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  • 1.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Adam, R.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Armstrong, T.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Baghmanyan, V
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Barbosa-Martins, V
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    PSL Res Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, CNRS, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Ata, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    PSL Res Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eichhorn, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, CNRS, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, CNRS, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.;Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, CNRS, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mauring, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Morriss, P.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H. G.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahalcian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Scalici, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Sol, H.
    PSL Res Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    PSL Res Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Rodrigues, X.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Probing the Magnetic Field in the GW170817 Outflow Using HESS Observations2020In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 894, no 2, p. 1-5, article id L16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of the first electromagnetic counterpart to the binary neutron star (BNS) merger remnant GW170817 established the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and BNS mergers. It also confirmed the forging of heavy elements in the ejecta (a so-called kilonova) via the r-process nucleosynthesis. The appearance of nonthermal radio and X-ray emission, as well as the brightening, which lasted more than 100 days, were somewhat unexpected. Current theoretical models attempt to explain this temporal behavior as either originating from a relativistic off-axis jet or a kilonova-like outflow. In either scenario, there is some ambiguity regarding how much energy is transported in the nonthermal electrons versus the magnetic field of the emission region. Combining the Very Large Array (radio) and Chandra (X-ray) measurements with observations in the GeV-TeV domain can help break this ambiguity, almost independently of the assumed origin of the emission. Here we report for the first time on deep H.E.S.S. observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A between 124 and 272 days after the BNS merger with the full H.E.S.S. array of telescopes, as well as on an updated analysis of the prompt (<5 days) observations with the upgraded H.E.S.S. phase-I telescopes. We discuss implications of the H.E.S.S. measurement for the magnetic field in the context of different source scenarios.

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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Enmin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS IN2P3, CPPM, F-13288 Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eichhorn, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Hoerbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzyski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Inst Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. P.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Scalici, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Unit Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Ruhr Univ Bochum, Lehrstuhl Welttaum & Astrophys 4, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Very high energy gamma-ray emission from two blazars of unknown redshift and upper limits on their distance2020In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 494, no 4, p. 5590-5602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the detection of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac objects KUV 00311-1938 and PKS 1440-389 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observations were accompanied or preceded by multiwavelength observations with Fermi/LAT, XRT and UVOT onboard the Swift satellite, and ATOM. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi/LAT spectrum towards the VHE gamma-ray regime, we deduce a 95 per cent confidence level upper limit on the unknown redshift of KUV 00311-1938 of z < 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 of z < 0.53. When combined with previous spectroscopy results, the redshift of KUV 00311-1938 is constrained to 0.51 <= z < 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 to 0.14 (sic) z < 0.53.

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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Armstrong, T.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buchele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    dewilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eichhorn, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Nski, K. Katarzy Prime
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Morris, P.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Scalici, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, AstroParticule & Cosmol,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.;Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Volk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the colliding wind binary eta Car with HESS2020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 635, p. 1-8, article id A167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Colliding wind binary systems have long been suspected to be high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. eta Car is the most prominent member of this object class and is confirmed to emit phase-locked HE gamma rays from hundreds of MeV to 100 GeV energies. This work aims to search for and characterise the very-high-energy (VHE; E >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from eta Car around the last periastron passage in 2014 with the ground-based High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.).Methods. The region around eta Car was observed with H.E.S.S. between orbital phase p = 0.78-1.10, with a closer sampling at p approximate to 0.95 and p approximate to 1.10 (assuming a period of 2023 days). Optimised hardware settings as well as adjustments to the data reduction, reconstruction, and signal selection were needed to suppress and take into account the strong, extended, and inhomogeneous night sky background (NSB) in the eta Car field of view. Tailored run-wise Monte-Carlo simulations (RWS) were required to accurately treat the additional noise from NSB photons in the instrument response functions.Results. H.E.S.S. detected VHE gamma-ray emission from the direction of eta Car shortly before and after the minimum in the X-ray light-curve close to periastron. Using the point spread function provided by RWS, the reconstructed signal is point-like and the spectrum is best described by a power law. The overall flux and spectral index in VHE gamma rays agree within statistical and systematic errors before and after periastron. The gamma-ray spectrum extends up to at least 400 GeV. This implies a maximum magnetic field in a leptonic scenario in the emission region of 0.5 Gauss. No indication for phase-locked flux variations is detected in the H.E.S.S. data.

