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  • 1.
    Abbaneo, Chiara
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy ; University of Naples ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Lazzaro, Armando
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Marmo, Pietro
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    Université “Federico II” di Napoli, Italy.
    Sanseviero, Angela
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    UML based reverse engineering for the verification of railway control logics2007In: Proceedings of International Conference on Dependability of Computer Systems, DepCoS-RELCOMEX 2006, IEEE, 2007, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is widely used as a high level object oriented specification language. In this paper we present a novel approach in which reverse engineering is performed using UML as the modelling language used to achieve a representation of the implemented system. The target is the core logic of a complex critical railway control system, which was written in an application specific legacy language. UML perfectly suited to represent the nature of the core logic, made up by concurrent and interacting processes, using a bottom-up approach and proper modeling rules. Each process, in fact, was strictly related to the management of a physically (resp. logically) well distinguished railway device (resp. functionality). The obtained model deeply facilitated the static analysis of the logic code, allowing for at a glance verification of correctness and compliance with higher-level specifications, and opened the way to refactoring and other formal analyses. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Aissani, D.
    et al.
    University of Bejaia, Algeria.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Europe, Germany.
    Editorial2017In: International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, ISSN 1757-8779, E-ISSN 1757-8787, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bernardi, S.
    et al.
    Centro Universitario de la Defensa Academia General Militar, Spain.
    Flammini, Francesco
    AnsaldoSTS, Business Innovation Unit, Italy.
    Marrone, S.
    Seconda Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Mazzocca, N.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Merseguer, J.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    Nardone, R.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Vittorini, V.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Enabling the usage of UML in the verification of railway systems: The DAM-rail approach2013In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 120, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for integration of model-based verification into industrial processes has produced several attempts to define Model-Driven solutions implementing a unifying approach to system development. A recent trend is to implement tool chains supporting the developer both in the design phase and V&V activities. In this Model-Driven context, specific domains require proper modelling approaches, especially for what concerns RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) analysis and fulfillment of international standards. This paper specifically addresses the definition of a Model-Driven approach for the evaluation of RAM attributes in railway applications to automatically generate formal models. For this aim we extend the MARTE-DAM UML profile with concepts related to maintenance aspects and service degradation, and show that the MARTE-DAM framework can be successfully specialized for the railway domain. Model transformations are then defined to generate Repairable Fault Tree and Bayesian Network models from MARTE-DAM specifications. The whole process is applied to the railway domain in two different availability studies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4.
    Bernardi, Simona
    et al.
    Academia General Militar, Spain.
    Flammini, Francesco
    AnsaldoSTS, Italy.
    Marrone, Stefano
    Seconda Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Merseguer, José
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    Papa, Camilla
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Model-driven availability evaluation of railway control systems2011In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. SAFECOMP 2011, Springer, 2011, p. 15-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of real-world systems is a complex task involving several actors, procedures and technologies. Proper approaches are needed in order to evaluate the impact of different maintenance policies considering cost/benefit factors. To that aim, maintenance models may be used within availability, performability or safety models, the latter developed using formal languages according to the requirements of international standards. In this paper, a model-driven approach is described for the development of formal maintenance and reliability models for the availability evaluation of repairable systems. The approach facilitates the use of formal models which would be otherwise difficult to manage, and provides the basis for automated models construction. Starting from an extension to maintenance aspects of the MARTE-DAM profile for dependability analysis, an automated process based on model-to-model transformations is described. The process is applied to generate a Repairable Fault Trees model from the MARTE-DAM specification of the Radio Block Centre - a modern railway controller. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 5.
    Bocchetti, Giovanni
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Pappalardo, Alfio
    CeRICT - Centro Regionale Information Communication Technology, Italy.
    Dependable integrated surveillance systems for the physical security of metro railways2009In: 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2009, IEEE, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail-based mass transit systems are vulnerable to many criminal acts, ranging from vandalism to terrorism. In this paper, we present the architecture, the main functionalities and the dependability related issues of a security system specifically tailored to metro railways. Heterogeneous intrusion detection, access control, intelligent video-surveillance and sound detection devices are integrated in a cohesive Security Management System (SMS). In case of emergencies, the procedural actions required to the operators involved are orchestrated by the SMS. Redundancy both in sensor dislocation and hardware apparels (e.g. by local or geographical clustering) improve detection reliability, through alarm correlation, and overall system resiliency against both random and malicious threats. Video-analytics is essential, since a small number of operators would be unable to visually control a large number of cameras. Therefore, the visualization of video streams is activated automatically when an alarm is generated by smart-cameras or other sensors, according to an event-driven approach. The system is able to protect stations (accesses, technical rooms, platforms, etc.), tunnels (portals, ventilation shafts, etc.), trains and depots. Presently, the system is being installed in the Metrocampania underground regional railway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first subway security system featuring artificial intelligence algorithms both for video and audio surveillance. The security system is highly heterogeneous in terms not only of detection technologies but also of embedded computing power and communication facilities. In fact, sensors can differ in their inner hardware-software architecture and thus in the capacity of providing information security and dependability. The focus of this paper is on the development of novel solutions to achieve a measurable level of dependability for the security system in order to fulfill the requirements of the specific application. © 2009 IEEE.

