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  • 1.
    Aarthi, Aishwarya Devendran
    et al.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Linnaeus University.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Golzar, Farzin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Implementation of GIS-AHP Framework for the Identification of Potential Landfill Sites in Bengaluru Metropolitan Region, India2023In: The 9th International Conference on Energy and Environment Research. ICEER 2022. / [ed] Caetano, N.S., Felgueiras, M.C., Springer, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncontrolled open dumping and burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution in many urban cities in India. Landfills are the most common cost-effective solution for MSW management in many developing countries like India. However, the identification of suitable landfill sites always remains a challenging task as it involves the selection of several environmental criteria set by the local authorities. The objective of this study is to identify the most potential landfill sites proposed by the Government in Bengaluru Metropolitan Region, Karnataka state, India using Geographic Information System enabled Analytical Hierarchy Process based multi-criteria evaluation technique. Several criteria and constraints as recommended by the local authorities along with the proximity to the solid waste processing plants are used to identify the potential landfill sites in the study region. The study identified three highly suitable sites (Neraluru, Gudhatti, Madivala) for landfills which are not only environmentally sustainable but also economically attractive as they are closer to the solid waste processing plants minimizing the transportation cost involved in the disposal of solid waste from the source to the final disposal sites in the study region.

  • 2.
    Almeida, Roma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Analytical review of methodological approaches for measuring circularity in building renovation2023In: Proceedings of the International Conference “Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Transition”: 12-13 October, Växjö, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circularity in construction industry requires understanding of the complex system dynamics, which are affected by various building layers and societal systems. While the existing building stock offers opportunities to enable re-looping of construction and demolition waste, the assessment of building circularity performance is not straightforward, due to lack of standard database, methods, and tools. This may lead to subjective interpretations by practitioners who rely on lifecycle assessment (LCA) approach complemented with circularity indicators (C-indicators) to know the level of circularity (LOC) of building materials, components, and elements. Thus, these C-indicators requires careful evaluation of the current methodological approaches. The aim of this paper is to map and evaluate the nexus between assessment methodologies highlighting their strengths, limitations, and areas of improvement. In this study, a complementary approach of systematic literature review and design research concept was used to classify seven primary aspects covering 18 key performance indicators, that impact the system thinking approach of the renovation project. The critical analysis of ten distinguished C-indicators show conditional, beneficial and trade-off relationships between various indicators. At the same time, the dynamic aspect of re-looping the resources is missing in these indicators and sustainability is accounted by complementing lifecycle impacts rather than coupling them. Results of this review highlight substantial gaps in C-indicators applicability for renovation projects with emphasis to formulate a practical guidance to assess recirculation of materials throughout the value chain. 

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    ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MEASURING CIRCULARITY IN BUILDING RENOVATION
  • 3.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners2019In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

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  • 4.
    Devendran, Aarthi Aishwarya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Analysis of influence of landuse/land cover changes on the land surface temperature of Växjö Municipality, Sweden2021In: eceee 2021 Summer Study on energy efficiency: A New Reality?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities are responsible for almost 75% of the land cover changes depleting the natural resources globally. These land cover changes with decreasing vegetation and water bodies increase the heat emissions from the land surface thereby influencing the climate changes regionally and globally. This paper highlights the interaction and interlinkages between the land use changes due to human activities (Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15) and its consequences on climate changes (SDG 13) using spatial analysis techniques. In this context, the climate change of Växjö Municipality, Sweden resulting from the urban development is demonstrated through LST (Land Surface Temperature), NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), NDBI (Normalised Difference Built-Up Index) and land cover changes as indicators through Landsat 8 data of 2014, 2016, 2018 and 2020. The land cover maps prepared through Support Vector Machine algorithm indicate that the area of built-up had doubled during the study periods with decreasing openlands. The LST maps prepared from the thermal bands of the Landsat 8 data showed an increase in the mean surface temperature from 7.3℃ to 11.1℃ between 2014 and 2020. The study also aims to study the seasonal variations in the relationship between LST, NDVI and NDBI by making use of Landsat 8 dataset acquired during the spring, summer, and autumn seasons of 2019. Results suggest a strong positive relationship between LST and NDBI (0.74) whereas a negative relationship is found associated between LST and NDVI (0.65) and between NBDI and NDVI (0.71). Further the land cover and LST maps of 2014 and 2020 are used in the simulation of urban and LST maps of 2050 through Cellular Automata model to highlight the impact of urban development on the climate changes of Växjö Municipality. The simulation result predicts that the built-up area of 2020 might quadruple in 2050. The simulation analysis also predicted an increase in LST with increasing urbanization in the study region. This study emphasises that the land cover changes in the process of urban development is also a contributing factor for climate change in the study region which is evident from the increase in mean surface temperature (3.8°C) from 2014 to 2020.

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  • 5.
    Devendran, Aarthi Aishwarya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Spatial interaction model of energy demand of buildings and satellite thermal imageries using Geographically Weighted Regression analysis2022In: eceee 2022 Summer Study on energy efficiency: agents of change, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is an important information tool to improve the energy performance (EP) of buildings. However, establishing the EP of building is tedious, time-consuming, and numerous input parameters are required in its estimation. However, the usefulness of EPC for the implementation of customized solutions by the supply-side actors require that EPCs are available for all buildings, easily accessible, credible, and recent. However, this is not the case at present. This could be addressed by employing remote sensing dataset along with GIS based spatial analysis techniques. In the present study, the spatial regression analysis technique is implemented in identifying the spatial relation between the input variables and the EP of selected 4541 buildings within Växjö municipality, Sweden.

    The input variables used in the study include the land surface temperature (LST) maps of summer and spring of 2020 derived through the thermal band of Landsat 8 satellite data, built-up and openland neighbourhood maps prepared from the land use/land cover map 2020 of the study region. Building topology including year of construction, type, category, and complexity of buildings are also used to identify the relation between the input variables and the EP of those selected buildings. Results of spatial regression analysis reveal a significant positive relation between the LST and EP of buildings (regression co-efficient are 0.86 and 0.95 in spring and summer respectively).

    The stronger correlation in summer could be because of the availability of higher intensity of solar radiation which gets absorbed by the built-up regions. Results suggest that the LST maps derived from satellite imageries could provide information on the EP of buildings. This could be beneficial to local decision makers and policy regulators in identifying the buildings with lower EP with better accuracy with less dependence on EPC data which are sometimes not available or not updated. The results could also be beneficial to investment bankers, real estate companies during the purchase and sale of a building. Policy makers and renovation companies could get benefited with the results in preliminary identification of the potential hotspots for district energy renovation where the EP of buildings is poorer. This could help achieve the goal of sustainable urban planning targeting energy reduction, climate adaptation, through implementation of effective energy management strategies in the building sector.

  • 6.
    Devendran, Aarthi Aishwarya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Golzar, Farzin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Identification of potential landfill sites in Bengaluru metropolitan region, India through GIS-AHP framework2021In: ICEER2021 - 8th International Conference on Energy and Environment Research:“Developing the World in 2021 with Clean and Safe Energy, ICEER , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncontrolled open dumping and burning of municipality solid waste (MSW) has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution in many urban cities in India. Landfills are the most common cost-effective solution for MSW management in many developing countries like India. However, the identification of suitable landfill sites always remains a challenging task as it involves selection of several environmental criteria set by the local authorities. The objective of this study is to identify the most potential landfill sites proposed by the Government in Bengaluru Metropolitan Region, Karnataka state, India using Geographic Information System enabled Analytical Hierarchy Process based multi-criteria evaluation technique. Several criteria and constraints as recommended by the local authorities along with the proximity to the solid waste processing plants are used to identify the potential landfill sites in the study region. The study identified three highly suitable sites (Neraluru, Gudhatti, Madivala) for landfills which are not only environmentally sustainable but also economically attractive as they are closer to the solid waste processing plants minimizing the transportation cost involved in the disposal of solid waste from the source to the final disposal sites in the study region.