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    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France.;Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, Yerevan, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
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    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
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    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Barcelona, Spain..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    DeWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Inst Phys, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    de Ona Wilhelmi, E.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Priyana Noel, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, AstroParticule & Cosmol, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris,IN2P3,UMR 7638, Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Resolving acceleration to very high energies along the jet of Centaurus A2020In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 582, no 7812, p. 356-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A belongs to a class of active galaxies that are luminous at radio wavelengths. Most show collimated relativistic outflows known as jets, which extend over hundreds of thousands of parsecs for the most powerful sources. Accretion of matter onto the central supermassive black hole is believed to fuel these jets and power their emission(1). Synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons causes the radio emission, and it has been suggested that the X-ray emission from Centaurus A also originates in electron synchrotron processes(2-4). Another possible explanation is inverse Compton scattering with cosmic microwave background (CMB) soft photons(5-7). Synchrotron radiation needs ultrarelativistic electrons (about 50 teraelectronvolts) and, given their short cooling times, requires some continuous re-acceleration mechanism(8). Inverse Compton scattering, on the other hand, does not require very energetic electrons, but the jets must stay highly relativistic on large scales (exceeding 1 megaparsec). Some recent evidence disfavours inverse Compton-CMB models(9-12), although other work seems to be compatible with them(13,14). In principle, the detection of extended gamma-ray emission, which directly probes the presence of ultrarelativistic electrons, could distinguish between these options. At gigaelectronvolt energies there is also an unusual spectral hardening(15,16)in Centaurus A that has not yet been explained. Here we report observations of Centaurus A at teraelectronvolt energies that resolve its large-scale jet. We interpret the data as evidence for the acceleration of ultrarelativistic electrons in the jet, and favour the synchrotron explanation for the X-rays. Given that this jet is not exceptional in terms of power, length or speed, it is possible that ultrarelativistic electrons are commonplace in the large-scale jets of radio-loud active galaxies. Observations of the radio galaxy Centaurus A at teraelectronvolt energies resolve its large-scale jet and favour electron synchrotron processes as the source of its X-ray emission.

  • 5.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Ecole Polytech, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo Fis, Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseilles, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Inst Theoret Phys, Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Axelsson, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roberts, O. J.
    Univ Space Res Assoc, USA.
    A very-high-energy component deep in the gamma-ray burst afterglow2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 575, no 7783, p. 464-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays and are considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe(1). The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow-produced by the interaction between the ejected matter and the circumburst medium-slows down, and a gradual decrease in brightness is observed(2). GRBs typically emit most of their energy via.-rays with energies in the kiloelectronvolt-to-megaelectronvolt range, but a few photons with energies of tens of gigaelectronvolts have been detected by space-based instruments(3). However, the origins of such high-energy (above one gigaelectronvolt) photons and the presence of very-high-energy (more than 100 gigaelectronvolts) emission have remained elusive(4). Here we report observations of very-high-energy emission in the bright GRB 180720B deep in the GRB afterglow-ten hours after the end of the prompt emission phase, when the X-ray flux had already decayed by four orders of magnitude. Two possible explanations exist for the observed radiation: inverse Compton emission and synchrotron emission of ultrarelativistic electrons. Our observations show that the energy fluxes in the X-ray and gamma-ray range and their photon indices remain comparable to each other throughout the afterglow. This discovery places distinct constraints on the GRB environment for both emission mechanisms, with the inverse Compton explanation alleviating the particle energy requirements for the emission observed at late times. The late timing of this detection has consequences for the future observations of GRBs at the highest energies.