  • 6.
    Buemi, Francesco
    et al.
    Aitek S., Italy.
    Esposito, Mariana
    Ansaldo STS, Italy ; University of Naples ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    University of Naples ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Spirito, Marcella
    Aitek S., Italy.
    Empty vehicle detection with video analytics2013In: Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2013. ICIAP 2013, Springer, 2013, no PART 2, p. 731-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue to be addressed in transit security, in particular for driverless metro, is the assurance that a vehicle is empty before it returns to the depot. Customer specifications in recent tenders require that an automatic empty vehicle detector is provided. That improves system security since it prevents voluntary (e.g. in case of thieves or graffiti makers) or involuntary (e.g. in case of drunk or unconscious people) access of unauthorized people to the depot and possibly to other restricted areas. Without automatic systems, a manual inspection of the vehicle should be performed, requiring considerable personnel effort and being prone to failure. To address the issue, we have developed a reliable empty vehicle detection system using video content analytics techniques and standard on-board cameras. The system can automatically check whether the vehicles have been cleared from passengers, thus supporting the security staff and central control operators in providing a higher level of security. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 7.
    Capano, B.
    et al.
    Rolls-Royce, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Università Italiane e Straniere, Italy.
    ICT in the era of Open Innovation2017In: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, Vol. 15, no 69, p. 221-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasingly fast technological advancement of the ICT world, 'hi-tech' industries feel a growing need to open to the external world of research and innovation. The usage of external innovation sources allows overcoming the limits of internal resources in terms of capacities, skills and creativity. With respect to the traditional concept of "Closed Innovation", that is the innovation constrained within the internal R&D departments, the "Open Innovation" paradigm leverages on tools that enable importing external resources, thus boosting the quality and quantity of innovative technological solutions. In this paper the basic concepts and the possible "Open Innovation" applications will be presented, starting from the introduction of the paradigm as invented by Henry William Chesbrough in 2003. Furthermore, methodologies and computer tools will be described that are widely adopted to apply the paradigm to industrial settings, as well as the possible barriers to its implementation. Lastly, given the importance of universities, research centers and other companies as external sources for Open Innovation, some pointers will be provided to the selection process of technology innovation partners.

  • 8.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Singh, Prasannjeet
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Thornadtsson, Johan
    Sigma Technology, Sweden.
    Smart-troubleshooting connected devices: Concept, challenges and opportunities2019In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s digital world and evolving technology has improved the quality of our lives but it has also come with a number of new threats. In the society of smart-cities and Industry 4.0, where many cyber-physical devices connect and exchange data through the Internet of Things, the need for addressing information security and solve system failures becomes inevitable. System failures can occur because of hardware failures, software bugs or interoperability issues. In this paper we introduce the industry-originated concept of “smart-troubleshooting” that is the set of activities and tools needed to gather failure information generated by heterogeneous connected devices, analyze them, and match them with troubleshooting instructions and software fixes. As a consequence of implementing smart-troubleshooting, the system would be able to self-heal and thus become more resilient. This paper aims to survey frameworks, methodologies and tools related to this new concept, and especially the ones needed to model, analyze and recover from failures in a (semi)automatic way. Smart-troubleshooting has a relation with event analysis to perform diagnostics and prognostics on devices manufactured by different suppliers in a distributed system. It also addresses management of appropriate product information specified in possibly unstructured formats to guide the troubleshooting workflow in identifying fault–causes and solutions. Relevant research is briefly surveyed in the paper in order to highlight current state-of-the-art, open issues, challenges to be tackled and future opportunities in this emerging industry paradigm.

  • 9.
    Carnevali, Laura
    et al.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Paolieri, Marco
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Vicario, Enrico
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Non-Markovian performability evaluation of ERTMS/ETCS level 32015In: Computer Performance Engineering. EPEW 2015, Springer, 2015, p. 47-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Rail Traffic Management System/European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS) is an innovative standard introduced to enhance reliability, safety, performance, and interoperability of trans-European railways. In Level 3, the standard replaces fixed-block safety mechanisms, in which only one train at a time is allowed to be in each railway block, with moving blocks: a train proceeds as long as it receives radio messages ensuring that the track ahead is clear of other trains. This mechanism increases line capacity, but relies crucially on the communication link: if messages are lost, the train must stop within a safe deadline even if the track ahead is clear. We develop upon results of the literature to propose an approach for the evaluation of transient availability of the communication channel and probability of train stops due to lost messages. We formulate a non-Markovian model of communication availability and system operation, and leverage solution techniques of the ORIS Tool to provide experimental results in the presence of multiple concurrent activities with non-exponential durations. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  • 10.
    Casola, V.
    et al.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    De Benedictis, A.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Drago, A.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy ; Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Esposito, M.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy ; Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Mazzocca, N.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy .
    Securing freight trains for hazardous material transportation: A WSN-based monitoring system2012In: International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop, DHSS 2012, Held at the International Multidisciplinary Modeling and Simulation Multiconference, I3M 2012, Caltek s.r.l. , 2012, p. 52-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the interest in monitoring infrastructures has spread in many application domains, even because of the number of natural disasters and terrorist attacks. This important activity can be seen in the general context of critical infrastructure protection such as the freight train meant for hazardous materials transportation. The design of these systems must answer to several issues: low-cost, easiness of installation, interoperability of information sources, security mechanisms. The use of wireless sensor networks emerged in this field as a compliant solution to these issues. In this paper we will present a monitoring system that uses heterogeneous WSN to monitor a freight train transporting hazardous materials. The sensors interact through a security platform in order to share different information. We illustrate some details on the architecture and the software application to prove the feasibility of such system on a real scenario by discussing most significant results about measurement parameters and networks performance. Copyright© (2012) by CAL-TEK S.r.l.