  • 7.
    Devendran, Aarthi Aishwarya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Golzar, Farzin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Toigo, Camila H.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Optimization of Municipal Waste Streams in Achieving Urban Circularity in the City of Curitiba, Brazil2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 3252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) remains a great challenge in most cities of developing countries, as the majority of the generated waste is either not collected or is dumped in open uncontrolled non-engineered landfill sites, creating significant pollution due to the leakage of landfill leachate in the surrounding environment. In developing countries, a complete transition to a zero-landfill scenario is less likely to happen in the near future due to various socio-economic challenges. Therefore, the existing landfills in developing countries need holistic waste management thinking with more efforts on waste to energy conversions. This study highlights the challenges with existing MSW management practices of Curitiba, Brazil, and suggests some holistic and sustainable landfill management techniques. This is accomplished through the (i) identification of the suitable sites for setting up transfer stations (TSs), (ii) route optimization for MSW transportation, and (iii) analysis of the life expectancy of the existing landfill with waste valorization techniques for enhancing circularity of MSW of the city. The study has identified six potential TSs, making use of various geological criteria and constraints as suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency using GIS-based spatial analysis, which could save fuel cost of approximately 1.5 million Brazilian Real (BRL) per year for the solid waste transportation (from the source to the landfill site). This research has also made a value addition in this specific field with the preparation of a digitized road network map of the study region. Further, the sensitivity-based scenario analysis highlights that the lifespan of the existing landfill (until 2030) might be extended to 2058 if the city achieves the targeted recycling rate of 85% compared with the current rate of 23%. The results would be useful for policy-makers to adopt the crucial MSW scenario to achieve a circular economy in the waste management of the city of Curitiba.

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  • 8.
    Dhakal, Shobhakar
    et al.
    Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
    Srivastava, Leena
    TERI School of Advanced Studies, India.
    Sharma, Bikash
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Palit, Debajit
    TERI, India.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Nepal, Rabindra
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Purohit, Pallav
    nternational Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Goswami, Anandajit
    TERI School of Advanced Studies, India.
    Malikyar, Ghulam Mohd
    National Environmental Protection Agency, Afghanistan.
    Wakhley, Kul Bahadur
    Royal Government of Bhutan, Bhutan.
    Meeting Future Energy Needs in the Hindu Kush Himalaya2019In: The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment: Mountains, Climate Change, Sustainability and People / [ed] Philippus Wester, Arabinda Mishra, Aditi Mukherji, Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Springer, 2019, p. 167-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As mentioned in earlier chapters, the HKH regions form the entirety of some countries, a major part of other countries, and a small percentage of yet others. Because of this, when we speak about meeting the energy needs of the HKH region we need to be clear that we are not necessarily talking about the countries that host the HKH, but the clearly delineated mountainous regions that form the HKH within these countries. It then immediately becomes clear that energy provisioning has to be done in a mountain context characterized by low densities of population, low incomes, dispersed populations, grossly underdeveloped markets, low capabilities, and poor economies of scale. In other words, the energy policies and strategies for the HKH region have to be specific to these mountain contexts.

  • 9.
    Jha, Abhishek Kumar Rajesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Andrae, Anders S. G.
    Huawei Technologies Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Comparison of Methods for Calculating Indirect Upstream Carbon Emissions from Information and Communication Technology Manufacturing2023In: WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN 1790-5079, Vol. 19, p. 1045-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Information Communication technology (ICT) is rapidly increasing in an age ofdigitalization. Measurement of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions from ICT is crucial for reducingthem. Most ICT organizations focus on Scope 1 and 2 emissions as they have greater control over them, commonly ignoring Scope 3 emissions. Scope 3 Category 1 (S3C1) emissions occur throughout the rawmaterial acquisition and manufacturing stages of an ICT product's life cycle accounting for a large portion ofthe sector's overall CO2e emissions and energy consumption. By not reporting Scope 3 emissions, companieslose the ability to reduce their overall CO2e corporate emissions. Although Category 1 and 11 under Scope 3account for 85% of ICT's worldwide CO2e emissions, the methodologies for calculating S3C1 emissions in ICTare understudied. This study focuses on these emissions in the framework of Sustainable Development Goals 9,12, and 13. Product life cycle assessment (PLCA) and Spend-based methods have been used to analyze S3C1emissions in the ICT sector with two case examples of laptop computers and smartphones. The ExcelManagement Life Cycle Assessment (EMLCA) tool has been used for the S3C1 emissions estimation. PLCAand Spend-based methods are compared on their ability to calculate CO2e emissions. It is concluded that theSpend-based is faster than PLCA for predicting ICT emissions with modest uncertainty for smartphone andlaptop components. Furthermore, this work explores the advantages and downsides of both methods. 

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  • 10.
    Khan, Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study2014In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

  • 11.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Golzar, Farzin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Devendran, Aarthi Aishwarya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Circularity in the Management of Municipal Solid Waste: A Systematic Review2021In: Vides un Klimata Tehnologijas / Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University: Environmental and Climate Technologies, ISSN 1691-5208, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 491-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has emerged as one of the major environmental challenges globally. The consequences of inappropriate waste management are manifold and the trend would continue if immediate interventions are not taken for its reversion amid rapid urbanization and current consumption patterns of individuals. The concept of circular economy (CE) can contribute to a paradigm shift in the transformation of the traditional linear approach that does not favour reuse, recycle, recovery concept. Modern and proven waste management practices with collection systems, recycling facilities, sanitary landfills, and waste-to-energy (WtE) and nutrient recovery offer opportunities to improve urban environment through the valorization of waste and by-products in a CE. This study scrutinizes the existing literature on the assessment of circularity and helps to develop a unified circularity framework in the management of MSW in cities. Key aspects such as tools for measuring circularity, nexus and trade-offs, and conditions in promoting CE are discussed. Finally, this paper elucidates the need for circularity, including enablers and inhibitors for promoting circularity in the management of MSW with a case study in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

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  • 12.
    Lohani, Sunil Prasad
    et al.
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Shakya, Siddhartha
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Gurung, Prekshya
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Dhungana, Bipasyana
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Paudel, Dipti
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste, poultry litter and sewage sludge: seasonal performance under ambient condition and model evaluation2021In: Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, ISSN 1556-7036, E-ISSN 1556-7230, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing population, food waste, sewage sludge, and poultry litter management problem are scaling up even in low-income countries. The management of these wastes has therefore been challenging. Anaerobic digestion of food waste alone is not very stable due to its acidic nature and high degradability whereas sewage sludge and poultry litter have low biochemical methane potential and a high nitrogen concentration. Co-digestion of suitably selected substrate leads to enhanced biogas production potential, system stability due to synergetic effects, and resolving the problem of waste management in the vicinity in a holistic approach. However, these wastes have varying characteristics and composition, in terms of carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, pH, and alkalinity. In addition, millions of the rural household bio- digesters operating in low-income countries are working under ambient conditions and are primarily unheated. Therefore, there is a need of research to assess the viability of biogas production of co-digestion of all above substrates in an optimal mixing ratio operating in an ambient temperature condition. In this study, food waste (FW), sewage sludge (SS), and poultry litter (PL) were co-digested at ratios (SS: PL: FW: 3:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:1) with 8% total solid (TS) content at ambient temperature in summer and winter seasons. Biogas yield was highest with mixing ratio of 2:1:1 with the values of 640 L/kgVS in summer while it gave extremely low biogas yield of 106 L/ kgVS in winter. The 2:1:1 mixture also had the highest methane composition of nearly 65% as well as the highest VS removal efficiency of 60%, making it the most viable option for increasing biogas production. Mathematical modeling results using Gompertz model and first-order model predicted well with R2 value ranging from 0.91 to 0.98, which upheld the experimentally obtained values. Findings from this study suggest that co-digestion substrates (SS:PL:FW) mixing ratio of 2:1:1 is an optimized ratio among the studied co-substrate ratio for enhanced biogas production. Furthermore, winter biogas yield is almost one sixth of summer biogas yield, which means use of temperature enhancement techniques to anaerobic digesters operating at ambient conditions would be essential to increase the biogas yield during winter.

