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  • 1.
    Chowdhury, Soumitra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics. Uppsala University.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Smart Product-Service Systems (Smart PSS) in Industrial Firms: A Literature Review2018In: 10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, IPS2 2018, 29-31 May 2018, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Mattias Lindahl, Yang Liu, Carl Dalhammar, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 73, p. 26-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, the PSS literature has documented industrial firms’ transformation from the product dominant logic of business to product-service bundles constituted by machines and related services. This transformation has had several dramatic implications on firms’ profitability, strategy, operations, organizational setting, sales and marketing approaches, and R&D practices. However, more recently, industrial firms have started to adopt various smart technologies that are embedded within the PSS. The use of smart technologies in PSS gives rise to the new types of PSS that are referred to in this paper as Smart PSS. Based on a literature review of 43 papers from relevant academic fields, this paper seeks answer to the following research question: what are the value creating features of smart product service systems (Smart PSS) in industrial firms? We synthesize the knowledge on Smart PSS to provide a definition and show the distinctive features of Smart PSS and propose an agenda for future research.

  • 2.
    Fraenkel, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Stockholm University.
    Salesforce management factors for successful new product launch2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 5053-5058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New innovative products constitute a central source of economic value creation, but in many industries, salesforce management significantly conditions the appropriation of innovative products during their launch. Very little previous research addresses the salesforce management factors that contribute to successful new product launches. This study identifies and examines a set of salesforce management factors that contribute to successful new product launches by drawing on previous studies related to new product launches and salesforce management. The multivariate analysis in this study uses data covering new product launches in the Swedish pharmaceutical industry. This study unearths a complex and unique complementarity pattern of factors resting upon the duality of a highly dynamic marketplace and sales representatives with an innovative personality type, which are complementary with other specific factors such as training, management control, and reward systems. These findings contribute to the literature on new product launches, salesforce management, and firm complementarities and have managerial implications for practitioners who oversee salesforce readiness during new product launches.

  • 3.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    A Search for Patterns of Productivity Gains of Information Workers2013In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation: Faculty of Management, University of Gdańsk, Poland 12-13 September / [ed] Przemyslaw Lech, Gdańsk, Poland: Academic Conferences Limited, 2013, p. 239-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notwithstanding its positive characteristics and enormous potential, IT has become a difficult challenge for researchers and managers. In 1987, Nobel Prize Laureate, Robert Solow remarked that computers appeared everywhere except in the productivity statistics. The shift from a manufacturing-based society to an information-based society became one of the reasons for the revision of the dilemma between IT-use and individual productivity. In an information-intensive environment it becomes increasingly difficult for managers to control the production process, a consequence of a lack of scientific-based approaches in the measurement of information worker productivity. Moreover, the impact of IT-use on productivity of individuals employed in information-intensive occupations is little understood and rarely modelled. Current studies on information worker productivity have succeeded to uncover some new patterns regarding information worker productivity and IT-use. A critical evaluation of these studies with regard to its strengths and limitations reveals some important challenges, which in turn lay a foundation for the herein proposed empirical study that aims to advance further understanding of the underlying mechanisms of information worker productivity and IT-use in terms of four information handling functions - generation, transfer, storage and transformation. The proposed study aims also to add to the growing body of understanding both intra- and inter-project multitasking practices and their impact on individual productivity. A better understanding of how IT-use can contribute to business value and what productivity benefits IT-use can provide the information worker is presented in this study from the perspective of both a descriptive and normative research approaches, which is applied through a set of case studies, quantitative surveys and experiments. The principal product of the research will be an inventory of a set of patterns of IT-use for the improvement of information worker productivity at the individual level based on intermediate business-process metrics of precise information worker’s workflow with interaction to IT-use.

  • 4.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    About IT unemployment: Investigating normative aspects of the “broken link"2014In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Working Conference of the International Institute for Developmental Ethics (IIDE), Maarssen, the Netherlands: Rozenberg Publishers, 2014, p. -92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of information and communication technologies has given rise to some moral challenges that deserve particular attention. One such is the discrepancy between productivity growth and technological unemployment. This paper argues that if subsequent undesirable consequences of technological unemployment are to be avoided, there is a need for additional research to embed normative considerations into a scientific context, by linking technological progress with the ‘Ought to Be’ of the economic and societal order.