  • 11.
    Casola, Valentina
    et al.
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Esposito, Mariana
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy ; Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Performance evaluation of video analytics for surveillance on-board trains2013In: Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems.  ACIVS 2013., Springer, 2013, p. 414-425Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time video-surveillance systems are nowadays widespread in several applications, including public transportation. In those applications, the use of automatic video content analytics (VCA) is being increasingly adopted to support human operators in control rooms. However, VCA is only effective when its performances are such to reduce the number of false positive alarms below acceptability thresholds while still detecting events of interest. In this paper, we report the results of the evaluation of a VCA system installed on a rail transit vehicle. With respect to fixed installations, on-board ones feature specific constraints on camera installation, obstacles, environment, etc. Several VCA performance evaluation metrics have been considered, both frame-based and object-based, computed by a tool developed in Matlab. We compared the results obtained using a commercial VCA system with the ones produced by an open-source one, showing the higher performance of the former in all test conditions. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 12.
    Casola, Valentina
    et al.
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Esposito, Mariana
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Freight train monitoring: A case-study for the pSHIELD project2012In: Proceedings - 6th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, IMIS 2012, IEEE, 2012, p. 597-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded Systems (ES) are increasingly being used in critical applications, where Security, Privacy and Dependability (SPD) attributes are essential. The pSHIELD research project, funded in the framework of the European ARTEMIS program, introduces some innovative approaches to address SPD issues for ES. In this paper, after an introduction to the scope of the pSHIELD project, we describe a case study application to the monitoring of freight trains transporting hazardous materials. The application uses heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to measure environmental parameters like temperature, vibrations and transmit them to the security control center. The sensors are integrated by means of an appropriate middleware and data is elaborated by a specfically developed application. We report the architecture and the results achieved by testing the application and some of its relevant SPD functionalities, including data criptography, in a real railway environment. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 13.
    Cozzolino, Angelo
    et al.
    Nexera Scpa, Itlay.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Galli, Valentina
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Lamberti, Mariangela
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Poggi, Giovanni
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Evaluating the effects of MJPEG compression on motion tracking in metro railway surveillance2012In: Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems. ACIVS 2012: 14th International Conference, ACIVS 2012, Brno, Czech Republic, September 4-7, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Jacques Blanc-Talon, Wilfried Philips, Dan Popescu, Paul Scheunders, Pavel Zemčík, Springer, 2012, p. 142-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Video content analytics is being increasingly employed for the security surveillance of mass-transit systems. The growing number of cameras, the presence of legacy networks, the limited bandwidth of wireless links, are some of the issues which highlight the importance of evaluating the performance of motion tracking against different levels of video compression. In this paper, we report the results of such an evaluation considering false-negative and false-positive metrics applied to videos captured from cameras installed in a real metro-railway environment. The evaluation methodology is based on the manual generation of the Ground Truth on selected videos at growing levels of MJPEG compression, and on its comparison with the Algorithm Result automatically generated by the Motion Tracker. The computation of reference performance metrics is automated by a tool developed in Matlab. Results are discussed with respect to the main causes of false detections, and hints are provided for further industrial applications. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  • 14. Dambrot, Stuart Mason
    et al.
    de Kerchove, Derrick
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kinsner, Witold
    MacDonald Glenn, Linda
    Saracco, Roberto
    IEEE Symbiotic Autonomous Systems White Paper II2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This White Paper follows the first one produced in 2017 by the IEEE Symbiotic Autonomous Systems Initiative (SAS)1 , extending it to address updated technologies and cover additional topics due to the evolution of science and technology. Additional white papers will follow because this is an area in continuous development.  

    The first examples of symbioses are already available in a number of areas, and even now, these are impacting our economic system and way of life. The IEEE SAS Initiative takes a 360° view based on technology and standardization—the foundation of IEEE—and invites all interested constituencies to contribute complementary point of views, including economic, regulatory, and sociocultural perspectives. The transformation fostered by technology evolution in all paths of life requires planning and education by current and future players. Another goal of the initiative is to consider the future of education, given that these symbioses transform its meaning, making it both shared and distributed.  

    In this respect, the aims of this White Paper are to further develop the ideas presented in the first white paper: (1) to highlight impacts that are clearly identifiable today, and (2) to indicate emerging issues, thus providing a starting point to those involved in making public policy to understand the technical fundamentals, their evolution and their potential implications.  

    Note that this White Paper is intended to be self-contained, without requiring the reader to read the previous white paper.

  • 15.
    de Giuseppe, Nicola
    et al.
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    di Pasquale, Tommaso
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    Esposito, Rosaria
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    Marmo, Pietro
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    Orazzo, Antonio
    ANSALDO SIGNAL, Italy.
    A grey-box approach to the functional testing of complex automatic train protection systems2005In: Dependable Computing - EDCC 5: 5th European Dependable Computing Conference, Budapest, Hungary, April 20-22, 2005. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, p. 305-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic functional testing is a fundamental step of embedded control systems development cycle, as it allows to verify and validate their final implementation. Various approaches to black-box testing have been proposed, however they either involve test-case explosion or do not ensure the correctness of system behaviour in scenarios not covered by system specifications. To cope with such issues, a methodology which better suits both complexity and safety-criticality of the target system is needed. This paper describes the ASF functional testing methodology, based on a grey-box approach aimed at generating and reducing an extensive set of influence variables and test-cases. The methodology, embracing different aspects of system test process (code coverage verification, regression testing, etc.), was successfully applied to validate ASF implementation of SCMT (an Italian project for an Automatic Train Protection System). The results obtained in our testing experience proved the time effectiveness and extensive coverage of the proposed approach.