  • 13.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dadvar, Atefeh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Recycling Behavior in a Multicultural Urban Area in Sweden2021In: International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, E-ISSN 1307-6892, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 221-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alabastern, a multicultural rental housing area in the Växjö city of Sweden, was identified as poor at recycling household waste compared to other housing areas in the town. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis is conducted to understand the underlying causes of waste recycling behavior of the tenants. Results showed that majority of the studied participants perceived themselves to be environmentally friendly. They reported that they recycled household waste quite often, but it was the other tenants who did not sort their waste properly. The respondents identified the causes of the improper waste recycling as lack of attitude and awareness, limitation of communication, sense of insecurity, lack of means to transport bulky waste, limitation of the recycling room, and inadequate action by the housing company Vï¿œxjï¿œbostï¿œder.

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  • 14.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Homeowners’ attitude towards one-stop-shop business concept for energy renovation of detached houses in Kronoberg, Sweden2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China / [ed] Yan, J; Yang, HX; Li, H; Chen, X, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 3702-3708Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an online questionnaire survey, this paper analyses the attitude of homeowners in Kronoberg, Sweden towards energy renovation and one-stop shop (OSS) services for the deep renovation of detached houses. Personal and contextual variables have been analysed to know who have renovation plan, what motivates them to renovate and if there is an interest in OSS concept. Results have shown that at present a very small section of the homeowners' have deep renovation plan. The priority is rather on aesthetic renovation than energy renovation. Younger homeowners below 36 years could be the first potential customer segment for deep renovation. The attitude towards OSS business concept of one entrepreneur-offering package solutions currently is not so encouraging. There is a need to demonstrate a cost-efficient OSS business concept for deep renovation ensuring the quality of the work to accelerate the deep renovation under such a business concept.

  • 15.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Hassan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Integrated approach for provision of clean energy and water in rural Bangladesh2018In: Ground Water for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 7, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate goal of this paper is to explore ways to upgrade energy and water services in rural areas of Bangladesh while improving resource recovery. The study analyzes the potential of a poly-generation system using locally available biomass resources (cow dung and agriculture residue) for providing cooking energy, electricity, and drinking water to a rural community. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Pani Para village with 52 households to investigate demand patterns and estimate the resource potential and amount of biogasneeded in the poly-generation system. A poly-generation system with 150 m3biogas digester and a 10 kWe generator is required to meet cooking energy, electricity and water demand in the village. Co-digestion of available resources including cow dung and agriculture residues can provide 48,250 m3 biogas/year, which is sufficient to supply electricity and clean drinking water to all households in the village. In addition, around two thirds of the households can use biogas for cooking. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the amount of agriculture residues is increased by 15%, also cooking gas can be provided to all households. The results indicate that such integrated solutions are worth further exploration.

  • 16.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Dhital, Ram Prasad
    Alternative Energy Promotion Center, Nepal.
    Isolated and Mini-Grid Solar PV Systems: An Alternative Solution for Providing Electricity Access in Remote Areas (Case Study from Nepal).2015In: Solar Energy Storage / [ed] Bernt Sørensen, United Kingdom: Academic Press, 2015, p. 359-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nepal is a landlocked country with difficult geographical terrain and without fossil reserves. However, the country has been blessed with abundant renewable resources. All these facts have contributed to the advantages of renewable-energy-based decentralized rural electrification in Nepal. When making technological choices, the cost-effectiveness of the technologies must be considered. This study presents solar photovoltaic (PV) alternatives for rural electrification, considering off-grid solar PV for individual households and solar mini-grids for electrifying rural communities, and comparing them with the supply option with grid extension and electricity from a diesel generator for the case of Kyangshing village in Sindhupalchowk, Nepal. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) production with these various alternatives is compared, along with the sensitivity analysis for some of the crucial input assumptions. Analysis has shown that a solar PV-based mini-grid system is the most cost-effective option for electrification in the village. The business model and operational and management model for such a solar PV-based mini-grid system have also been proposed for guaranteeing the sustainability of the system.

  • 17.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Emran, Saad Been
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 127, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO2eq/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. 

  • 18.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Luukkanen, Jyrki
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Kaivo-oja, Jari
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Evaluating Synergies and Trade-Offs among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Explorative Analyses of Development Paths in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the linkages between multiple targets of Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) may help to integrate different sectoral programmes and develop coherent cross-sectoralpolicy to explore synergies. Synergy is interaction among two or more actions, which will lead toan impact greater or less than the sum of individual effects. Therefore, synergy can be positive ornegative (trade-off). This paper aims at developing an analytical framework to evaluate sectorallinkages and examine potential synergies and trade-offs among various SDGs’ goals and targets.Synergies and trade-offs related to energy access (SDG7), clean water and sanitation access (SDG6),food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG2) and poverty alleviation (SDG1) have been evaluatedfrom the perspective of developing countries using examples from South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal,and Sri Lanka) and Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Ethiopia and Rwanda), and historical data for theperiod between 1990 and 2012. The analytical framework includes both qualitative and quantitativemethods. Network analysis technique has been used for exploring the conceptual linkage amongdifferent indicators, and capturing the targets associated with SDGs. Advanced SustainabilityAnalysis (ASA) developed under the European framework programme has been used for quantifyingthe synergies and trade-offs among sustainability indicators. The analysis showed strong synergyamong various SDG targets. Interestingly, the potential synergy differs from country to countryand over time. Ghana and Sri Lanka had relatively higher potential synergy, whereas Rwanda andNepal had relatively lower potential synergy among the various targets. Higher synergy valueswere evidenced in those cases where the policy have recognized and emphasized on linkages amongcross-sectoral targets.

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  • 19.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    One-Stop-Shop for Energy Renovation: Examples of Local Interventions in Residential Sector in Achieving SDG 7.32020In: IESD Second Annual Conference: Aligning Local Interventions with the UN SDGs, 2nd July, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the challenges and possibilities in the journey of establishing One-Stop-Shop (OSS) for energy renovation with three case examples. The paper compares three models; municipality owned (Cyprus), private and public-private partnership with operational support from municipalities (Netherlands), and privately owned and market based (Sweden) OSS models. The study is based on the situational analysis with market gap identification for the energy renovation of the dwellings and CANVAS analysis of the studied OSS models. The commonalities and peculiarities of different OSS models have been closely observed and the strength and weaknesses within these models are critically discussed. The analysis have shown that lack of awareness, inconvenience and cumbersome renovation process and lack of access to finance are the common challenges of energy renovation market. The study has also shown that the OSS model and its setting up journey may vary depending upon the market conditions, readiness, existing level of government support, and nature of the organization willing to initiate the OSS.