  • 5.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Complementarities of Effective Individual IT Use: Preliminary Results2016In: ECIS 2016 Proceedings, Association for Information Systems, 2016, article id 44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the relationship between IT-complementary factors and the individual productivity of information workers. Although there is substantial evidence of positive IT complementarity effects on productivity at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels of the economy, we still lack knowledge on the configuration of these factors at the individual level. To investigate this gap, we have designed a new research model of an information worker’s individual productivity when an IT system is used jointly and synchronously with both individual and organizational factors. The model is tested in a longitudinal field study of sales operations of an international pharmaceutical company with a multi sub-case setup. While we continue to collect data, preliminary findings from difference-in-difference analysis are presented here and demonstrate that the introduction of a “full” set of IT complementarities has had a positive and significant effect on the number of sales calls performed.

  • 6.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Complementarities of Productive IT-use at Individual Level: Preliminary Results2016In: The 23d European Operations Management Association Conference (EurOMA), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics. 1983.
    Haftor, Darek
    Uppsala University.
    Exploring Complementarities of Productive IT use through Methodological Complementarism2018In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 128-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors affecting productivity and particularly IT‑enabled productivity increase have been and still remain the major concern for many business sectors. While previously researchers investigated what factors and their complementary relationships affect organizational productivity, organizational economists came to the conclusion that an organization cannot be regarded anymore as a black box since it is not an organization per se that conducts the very work but its resources with the basic elements being a single worker and a single IT system. Currently, it is proposed that we understand organizational internal mechanisms and their functioning for productivity through the lens of complementarity theory and maintain that when factors are synchronized correctly they can bring significant productivity increase. Identification of the complementarity factors and their synchronization bring, however, a major challenge for research methodology. Unlike conventional studies where a few variables independent of each other cause a reaction to dependent variables, in the context of complementarities, the assumption is closer to the real‑world experiences where a set of factors interact with each other to affect one or several dependent variables. The present paper addresses this difficulty of researching complementary factors for an individual knowledge worker and their productivity. The approach taken here is to use multiple and different research methods in a complementary manner, so that the results from each study of the same kind of phenomenon uncover new insights that cannot be derived from any such single study. The results from this multi‑method approach demonstrate new insights into the interplay between the studied factors that condition the productivity of knowledge workers and show the importance of analysing a complex phenomenon with complementary research methods. 

  • 8.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    IT-Driven Productivity at the Individual Level: Complementarities Matter2014In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation: ECIME 2014, Ghent, Belgium / [ed] Jan Devos, Steven De Haas, Academic Conferences Limited, 2014, p. 380-383Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a conceptual model for the understanding of IT‐ driven productivity at the individual level when a new IT‐system is deployed. The existence of the IT productivity paradox at different economic levels has been a concern for many researchers. Since evidence demonstrates that IT, in fact, in‐ creases productivity at the macro‐, meso‐ and micro‐  level, current research at‐ tention shifted to the individual and task level. Since the last decade, the idea that there is a need for a set of organizational factors to be changed in a synchronized fashion when introducing a new IT‐system has received particular attention. To investigate these proposals, we have designed a new research model aimed at analyzing individual productivity growth when a new IT‐system is deployed, jointly and in a synchronized manner, with both individual capital and organizational capital factors. The aim of this model is to advance our understanding and devel‐ op propositions, which will require further testing, of patterns of effective IT‐use in order to increase productivity of an information worker. A better understand‐ ing of the patterns of effective IT‐use together with other factors may help de‐ termine where research and managerial efforts have to be concentrated in order to enhance individual productivity of information workers.

  • 9.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Methodological Insights From two Experimental Studies Into Complementarities of Productive IT use2018In: ECRM 2018  - Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies / [ed] Paola Demartini & Michela Marchiori, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2018, p. 303-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have attempted to determine factors that condition the IT-enabled productivity of information workers but have not yet arrived at a comprehensive conclusion. A so-called complementarity systems approach has been proposed recently, holding that a number of factors need to be managed in a deliberately synchronized manner in order to generate productivity gains from such workers. However, this proposal does not provide specifications for how such synchronization must be conducted and researched. To remedy this gap, this research conducts two parallel and differently designed studies: a longitudinal quasi-randomized field experiment and a well-controlled online experiment. Regarded jointly, each study offers insights into the investigated phenomenon that the other does not, indicating that both studies complement each other. In particular, these two different research approaches to study the complementarities of productive IT use help us to establish how further research design should be developed to investigate individual productivity when a new, more aligned IT system in a company is used together with complementary factors. Moreover, the results from both studies jointly demonstrate that a mandatory context of IT use might provide better access to individuals with both adaptive and innovative cognitive styles than a voluntary working environment. Finally, both studies demonstrate that more detailed research is needed to understand how the productivity of individuals differs when inappropriate cognitive styles are included in complementarity set-ups. Therefore, the two studies offer new insights into the interplay between the studied factors that condition the productivity of information workers and show the importance of analysing a complex phenomenon with multiple, different, and complementary research designs, as each design has inherent conditions with opportunities and limitations, in order to reveal characteristics about the phenomenon being investigated.