  • 16. De Nicola, G
    et al.
    di Tommaso, P
    Esposito, R
    Flammini, Francesco
    Marmo, P
    Orazzo, A
    An experience in validating train control systems by a grey-box testing approach2008In: The Second International Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive System, Technical University of Catalonia Barcelona, Spain, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. De Nicola, G.
    et al.
    Di Tommaso, P.
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Esposito, R.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Marmo, P.
    Orazzo, A.
    An experience in validating train control systems by a grey-box testing approach2005In: Advances in Safety and Reliability - ESREL 2005: Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2005, Tri City (Gdynia-Sopot-Gdansk), Poland, 27-30 June 2005 / [ed] Kryzstof Kolowrocki, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005, p. 1435-1442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic functional testing is a fundamental step of embedded control systems development cycle, as it allows to verify and validate their final implementation. Various approaches to black-box testing have been proposed, however they either involve test-case explosion or do not ensure the correctness of system behavior in scenarios not covered by system specifications. To cope with such issues, a methodology which better suits both complexity and safety-criticality of the target system is needed. This paper describes the ASF functional testing methodology, based on a grey-box approach aimed at generating and reducing an extensive set of influence variables and test-cases. The methodology, embracing different aspects of system test process (code coverage verification, regression testing, etc.), was successfully applied to validate the ASF implementation of SCMT (an Italian project for an Automatic Train Protection System). The results obtained in our testing experience proved the time effectiveness and extensive coverage of the proposed approach.

  • 18. De Nicola, G
    et al.
    di Tommaso, P
    Esposito, R
    Flammini, Francesco
    Marmo, P
    Orazzo, A
    ERTMS/ETCS: working principles and validation2005In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ship Propulsion and Railway Traction Systems, SPRTS, 2005, p. 59-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. De Nicola, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    Orazzo, Antonio
    Model-based functional verification & validation of complex train control systems: an on-board system testing case-study2005In: Archives of Transport, ISSN 0866-9546, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 163-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    De Nicola, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Tommaso, Pasquale di
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Esposito, Rosaria
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Orazzo, Antonio
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    A hybrid testing methodology for railway control systems2004In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. SAFECOMP 2004 / [ed] Heisel M., Liggesmeyer P., Wittmann S., Springer, 2004, p. 116-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International standards for V&V processes prescribe systematic testing as a fundamental step of safety-critical systems life-cycle, in order to prove the fulfilment of their requirements. However, proposed approaches are quite general and, for complex systems, imply an excessive number of test-cases to ensure the correctness of system behaviour in any operating scenarios, including unexpected ones. A more detailed methodology is needed to extensively test all the aspects of a complex system, while keeping the number of test-cases below a reasonable threshold. This paper describes the ASF hybrid testing methodology, combining black-box and white-box techniques, based on the identification and reduction of influence variables. Such an approach was successfully applied to validate ASF implementation of the SCMT system (an Italian Automatic Train Control specification), showing its time effectiveness and full achieved coverage. The same methodology, with the related customization, is now being improved in order to test the new ERTMS/ETCS systems. © Springer-Verlag 2004.

  • 21.
    Delli Priscoli, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Rome la Sapienza, Italy.
    Di Giorgio, Alessandro
    University of Rome la Sapienza, Italy.
    Esposito, Mariana
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Fiaschetti, Andrea
    University of Rome la Sapienza, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Mignanti, Silvano
    University of Rome la Sapienza, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Ensuring cyber-security in smart railway surveillance with SHIELD2017In: International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, ISSN 1757-8779, E-ISSN 1757-8787, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 138-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern railways feature increasingly complex embedded computing systems for surveillance that are moving towards fully wireless smart-sensors. Those systems are aimed at monitoring system status from a physical-security viewpoint, in order to detect intrusions and other environmental anomalies. However, the same systems used for physical-security surveillance are vulnerable to cyber-security threats, since they feature distributed hardware and software architectures often interconnected by 'open networks', like wireless channels and the internet. In this paper, we show how the integrated approach to security, privacy and dependability (SPD) in embedded systems provided by the SHIELD framework (developed within the EU funded pSHIELD and nSHIELD research projects) can be applied to railway surveillance systems in order to measure and improve their SPD level. SHIELD implements a layered architecture (node, network, middleware and overlay) and orchestrates SPD mechanisms based on ontology models, appropriate metrics and composability. The results of prototypical application to a real-world demonstrator show the effectiveness of SHIELD and justify its practical applicability in industrial settings.