  • 20.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Evaluating Existing Market for Deep Energy Renovation in Sweden and Denmark2018In: Advanced Building Skins: C2 Models, Policies and Products for Building Retrofit, Wilen (Sarnen): Advanced Building Skins. ABS, 2018, p. 576-580Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emissions in the EU. Sweden andDenmark are cold climatic countries with strong demand for space heating and hot water in the residentialsector. Large section of the detached houses in these countries are built more than 30 years ago and needrefurbishment. Despite of huge energy saving potentials with deep renovation of these houses, there existsseveral challenges in realizing those saving potentials. This paper evaluates the market for deep renovation ofsingle-family houses in these two Nordic countries using PEST and SWOT analysis. Comparative analysisbetween two countries will help to understand the common and country specific drivers and barriers and todevelop strategic recommendation in accordance.

  • 21.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strategies for deep renovation market of detached houses2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 138, p. 1-10, article id 110659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep renovation of the buildings is a key for sustainable development, however, the rate of deep renovation of residential buildings in the European Union (EU) is lower than what is required to meet the climate and energy goals. This paper analyses peculiarities and commonalities in market conditions and approaches to the deep renovation of single-family (or detached) houses in Denmark and Sweden. The market analysis covers the Political, Economic, Social, and Technical (PEST) dimensions and is based on systematic literature review and findings of market gap analysis. The PEST analysis is complemented with responses from 49 stakeholders/experts to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) for the deep renovation market. The synthesis of SWOT and PEST led to some strategies for deep renovation. Furthermore, policies and strategies adopted by some other countries have been discussed to place findings from this study in the regional and global context. Capacity building in designing and managing deep renovation with technological advancement and construction practices; and enforcement of quality assurance systems of artisans could avoid the perceived risk, and inconveniences associated with renovation. Encouraging systematically planned stepwise deep renovation through One-Stop shop and linking such renovation with appropriate financing mechanism could attract more homeowners with financial limitations. Besides, clustering several houses in need of renovation and appropriate energy/carbon pricing mechanisms could make the renovation market more attractive for investors and construction companies. The findings of this paper are of interest to construction companies, policymakers, investors, and analysts about the deep renovation market.

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  • 22.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden:International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pachauri, Shonali
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Nagai, Yu
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria:Technische Universität Wien, Austria.
    Analyzing cooking fuel and stove choices in China till 20302012In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 031805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people in China still burn low grade solid fuels in traditional stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. This results in significant pollution, affecting the health of especially women and children who are exposed most. The mode of energy consumption and types of stoves in use may change with increasing prosperity. Product specific and socio-economic parameters also influence these choices. We analyze cooking fuel and stove choices in China. Choices are modeled to depend on standard economic variables such as income, technology costs, and fuel prices, along with some variables unique to the developing country setting such as inconvenience costs. Our analysis shows that 24% of the rural and 17% of the urban population will still depend on solid fuels in 2030 under a business as usual scenario. Various policy scenarios that can accelerate transition to modern fuels by 2030 are also analyzed in this paper and their costs, energy, emissions and health impacts assessed.

  • 23.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pachauri, Shonali
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Rao, Narasimha D.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing rural energy sustainability in developing countries2014In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 19, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing sustainable energy access is one of the most critical global challenges. This paper introduces a method for evaluating the status and progress of rural household energy sustainability in developing countries using a new composite indicator, the energy sustainability index (ESI). The ESI combines 13 techno-economic, environmental and social indicators of sustainability using principal component analysis (PCA). We apply the ES! to China, India, South Africa, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh and Ghana between 1990 and 2010. The analysis suggests that South Africa's rural energy sustainability index is highest followed by China, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Ghana respectively. All the countries' rural energy sustainability has improved relatively over time except Ghana's. Improvements result mainly from increasing rural electricity use and increasing access to clean and efficient cooking fuels.

  • 24.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Criteria based approach for assessment of policy instruments for deep renovation of residential building in the Netherlands2019In: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings: eceee 2019 Summer Study on energy efficiency: Is efficient sufficient?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019, p. 599-606, article id 3-352-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is responsible for more than 40 % of the energy use and 32 % of carbon dioxide emissions in the European Union (EU). Previous research has shown that the present rate of energy retrofit and refurbishment in Europe is far below (<50 %) than that is required to meet the EU's building related energy efficiency goals for 2020. Appropriate policy interventions for deep renovation is perceived as a catalytic agent in promoting energy efficiency and leveraging more investments in the building sector. EU directives regarding Energy Efficiency reflects in various member states' national targets and policy measures to improve the energy performance of the existing building stocks. Economic policy instruments seem to be influential in steering the deep renovation market, but this alone may not be sufficient for the sustainable growth of the market. There is a need for market-based approach to enhance the private sector involvement, both in terms of technical and financial capabilities. This paper evaluates the policy instrument used for promoting deep renovation of residential buildings in the Netherlands. A "Theory-based evaluation" technique has been used in analyzing the content of the policy instrument, and the underlying theories and policies, at output and impact level. A set of the evaluation criteria have been applied for assessing such policy instruments in leveraging energy efficiency investments and their effectiveness in terms of energy savings. The assessments are done based on the meta-analysis of relevant literature and data sources, and finalized in consultation with the Dutch partners from INNOVATE (Integrated solutions for ambitious energy refurbishment of private housing) project under Horizon 2020. Further, the challenges for scaling up such existing effort for the sustainable growth of the deep renovation market has been explored.

  • 25.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Alternative pathways for providing access to electricity in developing countries2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 57, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on electrification pathways tends to dangle between the merits of centralized on-grid versus decentralized off-grid electrification, and most of the time, both routes are promoted in parallel. However, the basis for choosing pathways has neither been very clear nor rational. This study compares three pathways for rural electrification considering (i) off-grid renewable energy (RE) technologies for individual households (ii) mini grids (with micro hydro and diesel generators) and (iii) grid extension. Different technological pathways are analyzed considering various technical and socio-economic parameters in two country cases: Nepal and Afghanistan. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is taken as the main basis for comparison of the various options, in which both environmental externalities and life cycle costs are considered. The analysis shows that the micro hydro based mini grid technology is the most competitive alternative for electrifying isolated and remote rural areas in both countries. Individual household technology should be promoted only in places with scattered households where there is no possibility of mini grid solution. The choice of technology and the pathway adopted in Nepal seems functional, though some flaws within the pathways need to be addressed. In Afghanistan, the technological pathways for rural electrification are not well-defined and the country lacks a clear cut national policy framework for rural electrification. Here, micro hydro based mini grid would be a more sustainable proposition rather than diesel generators as promoted in the transitional phase. Afghanistan can benefit from lessons learnt in Nepal not least in the formation of markets for renewable technologies.

  • 26.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 2194-2201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 61% of the total population of Nepal has no access to electricity. The majority is poor and live in rural areas. In recent years, rural electrification has had high priority in government policies, and micro hydro and solar PV have been the most commonly adopted off-grid technologies. The financial mix in the off-grid rural electrification is generally characterized by subsidy, equity and credit. In this paper, we analyze how rural electrification has been funded and the impact of subsidy policies on the renewable energy market, focusing on the projects implemented under the ‘subsidy policy 2000’. Our study is based on official data obtained from authorities in Nepal and a survey carried out among private supply and installation companies, NGOs and financial institutions. The study shows that awareness levels in adopting RE-technologies and willingness of people to access and pay for electricity have increased significantly. However, there is a huge financial gap between the cost of electrification and the affordability. Bridging this gap is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed for the smooth expansion of rural electrification in the country.