  • 10.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Software programmer productivity: a complementary-based research model2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Guimarães, Portugal, June 5-10, 2017, Association for Information Systems, 2017, , p. 10p. 2755-2766Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of the factors that condition a software programmer’s productivity remains a key challenge for both scholars and practitioners. While a number of studies have focused on the impact of one or a few particular factors, the way these factors jointly condition programmer productivity is still unknown. This paper presents a conceptual model aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the factors that complement each other to govern the productivity of a software programmer. The model is based on complementarity theory and its systems approach and addresses an individual worker’s productivity, which accounts for cognitive, technological, and organizational characteristics. The analyzed factors are organized into a system of complementarities, offering two propositions that specify the conditions of a programmer’s productivity. The model’s key contribution lies in its unique configuration of two systems of complementarities, which have the potential to add to the literature on the productivity of software programmers. The proposed model can be employed as a guidance for the design of empirical investigations of the conditions of individual software programmers’ productivity as well as information worker productivity in general.

  • 11.
    Pashkevich, Vohla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Stockholm University.
    Swedish Information Economy: A Preliminary Account2017In: Dilemmas 2015 Papers from the 18th Annual International Conference Dilemmas for Human Services: Organizing, Designing and Managing / [ed] Sisse Finken, Christina Mörtberg, Anita Mirijamdotter, Vaxjo: LnuPress , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent developments and adoptions of digital technologies give rise to the growth of information economies, understood as an aggregate of economic activities that produce informational outputs. Several key characteristics of an information economy differ to the conventional economic wisdom derived from the industrial age, which may impose governmental policy implications and therefore constitutes a key question: how to govern the newly emerged information economy with the thinking of the industrial age economy. Resolving this problem requires, among others, comprehensive understanding of information economies. To that end, Sweden is among the most advanced adopters of digital technologies and represents therefore a suitable empirical base for the investigation of an information economy. This paper offers preliminary results from a first ever account of the Swedish information economy in terms of its value created, jobs and wages; this account shows that the Swedish economy is dominated by its information economy, which requires a careful attention of policy makers.

  • 12.
    Pashkevich, Volha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Stockholm Business School, Sweden.
    The Swedish Information Economy: Current Evidence and Key Government Policy Implications2017In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies (ICSIT 2017), International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2017, p. 23-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that most of the largest economies in the world are becoming information economies (understood as an aggregate of economic activities that produce information outputs) in terms of value added (GNP) and jobs. Sweden is among the most advanced adopters of ICT and represents therefore a suitable empirical base for the investigation of an information economy. The data reveal that the largest part of the Swedish economy in terms of GNP value added is constituted by information services. This study presents some surprising economic structures never before uncovered, which are discussed here and then contextualized in terms of implications for public policy making. 

  • 13.
    von Schéele, Fabian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Haftor, Darek
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Cognitive time distortion as a hidden condition of worker productivity2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 591-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study advances a novel productivity function of knowledge workers. Cognitive science studies provide clear evidence that, for a given event, there is a difference between a worker's cognitive time and physical clock time; this difference gives rise to a cognitive time distortion. The proposed productivity function accounts for workers' dual experiences of time and the kinds of contracts utilized by an economic organization and its customers and workers. This function shows-for the first time and contrary to intuition-that, given certain conditions, workers' cognitive time and the form of contracts utilized are the only conditioners of knowledge worker productivity. The proposed productivity function unearths a hidden economic lever effect whereby a minor degree of time distortion generates a significant level of worker inefficiency. This constitutes a novel contribution to the literature on knowledge worker productivity.

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