  • 22.
    di Tommaso, P.
    et al.
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Lazzaro, A.
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Pellecchia, R.
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    Sanseviero, A.
    Ansaldo Signal, Italy.
    The simulation of anomalies in the functional testing of the ERTMS/ETCS trackside system2005In: HASE 2005 : Ninth IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering: 12-14 October 2005, Heidelberg, Germany, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ERTMS/ETCS is going to become the reference standard for modern railway signalling. To develop a safe and reliable Automatic Train Protection System (ATPS) based on ERTMS/ETCS, a detailed functional testing phase is needed, meeting the requirements of international railway safety standards. In this paper we deal with the functional validation of the trackside part of an ERTMS/ETCS compliant system. An extensive set of functional tests have been specified in order to thoroughly verify the system, using an innovative approach based on influence variables and state diagrams. However, such a detailed test specification requires a great amount of time and resources to be entirely executed in the real environment. Moreover, several tests need to generate abnormal safety-critical conditions that are unfeasible on the field. In this paper we describe how we overcame such problems using a specific simulation environment capable to quickly and automatically execute anomaly tests in normal as well as in degraded operating conditions.

  • 23.
    Esposito, Mariana
    et al.
    University of Naples, Italy.
    Fiaschetti, Andrea
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo-STS, Italy.
    The new shield architectural framework2013In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Fantechi, Alessandro
    et al.
    Universit degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Gnesi, Stefania
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione “A. Faedo”, Italy.
    Formal methods for intelligent transportation systems2012In: Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation. Applications and Case Studies. ISoLA 2012, Springer, 2012, no PART 2, p. 187-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), [4,5], refers to information and communication technology (applied to transport infrastructure and vehicles) that improve transport outcomes such as transport safety, transport productivity, travel reliability, informed travel choices, social equity, environmental performance and network operation resilience [2,3]. Safety-critical ITS include the so called X-by-wire (where 'X' can stand for 'fly', 'brake', 'accelerate, 'steer', etc.) systems used in domains like aerospace, automotive and railways. The importance of ITS is increasing as novel driverless/pilotless applications are emerging. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  • 25.
    Fantechi, Alessandro
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Firenze-DINFO, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS-Innovation, Italy.
    Gnesi, Stefania
    Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione “A. Faedo”, Italy.
    Formal methods for railway control systems2014In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 643-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term intelligent transportation systems (ITS) refers to information and communication technology (applied to transport infrastructure and vehicles) that improve transport outcomes such as transport safety, transport productivity, travel reliability, informed travel choices, social equity, environmental performance and network operation resilience. The importance of ITS is increasing as novel driverless/pilotless applications are emerging. This special issue addresses the application of formal methods to model and analyze complex systems in the context of ITS and in particular in the field of railway control systems. In fact, modelling and analysis activities are very important to optimize system life-cycle in the design, development, verification and operational stages, and they are essential whenever assessment and certification is required by international standards. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 26.
    Fiaschetti, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
    Lavorato, Francesco
    University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
    Suraci, Vincenzo
    University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
    Palo, Andi
    University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.
    Taglialatela, Andrea
    TRS SpA, Italy.
    Morgagni, Andrea
    Elsag Datamat S.p.a., Italy.
    Baldelli, Renato
    Elsag Datamat S.p.a., Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS S.p.a., Italy.
    On the use of semantic technologies to model and control security, privacy and dependability in complex systems2011In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 30th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2011, Naples, Italy, September 19-22, 2011, Proceedings / [ed] Francesco Flammini, Sandro Bologna, Valeria Vittorini, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, p. 467-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a semantic approach is presented to model and control Security, Privacy and Dependability (SPD) in complex interconnected environment composed by heterogeneous Embedded Systems. Usually, only the individual properties are locally considered to obtain desired functionalities and this could result in sub-optimal solutions. With the use of modern semantic technologies (like OWL or reasoning engines) it is possible to model not only the individual parameters but also the relations between the different (and dynamically changing) parts of the systems, thus providing enriched knowledge and more useful information that could feed control algorithms. The model presented in this paper is based on the results obtained during the first phase of the pSHIELD project (conceived and lead by Finmeccanica) and it is focused on a concrete application coming from a critical scenario in railway environment: the monitoring of freight trains transporting hazardous material.

  • 27.
    Fiaschetti, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Lavorato, Francesco
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Suraci, Vincenzo
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Palo, Andi
    University of Rome, Italy.
    Taglialatela, Andrea
    TRS SpA, Italy.
    Morgagni, Andrea
    Elsag Datamat, Italy.
    Baldelli, Renato
    Elsag Datamat, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    On the use of semantic technologies to model and control security, privacy and dependability in complex systems2011In: International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, Springer, 2011, p. 467-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a semantic approach is presented to model and control Security, Privacy and Dependability (SPD) in complex interconnected environment composed by heterogeneous Embedded Systems.

    Usually, only the individual properties are locally considered to obtain desired functionalities and this could result in sub-optimal solutions. With the use of modern semantic technologies (like OWL or reasoning engines) it is possible to model not only the individual parameters but also the relations between the different (and dynamically changing) parts of the systems, thus providing enriched knowledge and more useful information that could feed control algorithms.

    The model presented in this paper is based on the results obtained during the first phase of the pSHIELD project (conceived and lead by Finmeccanica) and it is focused on a concrete application coming from a critical scenario in railway environment: the monitoring of freight trains transporting hazardous material.