  • 27.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Renewable Energy Market in Rural Electrification: Country Case Nepal2012In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 168-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Markets for Renewable Energy (RE) technologies are emerging in Nepal in connection with rural electrification in the country. Two promising technologies are in evidence – solar home system (SHS) and micro-hydro. The availability of abundant renewable resources, lack of fossil fuels and difficult geographical terrain for grid line extensions contribute to the advantages of RE based decentralized rural electrification in Nepal. The distributional analysis shows increase in extensive growth and decrease in the intensive growth rate of rural electrification thus indicating market expansion with uneven penetration among the rural people. Solar PV technology is still not in the reach of the economic poor. This paper discusses and analyzes RE based rural electrification supply models, economics behind rural electrification, market drivers and market distribution in the rural areas of Nepal. Access to credit and cumbersome subsidy delivery mechanism have been perceived as the major factors affecting the expansion of rural electrification by the stakeholders, requiring innovations in credit and subsidy delivery system so that a larger rural population can have access to electrification.

  • 28.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Using a sustainability index to assess energy technologies for rural electrification2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 41, p. 1351-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating the sustainability performance of energy technologies applied in rural electrification, using the multivariate technique called Principal component analysis (PCA).The sustainability is assessed in terms of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). The ETSI has been used for assessing the sustainability performance of ten different energy systems in the case of India. Since this method is static in nature, the sustainability performance analysis is made for three different years (2005, 2010 and 2015) to capture technological advancements and changes in market conditions for the various technologies over time. The result shows that mature technologies such as biomass gasifiers, biogas and microhydro technologies have relatively better sustainability performance among the options analyzed. There is slight increment in their sustainability performance in the ten year period considered. Emerging technologies such as solar and wind have fairly good improvement in the sustainability performance over the studied time but still have difficulties competing with the mature technologies and conventional technologies without policy support. Analysis has been made with probable, minimum and maximum capital costs, operational and fuel costs to capture uncertainty among the input assumptions, and sensitivity has been reflected in the analysis of energy technology sustainability index (ETSI). This ETSI could help improve energy technology assessments, particularly when it comes to the feasibility of available alternatives.

  • 29.
    Mokhtara, Charafeddine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sinha, Shashwat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Urban Heat Island Risk Assessment and Mapping in the Swedish Residential Sector2023In: Proceedings of the International Conference “Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Transition” / Climate change, resilience, and adaptation of urban built environment, Linnaeus University Press, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Scandinavian countries, including Sweden, are relatively less vulnerable to climate change, Swedish residential dwellings specifically those constructed before the 1975s are likely to be impacted by current extreme weather events (EWE) such as urban heat islands (UHI). This EWE can worsen air quality, increase heat-related illnesses (particularly among vulnerable populations), and raise maintenance costs and energy demand for cooling in buildings.This study aimed to map UHI risk in Sweden's residential sector using a scenario-based analysis approach. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Remote sensing (RS) imagery data (land surface temperature (LST)) and some statistical data (including the number of houses, building typologies, and characteristics) collected from the SCB (Statistics Sweden) and TABULA database are used. The overall UHI risk maps for Sweden are developed following the risk matrix approach, by weighting and aggregating the created maps for UHI hazard, building exposure, and vulnerability. Here, the geographical information system ArcGIS pro 3.1 was used to carry out the different spatial analysis tasks, including pre-processing of spatial data, developing required maps, and performing raster calculations.The outcomes reveal a range of areas posing risks, with most high-risk zones situated in the southern and southeastern regions. Moreover, there is a discernible impact of the UHI on most of the buildings across Sweden constructed prior to the 1960s. Nevertheless, for structures built between 1961 to 1975, only those in the southern regions display potential susceptibility to the UHI. Furthermore, the western areas exhibit a low UHI risk.Despite the limitation of data used, the findings of this study have practical implications, as they can help homeowners, renovation companies, and policymakers implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The approach used is comprehensive, easily applicable, scalable, and can be replicated anywhere, assisting in the development of climate-resilient buildings not only in Sweden but also in other regions.

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  • 30.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Swedish House Owners’ Intentions Towards Renovations: Is there a Market for One-Stop-Shop?2019In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-16, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine factors aecting owners’ intention for renovation of their detached houses. Furthermore, we analyze their interest in choosing a one-stop-shop (OSS) service for the renovation, even though such a concept is not yet established in Sweden, but emerging in other parts of Europe. Our study is based on responses to an online questionnaire survey of 971 house owners residing in Kronoberg Region in Sweden. About 76% of the respondents intend to renovate in the near future, with approximately 71% of them preferring to renovate individual components of their dwelling and 5% to renovate their whole house in steps. House owners of younger age, higher income, higher education, and those with an interest for environmental issues, were the ones most interested in physical renovations, which improves energy efficiency of the building. For those house owners, one-stop-shop can facilitate the decision-making process, and help them to choose those measures that will improve their quality of life. Approximately 20% of the respondents had a positive view towards an one-stop-shop, which is an indicator that market for such a service exists. Parameters such as quality of work, cost and energy savings and specification of measures to be adopted are the key for the promotion of one-stop-shop. Additionally, house owners want to have a certain level of involvement in the selection of actors performing the renovation. Moreover, financial incentives, e.g., loans, do not play a significant role for the selection of one-stop-shop, but act as complementary motive for house owners.

  • 31.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    A business model canvas framework for sustainable one-stop-shops2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sustainable Business Model Canvas (SBMC) offers a useful tool for business model design, as it manages to integrate all three dimensions of sustainability without distinguishing between three different layers (economic, environmental, and social). This paper presents the application of SBMC in a real study case of a one-stop-shop (OSS) for the renovation of single-family houses operating inKronoberg province in Sweden. The case is based on shifting from the current approach of the OSS, making interventions that will lead to the development of a "new" OSS which can reach the highest possible sustainability potential. A two-stage comprehensive assessment process for the "new" model is proposed, following a lifecycle perspective. The use of SBMC and the assessment process allows both existing and under-development OSSs to gain a better understanding of different alternatives regarding their business, and how these alternatives improve or weaken their existing business model. This work also proposes the steps that should be followed to assess the impact of potential intervention in the business model on the sustainability performance of an OSS. There is a need though to acquire relevant data to make a more detailed evaluation of the economic, environmental, and social burdens and benefits of an OSS. Such an evaluation will lead to more well-informed interpretations regarding the sustainability performance of different OSSs.

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  • 32.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    A triple-layered one-stop-shop business model canvas for sustainable house renovations2020In: WSBE 20 - World Sustainable Built Environment: Beyond 2020 2-4 November 2020, Gothenburg, Sweden, Bristol, United Kingdom: IOP Publishing , 2020, Vol. 588, article id 022060Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple Layer Business Model Canvas (TLBMC) is a tool helping us to explore sustainability-oriented business model innovation. It extends the business dimension of the canvas with the addition of an environmental dimension based on life cycle perspective and a social dimension based on stakeholder perspective. A combined consideration of the three dimensions of the business model allows us to understand how an organization generates economic, environmental and social values. This paper presents the TLBMC of One-Stop- Shop (OSS) business model for energy renovation of detached houses. This three-layer canvas allows us to under- stand how OSS creates different types of values related to energy renovation, by using elements of life-cycle analysis and stakeholder management. It also contributes to the identification of gaps in research on energy renovation of detached houses, which need to be filled in order to better quantify the benefits of energy efficient renovation in those dwellings and develop such an OSS that will serve better the growing needs of the urban environments of the future.

