated interaction in multilingual L2 English classrooms in Scandinavia are scarce. Drawing on data from 13 video-recorded English lessons in multilingual classrooms (years 7, 8) of Swedish compulsory school, we examine situated language practices among learners in a linguistically and culturally diverse classroom, focusing on language-related problem-solving sequences. Data was transcribed and analyzed from a conversation analytic perspective (Sidnell & Stivers, 2013; Wei, 2005; Üstünel & Seedhouse, 2005). Focusing on participants’ use of available language resources in doing language-related problem-solving, we examine sequences from a vocabulary game activity in which learners have been instructed to explain English words to co-participants through reformulations and synonyms, and where co-participants compete in guessing words. We focus on learners’ collaborative, stepwise guesswork and meaning negotiation, particularly where understanding problems arise, such as orientations to two homonyms of a word. In these trajectories, learners draw on English, Swedish, and embodied action to make relevant and resolve task-related problems. Analyses reveal that in these multilingual groups, all languages are potential resources in problem-solving, but only English and Swedish are verbally displayed. However, analysis of post-negotiation accounts of the problems-at-hand reveal orientations to co-participants’ multilingual identities, and to English and Swedish proficiency identities. Also, blame for understanding problems is sometimes assigned to a learner’s ‘inner translanguaging’.

  • 41.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Lund University.
    Developing and validating a questionnaire to map teacher beliefs and practices relating to multilingualism2018Ingår i: ASLA-symposiet 2018 : Abstraktsamling: The ASLA Symposium 2018 : Book of Abstracts, Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée , 2018, s. 87-87Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ and policy makers’ beliefs/ideologies are known to have considerable influ- ence on teaching practices (Cummins 2017). In Sweden’s current policy documents for English, monolingual teaching practices (‘English Only’) have strong ideological sup- port (cf. Skolverket 2011). A large-scale study (Skolinspektionen 2011) has shown that a bilingual, English-Swedish classroom language policy often emerges, however. With the current increase in students with a non-Swedish-speaking background, new beliefs and practices may emerge among teachers who teach English in language-diverse class- rooms, however. In such contexts, the English Only ideology may become even further entrenched since Swedish cannot be drawn on as a common background language (cf. Lundahl 2012). Alternatively, teachers may become influenced by the translanguaging ideology (García & Wei 2014), reconsider English Only and start drawing on multilin- gual students’ background languages as well as Swedish. In order to map in-service teachers’ beliefs and practices related to English Language Teaching (ELT) in language- diverse classrooms, a questionnaire was developed and administered online in 2017 to a random sample of English teachers in years 6-9 across Sweden. In this paper, we de- scribe how the questionnaire was designed, piloted and validated. Drawing on best prac- tice for the construction and use of questionnaires (Dörnyei & Taguchi 2010), we ac- count for the development of a pilot version, and discuss fundamental considerations in this process, such as construct definitions and operationalisations, validity and reliabil- ity, scale and item formats, and practical and theoretical challenges. The validation pro- cess included the use of raters for matching questions with targeted underlying con- structs, of an expert for advice on specific aspects, and an analysis of responses from a pilot administration of the instrument with teachers (N = 23) from the intended target population. The questionnaire will be made available to other researchers as a tool for capturing teacher beliefs about ELT in multilingual settings.

  • 42.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Teacher Beliefs and Practices: Multilingualism in English Classrooms2018Ingår i: Exploring Language Education (ELE): Global and Local Perspectives, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent statistics on language diversity among pupils in Swedish secondary school classrooms show that 24% have another L1 than Swedish. Thus, classrooms are multilingual spaces. In the English subject, an 'English Only' ideology dominates, where classrooms are exclusively English-medium, an ideology endorsed by educational policy, agencies like the Swedish Schools Inspectorate, and teacher educators (Källkvist, Gyllstad, Sandlund & Sundqvist, in press). However, there is no clear empirical evidence supporting such an ideology, and recently an 'English Mainly' alternative has been suggested (Corcoll López & González-Davies, 2016). Still, a best practice remains unexplored. The project presented here is aimed at  researching ideology and best practice in language-diverse English classrooms.

    For the purpose of mapping teacher beliefs and practices relating to the use of English and other languages in English classrooms, a questionnaire aimed at targeting 6 relevant constructs was created and administered to a stratified, random sample of English teachers in years 6-9 across Sweden. Based on responses from 139 teachers (response rate: 43 %), results show that 66 % harbour beliefs that align with an 'English Only' ideology. Although 98 % report a general, positive outlook on multilingualism, 16-22 % state that multilingualism is a problem in either their school or teaching of English. Whereas 45 % reported that they often talk about how to teach in multilingual classrooms, only 15 % had received specific training by their employers. Implications of these and other results are discussed, together with the reliability and validity of the questionnaire itself as a measure of the targeted beliefs and practices.

  • 43.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lund University.
    Vilken forskning behöver vi?: Ett samtal mellan språklärare, språkdidaktikforskare och elever2018Ingår i: ASLA-symposiet 2018 : Abstraktsamling: The ASLA Symposium 2018 : Book of Abstracts, Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée , 2018, s. 116-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad samverkan mellan skola och lärosäten eftersträvas för att formulera problemställningar som kan leda till gemensamma forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt som befruktar både skola, lärosäten och lärarutbildningar. På ASLA-symposiet 2018 kommer ett antal språklärare och språkforskare att befinna sig på samma plats. Ett effektivt sätt att upprätta dialog om behovet av forskning, som är öppen för alla konferensdeltagare, kan vara att ha ett panelsamtal i plenum. Vi arrangerar därför ett sådant panelsamtal, där följande frågor dryftas:

    • Vilken typ av forskning efterfrågar skolans språklärare?
    • Vilken typ av forskning tycker språkdidaktikforskare behövs?
    • Vad tycker eleverna?
  • 44.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway;Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Källkvist, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). Lund University, Sweden.
    Fredholm, Kent
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ömsesidighet i framtidens praktiknära språkklassrumsforskning: ASLA-symposiets panelsamtal med forskare, lärare och elever2019Ingår i: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande): Rapport från ASLA-symposiet i Karlstad, 12–13 april, 2018 / [ed] Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Tim Roberts, Erica Sandlund, Pia Sundqvist, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2019, s. 19-41Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under ASLA-symposiet hölls för första gången ett panelsamtal om forskningsbehov i språkämnena där lärare, språkforskare och gymnasieelever deltog. I detta kapitel situerar vi idén med panelsamtalet i studier av lärares roll i och för den praktiknära skolforskningen. Vi redogör för några modeller för samverkan mellan lärare och forskare och diskuterar identifierade framgångsfaktorer i praktiknära forskning. Vi redogör också för KIPPS, det samverkansprojekt som möjliggjorde panelsamtalet och den satsning på praktiknära skolforskning som det statliga ULF-avtalet möjliggjort. Vi diskuterar sedan de tankar och idéer som lyftes i panelsamtalet i ljuset av aktionsforskning, lärares forskningsengagemang samt behovet av ömsesidigt kunskapsutbyte och lärande. Slutligen ger vi några förslag till vägar framåt för tillämpad språkvetenskap och praktiknära forskning och ASLA-föreningens möjliga roll i en sådan utveckling.

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