  • 28.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) applicata agli Autonomous Systems2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of artificial intelligence applied to autonomous systems has in recent years aroused growing interest at the international level, and it is expected that this interest will continue to grow in the coming years [34]. It is a fairly well known fact that in the past many technologies now used in the civil field have seen the light, more or less secretly, in the military sector. Consider, for example, the so-called ARPANET, developed by the US defense department, which anticipated the modern Internet, but also algorithms for data encryption, thermal cameras, and many other commonly used technologies. Today the scenario has partly changed, shifting the leadership of innovation towards other domains, since there is a considerable boost to the technological development in the civil field with the advance of connected society paradigms like Smart-City and Industry 4.0. One example is related to the self-driving vehicles, born in the military sector, which are developing more rapidly in the civil sphere with the attractive self-driving cars. It is therefore important to transfer enabling technologies from one domain to another (cross-fertilization) and to draw appropriately from the outside (open innovation). This is achieved through studies and researches such as the one addressed by this monograph. The objective of this study is to analyze the principles, the basic methodologies and the operational tools of artificial intelligence applied to autonomous systems, at the modeling and technology level, in order to replace human-controlled vehicles with autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles (e.g. drones) in high-risk operating environments, as well as to reduce human errors and to speed up response times, for example in operations command and control centers. The study presents an overview of the information fusion approaches to enable artificial cognition, mentioning several relevant applications in the military field, already at an advanced phase of development or even at an embryonic level. These approaches can be used to strengthen weapon systems and defense means, with greater ability to adapt to the operational context for the dynamic management of uncertainties and unforeseen events, as well as for experiential evolution and learning. Future applications include not only self-driving vehicles and smart weapons, but also the strengthening of soldiers through prosthetics and exoskeletons. Many of the future projections have been formalized by the working group on Symbiotic Autonomous Systems – which the writer is a member of – of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), enclosed in a special White Paper [34]. The present study addresses the impact of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the use of the military instrument when this technology will be applied to military assets and weapon systems, taking into account the different declinations of AI, including: • deterministic (semi)autonomous systems implemented through Boolean logical operators (eg Event Trees); • (semi)Autonomous systems based on probabilistic / stochastic models for the representation of knowledge and inference (eg Bayesian Networks); • (semi)Autonomous systems based on trained artificial neuronal models (ANN, Artificial Neural Networks). These approaches are based on different models of machine learning, which can be supervised or not. They apply to classification and clustering approaches in modern data analysis approaches, particularly in the presence of large amounts of information (big data analytics). This study distinguishes between semi-autonomous AI models, which require the confirmation of decisions by human operators (DSS, Decision Support Systems), and complete autonomy, which presents predictability problems impacting the verification and validation process and therefore system safety. These are the cases in which the aforementioned ethical, procedural, normative and legal implications are more relevant [1]. The introduction of autonomous systems equipped with artificial intelligence involves transformations also at the level of military logistics, which can be interpreted in two directions. On the one hand, it is necessary to plan the procurement of enabling technologies, the so-called deployable systems based on secure wireless networks, and the updating of systems to support complete digitalisation, which is an essential pre-requisite for the adoption of the instrument. The other side of the coin is the use of a higher level of automation in military logistics, supported by the AI. Here we can mention the automatic multi-objective optimization algorithms for decision support (eg genetic and evolutionary programming), the computation of the most efficient paths (in terms of time, energy, etc.), the dynamic definition of optimization priorities, as well as aspects of resilience through automatic re-planning of the route in the event of interruptions on the predefined trajectory. For all that has been said so far, it is clear that the development of the AI will have consequences on the future organization of the armed forces, both for the conduct of the operations and for the structure and numbers of the defense sector. As in other areas subject to automation through the use of new digital technologies, even in the military one the human role of decision supervision, feedback and control of high-level operations will remain decisive for many years. At the same time, however, the need for training and specialization in line with the complete computerization will arise, with significant impacts in terms of information security (or cybersecurity), which will require increasingly specific skills. The fact that complete autonomy would be possible in the event of unavailability of personnel in control centers implies not only a higher level of security, but also the possibility of reducing organizational redundancies by dedicating resources to different and more specialized tasks. As already underlined, there are significant ethical and legal implications related to future decision-making processes for the choice of using force through a weapon system governed by an artificial intelligence, potentially endowed with a high level of autonomy. It is therefore essential to define clear and shared limitations and conditions of autonomy for the verifiability and traceability of the decision-making process. In particular, in order to govern decision-making and prevent ambiguities, it is essential to apply the well-known RACI (Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed) paradigm, which defines for each action who is responsible for its implementation, who is associated with its administrative / legal responsibility, who will have to be consulted for further information and possible approval, and finally who will have to be simply, but obligatorily, informed. All aspects related to international safety certifications that regulate design, development and verification of systems whose malfunctions can impact on the safety of people are also essential. Many of the current reference standards are no longer adequate if we consider the current and anticipated evolution of AI, and therefore they will have to be adjusted accordingly.

  • 29.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Automatic train protection systems2013In: Industrial Engineering & Management, ISSN 2169-0316, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles used in railway applications are requested to be more and more performable, reliable and safe. The use of computer based railway control systems is nowadays widespread, as it has been proven to be the most effective, if not the only practicable way to pursue such hard requirements.