  • 33.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Comparing public- and private-driven one-stop-shops for energy renovations of residential buildings in Europe2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 365, article id 132683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency in buildings remains an important priority for the European Union. Towards that direction, the role of the one-stop-shops (OSSs) that will offer integrated renovation services has been further enhanced. The paper aims to compare public and private-driven OSSs to increase knowledge regarding the way they operate. The business models of ten OSSs for the renovation of residential buildings, operating in six European countries have been analyzed, and further evaluated for their engagement in the critical moments of the renovation customer journey. Findings show that the majority of examined OSSs have managed to reach some level of standardization in the way they deliver their service. Additionally, the examined OSSs appear to be engaged in the critical moment of the renovation customer journey, which can attract the interest of potential customers. Public-driven OSS appears to operate smoother in the renovation market and offer services that are considered crucial for their potential customers. Their viability though in the absence of public funding needs to be further examined. On the other hand, private-driven OSSs are called to deal with greater challenges in their effort to consolidate their presence in the renovation market. Providing access to financing remains a challenge for private-driven OSSs, which to attract more customers resort to value additions to their service, which might affect their viability. The study provides valuable information and insights about OSSs in operation that could be useful to stakeholders that are active in the renovation market or interested to enter it

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  • 34.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Public versus private one-stop-shops for energy renovations of residential buildings in the EU2021In: eceee 2021 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency: A New Reality?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2021, article id 5-110-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current rate of residential building renovations in Europe is inadequate and attributable to the lack of integrated solutions in the market supported by appropriate business models. One-stop-shop (OSS) offers an innovative business approach, and it is acknowledged by the European Commission, in the Directive 2018/844/EU, as a transparent advisory and facilitating tool for the establishment of services relevant to energy efficiency renovations for buildings. This paper evaluates two different delivery mechanisms of OSS, namely public-driven and private-driven, using six examples of OSSs business models currently operating in five European countries. The study is based on document and records-based research, and the analysis of data is done through a standardized blank profile for each OSS including parameters based on the deliberations of Osterwalder and Pigneur's business model canvas.

    A comparative analysis of the models has been conducted to identify repetitive patterns, commonalities, and differences between them. The study has shown that the examined OSSs are still in a developing stage, struggling to achieve enough scale, which indicates the need to lower their costs, reorganize their models and streamline the value chain to become attractive to their targeted customer segments. Public-driven OSSs appear to be, for the nonce, better positioned in the market and their reliance on public money allows them to achieve some expansion of their activities, even if this cannot be considered a sustainable business solution in the long run. Private-driven OSSs need to work harder to strengthen their position in the market and increase their attractivity. Towards that direction, the contribution of policy interventions and re-adjustment of existing financing mechanisms could be further examined.

  • 35.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Swedish construction MSEs: simply renovators or renovation service innovators?2020In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the renovation needs of detached house stock in Sweden, micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs), a subgroup of small and medium-sized enterprises, are expected to introduce more comprehensive house renovation solutions. One-stop-shop (OSS) is an innovative Product-Service System model that can enable MSEs to offer comprehensive renovation packages instead of existing fragmented solutions. We have applied a conceptual framework for innovation adoption in organizations and conducted an interview of 21 construction MSEs in three different geographical areas in Sweden to examine their perceptions and preparedness to adopt the OSS business concept. Findings showed that the examined MSEs are positive towards OSS as it could address the needs for the comprehensive renovation of detached houses. However, presently, are not prepared to take the coordinator’s role in such a concept mainly due to the perceived business risks, the lack of flexibility to organizational restructuring, and lack of resources and management competency to coordinate multiple tasks and actors. Those organizations lacked awareness of existing policy support and access to funding mechanisms to try new business models. As a solution, they proposed an external coordinator to be the provider of OSS, on the trial phase, whose role and characteristics need to be further examined.

  • 36.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Future Energy-Related House Renovations in Sweden: One-Stop-Shop as a Shortcut to the Decision-Making Journey2021In: Emerging Research in Sustainable Energy and Buildings for a Low-Carbon Future / [ed] Robert J.; Howlett John R.; Littlewood, Lakhmi C. Jain, Singapore: Springer, 2021, 1, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an online survey, this paper analyzes the attitude of detached house owners in Sweden toward future renovations and their perception over a one-stop-shop (OSS) service for deep renovation of these dwellings. With the aid of a house owners’ renovation decision-making journey for renovation, personal and contextual variables have been analyzed to identify those house owners having renovation plans in the near future, what they are going to renovate, and which needs to lead them to that decision. Furthermore, we examine if there is an interest in OSS concept and the factors affecting positively or negatively the choice for such a concept. Results suggest that deep renovation is not yet prioritized. The priority for house owners is to change specific components of their dwelling and follow a step-wise approach. Aesthetic renovations are high on the agenda, with some structural and energy-related renovations following them. House owners between 29 and 49 years of age are those mostly interested in more comprehensive renovations. The OSS concept appears to be interesting to a number of house owners capable to verify a business potential. House owners up to the age of 45 years, with dwellings built from 1960 and above and with environmental awareness, are the market segment that can act as early adopters of the OSS concept. When it comes to the decision-making journey for renovations, house owners’ future plans, and the factors affecting their choice for an OSS provider, we can claim that OSS can act as a guide for house owners from the early stages of their decision-making journey and provide them with a shortcut that will make this journey more secure, while triggering renovation decision of greater extent. In terms of financing, incentives related to energy performance are also suggested as means that could boost greater interest for more comprehensive renovations.

  • 37.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Renovation of detached houses in Sweden: Can one-stop-shop provide a solution?2019In: Presented at: International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings SEB-19, 2019, article id seb19s-006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an online survey, this paper analyzes the attitude of house owners in Sweden towards future renovations and one-stop-shop (OSS) services for deep renovation of detached houses. With the aid of a house owners’ decision-making journey for renovation, personal and contextual variables have been analyzed to identify those house owners having renovation plans in the near future, what they are going to renovate, and which needs led them to that decision. Furthermore, we examine if there is an interest in OSS concept. Results suggest that deep renovation is not yet prioritized. The priority for house owners is to change specific components of their dwelling and follow a step-wise approach. Aesthetic renovations are high on the agenda, with some structural and energy-related renovations following them. House owners between 29- 49 years of age could be the customer segment to target for deep renovations. The OSS concept seems interesting to a number of house owners, who can form an early adopters segment that could develop the market. There is a need for a cost-efficient OSS concept for deep renovations, ensuring the quality of work, and the optimization of financial products and tax incentives to accelerate the deep renovation market.

  • 38.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Kundresa för One-Stop-Shop2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här guiden är en av tre guider som publiceras inom detta projektoch bygger på tidigare forskning, med syftet att utveckla kunskap och metoder för aktörer på efterfråge- och utbudssidan på marknaden för energieffektiv renovering av villor. Guiden ger en översikt över den kundresa som villaägare följer i sitt beslut att genomföra eller inte att energirenovera sin villa, och hur One-stop-shop (OSS) konceptet kan bidra med renoveringsresan.

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  • 39.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    One-stop-shop as an innovation, and construction SMEs: a Swedish perspective2019In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Prof. J.Yanab, Prof. H.Yangc, Dr. H.Lid, Dr. X.Chene, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2737-2743Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the views of construction SMEs in Sweden regarding innovations, in particular the one-stop-shop business concept,and its adoption for renovation of detached house. The investigation is based on interviews with 10 construction SMEs and by applying aconceptual framework for organizational innovation adoption. The results suggest that, even though the one-stop-shop businessconcept is perceived as a means for growth, at present, construction SMEs in Sweden are unlikely to adopt it at present. This lackof interest is mostly related to the perceived complexity of this model and the underlying risks and uncertainties. That complexity isseen as a preventing factor as it puts at stake their current business. The interviewees proposed that there should be an entrepreneur to coordinate the actors involved in the renovation process, whose role can be further studied.