  • 30. Flammini, Francesco
    Critical Infrastructure Security: Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Response2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31. Flammini, Francesco
    Dependability Assurance of Real-Time Embedded Control Systems2010Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Formal Evaluation of a Majority Voting Concept to Improve the Dependability of Multiple Technology Sensors2010In: Journal of Physical Security, ISSN 2157-8443, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a good trade-off among the probability of detection (POD), the false alarm rate (FAR) and the reliability of detectors is a very important task in physical security system design. Existing solutions try to achieve this aim either by using the most advanced technologies or by combining basic sensors in logical OR/AND relations. However, these approaches are either not cost-effective or they do not allow for the necessary flexibility to obtain the right balance. In this paper I propose a majority voting scheme for multiple technology detectors which I evaluate using stochastic modelling techniques. This solution has the major advantages that it permits good overall dependability while using low-cost detectors, and also enables a precise fine tuning of POD and FAR parameters. To the best of my knowledge, no similar system has been studied in depth in the research literature. I provide a set of results which clearly show the advantages of the proposed approach.

  • 33.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Model-based analysis of 'k out of m' correlation techniques for diverse redundant detectors2013In: International Journal of Performability Engineering, ISSN 0973-1318, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 551-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors are widespread in applications ranging from environmental monitoring to distributed surveillance for physical security. Novel protocols and appropriate topologies enable large networks of cheap smart-sensors with the main objective of providing pervasiveness and resilience. In this paper we provide a model-based analysis of a 'k-out-of-m' ('KooM') voting approach which can be used to correlate data coming from heterogeneous event detecting devices. The approach is based on the assumption of diverse redundancy on sensor technologies. The Bayesian Network formalism is employed to perform the analysis. The results show that by choosing appropriate correlation logics an optimal trade-off can be achieved among probability of detection, false alarm rate, availability and robustness against spoofing attempts, depending on the specific application. Furthermore, it will be shown that majority voting on detector outputs allows for a high cost effectiveness in obtaining performance improvements. © RAMS Consultants.

  • 34.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Model-based dependability evaluation of complex critical control systems2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    On the use of models for the dependability and security of transit systems and infrastructures: A multi-year industrial experience report2012In: International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, ISSN 1757-8779, E-ISSN 1757-8787, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based transit systems are increasingly large, distributed and heterogeneous; in one word: complex. Being 'complex' and 'open' systems, their protection against both natural faults and deliberate attacks is far from being trivial. In this paper, we report a survey of a ten years industrial experience in infrastructure and threat modelling for the assurance of reliability, safety and security in different phases of the life-cycle of rail transit systems. Described by a set of case-study applications, the experience highlights the importance of mastering advanced modelling paradigms through a strict and constant cooperation with universities and research institutes. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 36.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Railway safety, reliability, and security: Technologies and systems engineering2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human errors, as well as deliberate sabotage, pose a considerable danger to passengers riding on the modern railways and have created disastrous consequences. To protect civilians against both intentional and unintentional threats, rail transportation has become increasingly automated. Railway Safety, Reliability, and Security: Technologies and Systems Engineering provides engineering students and professionals with a collection of state-of-the-art methodological and technological notions to support the development and certification of â€r̃eal-time safety-critical’ railway control systems, as well as the protection of rail transportation infrastructures. © 2012 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Maryland University College, USA.
    Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems: From Risk Modeling to Threat Counteraction2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the latest approaches to holistic Cyber-Physical System (CPS) resilience in real-world industrial applications. Ensuring the resilience of CPSs requires cross-discipline analysis and involves many challenges and open issues, including how to address evolving cyber-security threats.

    The book describes emerging paradigms and techniques from two main viewpoints: CPSs’ exposure to new threats, and CPSs’ potential to counteract them. Further, the chapters address topics ranging from risk modeling to threat management and mitigation. The book offers a clearly structured, highly accessible resource for a diverse readership, including graduate students, researchers and industry practitioners who are interested in evaluating and ensuring the resilience of CPSs in both the development and assessment stages.

    Foreword by Prof. Shiyan Hu, Chair of Cyber-Physical Systems at Linnaeus University, Sweden. 

  • 38.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Sistemi autonomi simbiotici e sicurezza2019In: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, no 80Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the security of the interactions between machines and humans in the context of Symbiotic Autonomous Systems (SAS). In particular, the paper will provide an overview of the security in interconnected devices, including cybersecurity and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) security. We will also mention some recent security developments related to the Internet of Things (IoT).

  • 39.
    Flammini, Francesco
    L'Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Sistemi di controllo per l'Alta Velocità ferroviaria2010In: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 18-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Symbiotic Autonomous Systems White Paper III2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Technical Committee Reports: The Future of Homeland Security2016In: IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine, ISSN 2333-942X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Bologna, S.Italian Association Critical Infrastructure (AIIC), Italy.Setola, R.University Campus Biomedico, Italy.Vittorini, V.Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Preface2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43. Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Bologna, SandroVittorini, Valeria
    Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: Proceedings of the 30th international conference on Computer safety, reliability, and security2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2011, held in Naples, Italy, in September 2011.

    The 34 full papers presented together were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on RAM evaluation, complex systems dependability, formal verification, risk and hazard analysis, cybersecurity and optimization methods.

  • 44.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Gaglione, A
    Mazzino, N
    Mazzocca, N
    Pragliola, C
    La security nei sistemi di trasporto a guida vincolata: analisi del rischio e strategie di protezione2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    ANSALDO STS, Italy ; Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Gaglione, A.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Mazzocca, N.
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Pragliola, C.
    Ansaldo, Italy.
    DETECT: A novel framework for the detection of attacks to critical infrastructures2009In: Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications - Proceedings of the Joint ESREL and SRA-Europe Conference, Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 105-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) against potential threats has become a major issue in modern society. CIP involves a set of multidisciplinary activities and requires the adoption of proper protection mechanisms, usually supervised by centralized monitoring systems. This paper presents the motivation, the working principles and the software architecture of DETECT (DEcision Triggering Event Composer & Tracker), a new framework aimed at the automatic and early detection of threats against critical infrastructures. The framework is based on the fact that non trivial attack scenarios are made up by a set of basic steps which have to be executed in a predictable sequence (with possible variants). Such scenarios are identified during Vulnerability Assessment which is a fundamental phase of the Risk Analysis for critical infrastructures. DETECT operates by performing a model-based logical, spatial and temporal correlation of basic events detected by the sensorial subsystem (possibly including intelligent video-surveillance, wireless sensor networks, etc.). In order to achieve this aim, DETECT is based on a detection engine which is able to reason about heterogeneous data, implementing a centralized application of "data fusion". The framework can be interfaced with or integrated in existing monitoring systems as a decision support tool or even to automatically trigger adequate countermeasures. 

  • 46. Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    Moscato, Vincenzo
    Pragliola, Concetta
    On-line integration and reasoning of multi-sensor data to enhance infrastructure surveillance2009In: Journal of Information Assurance and Security, ISSN 1554-1010, E-ISSN 1554-1029, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    ANSALDO STS, Italy ; Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Moscato, Vincenzo
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    ANSALDO STS , Italy.
    Wireless sensor data fusion for critical infrastructure security2009In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems CISIS’08. / [ed] Corchado E., Zunino R., Gastaldo P., Herrero Á., Springer, 2009, p. 92-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are being investigated by the research community for resilient distributed monitoring. Multiple sensor data fusion has proven as a valid technique to improve detection effectiveness and reliability. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework for correlating events detected by WSN in the context of critical infrastructure protection. The aim is to develop a decision support and early warning system used to effectively face security threats by exploiting the advantages of WSN. The research addresses two relevant issues: the development of a middleware for the integration of heterogeneous WSN (SeNsIM, Sensor Networks Integration and Management) and the design of a model-based event correlation engine for the early detection of security threats (DETECT, DEcision Triggering Event Composer & Tracker). The paper proposes an overall system architecture for the integration of the SeNsIM and DETECT frameworks and provides example scenarios in which the system features can be exploited. © 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 48.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Optimisation of security system design by quantitative risk assessment and genetic algorithms2011In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 204-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of physical security systems for critical infrastructures is a delicate task that requires a balance between the cost of protection mechanisms and their expected effect on risk mitigation. This paper presents an approach usable to support the design of security systems by automatically optimising some parameters, basing on external constraints (e.g., limited available budget) and using quantitative risk assessment. Risk assessment is performed using a software tool that implements a quantitative methodology. The methodology accounts for the attributes of threats (frequency, system vulnerability, expected consequences) and protection mechanisms (cost, effectiveness, coverage, etc.). The optimisation is performed by means of genetic algorithms with the objective of achieving the set of parameters that minimises the risk while fitting external budget constraints, hence maximising the return on investment. The paper also describes an example application of the approach to the design of physical security systems for metro railways.

  • 49.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy ; Universita’ di Napoli ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    Universita’ di Napoli ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Mazzocca, Nicola
    Universita’ di Napoli ”Federico II”, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Quantitative security risk assessment and management for railway transportation infrastructures2009In: Critical Information Infrastructure Security. CRITIS 2008 / [ed] Setola, Roberto ; Geretshuber, Stefan, Springer, 2009, p. 180-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists have been long investigating procedures, models and tools for the risk analysis in several domains, from economics to computer networks. This paper presents a quantitative method and a tool for the security risk assessment and management specifically tailored to the context of railway transportation systems, which are exposed to threats ranging from vandalism to terrorism. The method is based on a reference mathematical model and it is supported by a specifically developed tool. The tool allows for the management of data, including attributes of attack scenarios and effectiveness of protection mechanisms, and the computation of results, including risk and cost/benefit indices. The main focus is on the design of physical protection systems, but the analysis can be extended to logical threats as well. The cost/benefit analysis allows for the evaluation of the return on investment, which is a nowadays important issue to be addressed by risk analysts. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 50.
    Flammini, Francesco
    et al.
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Ottello, Francesco
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Pappalardo, Alfio
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concerta
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Tedesco, Annarita
    ANSALDO STS, Italy.
    Towards wireless sensor networks for railway infrastructure monitoring2010In: Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion, Piscataway: IEEE, 2010, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging sensing technologies for instrumentation within a variety of structural systems. Structural health monitoring systems are widely adopted to monitor the behavior of structures during forced vibration testing or natural excitation (e.g. earthquakes, winds, live loading). They can be found in a number of civil structures, including bridges and viaducts, and also in applications of vehicle health monitoring. Moreover, since infrastructures can be damaged by human originated threats, the adoption of security measures is also essential. This paper presents a proposal of an early warning system based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for railway infrastructure monitoring. It exploits already available research results and tools for WSN management, integration and data fusion. The aim is to hedge detection capabilities in a complete framework for structural failures as well as security threats, including both natural hazards and intentional attacks.

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