  • 40.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    One-stop-shop as an innovation, and preparedness to adopt it: a study on house renovation stakeholders in Sweden2018In: Advanced Building Skins: 1-2 October 2018, Bern, Switzerland, Wilen (Sarnen): Advanced Building Skins. ABS, 2018, p. 567-569Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the views of stakeholders involved in house renovations regarding the one-stop-shop business concept innovation, and assesses their level of preparedness to adopt such a concept in order to enter the promising market of detached house renovations. The investigation is based on 25 interviews with construction SMEs owners, real estate agents and loan consultants, and on a conceptual framework for organizational innovation adoption. The results suggest that for the nonce, none of the examined stakeholdersis likely to adopt a one-stop-shop business model to enter the market of detached house renovations, even though this concept is seen as one with great potential. This mostly happens due to their individual characteristics, the complexity of one-stop-shop model related to their way of doing business and the uncertainties deriving from the adoption of such a model. Furthermore, the participation of an entrepreneur is proposed, who would coordinate all the different actors involved in the renovation process, and whose role can be further examined.

  • 41.
    Rout, Auroshis
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Singh, Suneet
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Solanki, Chetan S.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Solanki, Chetan Singh
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    An index-based generic framework for tracking the quality of supplied electricity2021In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 478-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an index-based analytical framework to quantify the quality of electricity supplied in a specific location. Four quality defining indicators: day and night supply hours, evening supply hours, normal voltage hours, and frequency of power cut were selected to form a composite quality index. The study consists of ten sample rural villages and four capital cities across four Indian provinces (Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand). The average value of the electricity quality index for rural locations was 0.53, and for province capital locations, it was 0.93 for the year 2018. This reveals that electricity quality in rural areas needs significant improvement. The average electricity quality index for both rural and capital locations was relatively better in Madhya Pradesh. This generic analytical framework can be applied to monitor the electricity quality over time in a village, city, district, or province depending upon the data availability.

  • 42.
    Rout, Auroshis
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Singh, Suneet
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Solanki, Chetan Singh
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
    Bhati, Govind S.
    Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC), India.
    Assessing the financial sustainability of rural grid electrification pathway: a case study of India2021In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 25, no January, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    India has recently achieved universal electricity access. However, the financial sustainability of supplying electricity in many rural areas in India still remains a key concern. In 2018–2019, total annual loss of all the distribution utilities in India was reported to be INR 270 billion. This is a huge financial burden and remains as a sustainability challenge to provide affordable and reliable electricity supply (SDG7.1). In this paper, a generic mathematical cost model has been developed in terms of viability gap and applied the model to evaluate the financial sustainability of rural grid electrification in four Indian provinces Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP), and Uttarakhand (UTKH). The viability gap is basically the difference between electricity tariff and actual delivery cost of electricity considering the life cycle analysis. The analysis showed that viability gap is negative in all four provinces indicating the fact that existing modality of electrification is financially unsustainable. The paper also revealed that the tariff revision along with annual increment in the tariff, minimizing the distribution losses and increasing the load factor could significantly reduce the viability gap. This study could be of high interest to the policy makers, power distribution companies (DISCOMs) and energy researchers.

  • 43.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Green energy for development in Nepal2011In: The Road to Rio +20: For a development-led green economy, New York and Geneva: United Nations, UNCTAD , 2011, 2, p. 79-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their outline of ongoing rural electrification in Nepal, the three authors note that the country is endowed with large amounts of renewable energy resources but still trapped in imports of fossil fuels, a major drain on the national economy. They argue that the ongoing process of rural electrification is progressing well but unevenly and that challenges lie ahead for reaching the poorest communities. The authors call on government agencies and donors to consider strengthening credit opportunities for renewable energy at the local level. They say that market-based rural electrification mechanisms can function well in least developed countries, subject to understanding the peculiarities of the local demand, anchoring efforts on locally available human and natural resources and creating mechanisms of support to improve affordability.

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  • 44.
    Sinha, Shashwat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mazaheri, Ahmad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Integrating Digital Tools in One-Stop-Shop Business Models for Climate-Smart Single-Family Home Renovation in the European Union2023In: Proceedings of the International Conference “Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Transition”, Växjö, Sweden: Linnaeus University Press , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ageing building stock in the European Union (EU) is not adequately equipped to deal with the changing climate, posing a significant challenge for climate change mitigation and adaptation. This has driven governmental institutions and private firms to expedite their renovation efforts; integration of one-stop-shop (OSS) regimes for encouraging higher rates of renovation could stimulate the rate of renovation by up to 6% annually, the aimed rate for the 2030 Renovation Wave by the European Commission. While OSS solutions present a great opportunity for addressing the challenges posed by climate change by allowing older homes to become better prepared through climate-smart retrofitting, these solutions have had mixed results in the past. Given the urgency of the situation as predicted in various scenarios by the IPCC, it is imperative to assess the effectiveness of OSS solutions in accelerating the rate of renovation. This research aims to investigate how the digitalisation of aspects of the customer journey of an end user participating in an OSS home renovation platform can lead to overcoming challenges faced by previously implemented instances of it. 

    To answer this question, first a systematic literature review of previous OSS schemes implemented in Europe, digital tools commonly applied for renovation, and state-of-the-art strategies and models to facilitate customer journeys were studied. Through the characterisation of these mechanisms, opportunities for the integration of digital tools were identified and suggested for each stage of the customer journey. It was found that through the utilisation of technologies such as application programming interfaces (API), for increased access and real-time updating; blockchain infrastructure for information transparency and symmetry, and urban building energy modelling for predictive assessment, some important pitfalls of OSS implementation can be addressed. This study is expected to contribute to the renovation sector, ultimately leading to improving buildings' adaptive capacity, which is critical for the EU's sustainable development objectives going forward.

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  • 45.
    Sula, Migena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Additional Dwelling Units: Can they finance energy renovation?2022In: eceee 2022 Summer Study on energy efficiency: agents of change, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2022, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2022 , 2022, article id 8-296-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Northern Europe, Single Family Housings (SFH) constitute a large share of the total building stock. In Sweden, more than 52% of the population lives in SFH. Most of these houses were built between 1960-80 and are currently needing renovation. Most of these houses are owned by older adults whose kids have moved away, and thus they live in housing over-dimensioned to their needs with a large share of energy consumption for space heating. Furthermore, these facilities are neither elderly-friendly nor energy-efficient, deeming major renovation.

     

    This paper applies a case-study approach to explore options to better utilize and reduce the living area per capita through the generation of Additional Dwellings Unit (ADU) within the existing building stock owned by the elderly. The case study SFH owned by an elderly couple is located in Kronoberg Region, Sweden, and is a typical SFH built during the 1970s. We redesign and restructure the underused space to create an ADU that can be rented out, which in turn may economize the high investment costs of energy-efficient renovation. The energy efficiency renovation measures considered were improvement of the building's climate shell (envelope), extra insulation in the walls and attic, and better performance doors and windows. Energy simulations and life cycle cost assessment of the energy efficiency measures, and space redesign showed that it is possible to reduce energy use by 61% compared to the existing condition of the reference house and a payback time of 59% compared to the application of the energy measures alone. The proposed intervention is aligned with the aging in place strategy, tackling it from a space sufficiency perspective. The proposed intervention reduces the living space per resident by 40% and energy consumption per capita by 62% compared to just the energy renovation of the reference house while creating cash inflows that motivate the houseowner to uptake an energy renovation. The improved energy performance of the building may generate better indoor living conditions for a healthier life for the residents.

  • 46.
    Sula, Migena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Addressing housing shortage through energy and space-efficient retrofitting: The case study of a Swedish Single-Family house2022In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Bristol, United Kingdom: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022, Vol. 1085, article id 012038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's shortage of affordable housing has been evolving into a major in recent years. A 2021 report by the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning (Boverket) stated a need for 60,000 new homes by 2030. In addition, the Swedish building stock is responsible for 39% of the country's total energy consumption and 21% of its greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, solutions to address the housing crisis should go hand in hand with the need for increased building retrofits to meet Sweden's 2045 energy and climate targets. In this context, re-densification of the existing building stock is a possible option. This study examines possible space- and energy-efficient options for densifying the housing supply in Sweden's existing single-family home (SFH) segment. Using a case study in Kronoberg, Sweden, occupied by an elderly household, options for converting the unused space into new additional dwelling units (ADUs) and reducing per capita living space are explored. Most SFHs in Sweden are old, in poor condition, and in urgent need of structural and energy retrofits. In addition, about one-third of homeowners are over 60 years old and report living in homes that are too large compared to their needs - an excellent environment to study the proposed intervention. Revenues from renting the newly created ADUs suggest that the proposal is financially attractive because it capitalizes on the high initial investment costs of energy retrofits. In addition, spatial interventions combined with energy-efficient measures result in a 40 percent lower energy use and environmental impact per capita compared to energy retrofits alone due to a reduction in per capita living space. Finally, the study aims to initiate a discussion on sufficiency, innovative energy regulations, and housing policy tools needed to transition to the low-energy single-family housing stock

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  • 47.
    Sula, Migena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Barriers and drivers for scaling-up energy renovations2021In: eceee 2021 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency: A New Reality?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2021, article id 5-184-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep energy renovation (DER) of the existing building stock is a key challenge to fulfill the European Union (EU) target of energy efficiency improvement of at least 32.5% by 2030. However, the depth and rate of current energy renovation are far below in achieving this goal. Energy efficiency renovation needs to go beyond the individual building perspective by introducing strategic larger-scale renovation approaches for investment optimization. Yet, due to several hindrances, a slow implementation pace is observed. Therefore, this study identifies the challenges of scaling up retrofitting initiatives from a single-building approach to stock-based analysis. A systematic synthesis method (scoping, systematic review, and meta-analysis of the results) is applied in this paper. Scientific articles collected from SCOPUS and Web of Science together with case study reports assessed through the EU project database have been analyzed within this research. The research discusses the publications available from three main aspects, motivation to initiate large-scale renovation initiatives and drivers & barriers influencing the entire renovation process in the context of the EU environment.  It is observed that the district scale represents a more complex model to be analyzed, calculated, assessed, and managed compared with single buildings. Still, it provides a much better offer regarding renewable energy technology applications, financial viability, smart and innovative design tools. Different technical, social, and economic-related factors could be identified that need to be addressed adequately to initiate the "European Renovation Wave." This review, therefore, advocates the need for a holistic consideration of the entire process, based on which to structure further disciplinary developments. Research gaps are highlighted, and new directions for future research are suggested.

  • 48.
    Sula, Migena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Adopting Space Sufficiency Interventions as a Means for Accelerating Energy Renovation: Swedish Homeowners’ Perceptive2023In: 2023: Proceedings of the International Conference “Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Transition”, Linnaeus University Press , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential energy consumption remains a significant driver of CO2 emissions in European buildings, demanding urgent action in the face of the climate crisis. While prevailing efforts have predominantly concentrated on enhancing energy efficiency and integrating renewable sources, addressing the climate urgency and resource constraints necessitates a paradigm shift towards sufficiency principles. Swedish statistics on Single-Family Houses (SFH) show that more than a third of households inhabit oversized spaces in aging buildings needing renovation. Sufficiency-oriented renovation strategies—optimizing, or reducing living areas per capita— present a promising avenue to achieve substantial energy reductions. This approach also opens the potential for space rentals, yielding combined energy and space efficiency advantages. In addition, the literature highlights reduced maintenance costs and potential urban housing crisis mitigation. However, practical implementation faces multiple obstacles.This paper investigates SFH owners' attitudes towards space-sufficiency interventions, focusing on living size preferences and identifying barriers and opportunities for sustainable housing. Through focus group sessions with SFH owners in November-December 2022, qualitative content analysis revealed that reducing living space per capita faces multifaceted challenges, despite potential benefits.These challenges encompass not only personal and psychological considerations but extend to economic, infrastructural, and policy barriers, including issues such as the potential breach of privacy, disruptions due to noise, dilemmas related to ownership and independency, disruptions to work-life dynamics, inadequate familiarity with sufficiency principles, and uncertainty imposed by space constraints. Strategic integration of sufficiency principles into energy-renovation policy alternatives necessitates a holistic approach that addresses these barriers, and some form of incentives may be needed to catalyze the adoption of sufficiency principles effectively.

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  • 49.
    Tessema, Zereay
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mainstreaming and sector-wide approaches to sustainable energy access in Ethiopia2014In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 313-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to modern and sustainable energy services is a real challenge for countries where the majority of rural population is living in austere poverty. The importance of sustainable energy access is recognized in many developing countries, and there is growing international development assistance in the sector. However the achievements are still meager particularly in Sub Saharan African countries. Most countries often fail to prioritize sustainable energy services at the local level as a means to achieve economic growth at the national level as well as the Millennium Development Goals. This study is focused on Ethiopia and investigates the existing challenges and future prospects of mainstreaming sustainable energy access into the development planning process of the country, and the implications this may have for international donor agencies, national policy makers, private actors and local energy planners. The paper analyzes the institutional framework, sector policy and financial mechanisms in the country. It also discusses operational modalities of state and non-state actors in the process, and extracts policy recommendations.

  • 50.
    Thapa, Prashamsa
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dhakal, Shobhakar
    Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
    Focus on Climate Action: What Level of Synergy and Trade-Off Is There between SDG 13; Climate Action and Other SDGs in Nepal?2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sixth Assessment Report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)has highlighted the urgency of accelerated climate actions harnessing synergies and minimizing trade-offs with various SDG. This calls for a clear understanding of linkages between climate goals and other SDGs at the national level for formulating synergistic policies and strategies and developing different sectoral programs and coherent cross-sectoral policies. This is even more important forleast developed countries such as Nepal where these linkages are less understood and development challenges are multifaceted. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate potential synergies and trade-offs among selected SDGs and their associated targets in Nepal in a linear pairwise comparison. Synergies and trade-offs related to climate action (SDG 13), access to energy (SDG 7), sustainable consumption and production (SDG 12), and life on land (SDG 15) have been evaluated using historical data for the period from 1990 to 2018 employing a mixed methods approach. Network analysis tomap the conceptual linkages between the SDGs and their targets was combined with the advanced sustainability analysis (ASA) to quantitatively evaluate the synergy and trade-offs between SDGs.The results illustrate the presences of a continual trade-off between the emission reduction targets of SDG 13 with per capita energy consumption and share of renewable energy of SDG 7, land use for agricultural production target of SDG 12, and forest area target of SDG 15. This indicates that climate action is strongly interlinked with GHG emissions from economic activities and energy consumption. The results of the study represent a valuable input for the policymakers, supporting coherent and sustainable development planning as Nepal plans to graduate to a middle-income country.

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