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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cenuti, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Curylo, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N. N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Smith, P. S.
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    HESS detection of very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the quasar PKS 0736+0172020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 633, p. 1-11, article id A162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Flat-spectrum radio-quasars (FSRQs) are rarely detected at very high energies (E& x2004;>=& x2004;100 GeV) due to their low-frequency-peaked spectral energy distributions. At present, only six FSRQs are known to emit very high-energy (VHE) photons, representing only 7% of the VHE extragalactic catalog, which is largely dominated by high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects. Aims. Following the detection of MeV-GeV gamma-ray flaring activity from the FSRQ PKS 0736+017 (z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189) with Fermi-LAT, the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes triggered target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations on February 18, 2015, with the goal of studying the gamma-ray emission in the VHE band. Methods. H.E.S.S. ToO observations were carried out during the nights of February 18, 19, 21, and 24, 2015. Together with Fermi-LAT, the multi-wavelength coverage of the flare includes Swift observations in soft X-ray and optical-UV bands, and optical monitoring (photometry and spectro-polarimetry) by the Steward Observatory, and the ATOM, the KAIT, and the ASAS-SN telescopes. Results. VHE emission from PKS 0736+017 was detected with H.E.S.S. only during the night of February 19, 2015. Fermi-LAT data indicate the presence of a gamma-ray flare, peaking at the time of the H.E.S.S. detection, with a flux doubling timescale of around six hours. The gamma-ray flare was accompanied by at least a 1 mag brightening of the non-thermal optical continuum. No simultaneous observations at longer wavelengths are available for the night of the H.E.S.S. detection. The gamma-ray observations with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT are used to put constraints on the location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare: it is constrained to be just outside the radius of the broad-line region r(BLR) with a bulk Lorentz factor Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;20, or at the level of the radius of the dusty torus r(torus) with Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;60. Conclusions. PKS 0736+017 is the seventh FSRQ known to emit VHE photons, and at z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189 is the nearest so far. The location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare can be tightly constrained thanks to opacity, variability, and collimation arguments.

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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van Der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Constraints on the emission region of 3C 279 during strong flares in 2014 and 2015 through VHE gamma-ray observations with HESS2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 627, p. 1-19, article id A159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit pronounced variability in the high-energy (100MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray band, which is continuously monitored with Fermi-LAT. During two periods of high activity in April 2014 and June 2015 target-of-opportunity observations were undertaken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray domain. While the observation in 2014 provides an upper limit, the observation in 2015 results in a signal with 8 : 7 sigma significance above an energy threshold of 66 GeV. No VHE variability was detected during the 2015 observations. The VHE photon spectrum is soft and described by a power-law index of 4.2 +/- 0.3. The H.E.S.S. data along with a detailed and contemporaneous multiwavelength data set provide constraints on the physical parameters of the emission region. The minimum distance of the emission region from the central black hole was estimated using two plausible geometries of the broad-line region and three potential intrinsic spectra. The emission region is confidently placed at r greater than or similar to 1 : 7 X 1017 cm from the black hole, that is beyond the assumed distance of the broad-line region. Time-dependent leptonic and lepto-hadronic one-zone models were used to describe the evolution of the 2015 flare. Neither model can fully reproduce the observations, despite testing various parameter sets. Furthermore, the H.E.S.S. data were used to derive constraints on Lorentz invariance violation given the large redshift of 3C 279.

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    Ecole Polytech, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Univ Montpellier, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France;Univ Barcelona, Spain.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Montpellier, France.
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    Univ Warsaw, Poland;Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Bordeaux, France.
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    Univ Adelaide, Australia.
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    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
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    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Ecole Polytech, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Ecole Polytech, France.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Univ Montpellier, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC, ICC, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    HESS and Fermi-LAT observations of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 during its 2014 and 2017 periastron passages2020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 633, p. 1-14, article id A102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The bright broad-band emission observed at phases close to periastron offers a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration and radiation processes in binary systems. Observations at gamma-ray energies constrain these processes through variability and spectral characterisation studies. Aims. The high- and very-high-energy (HE, VHE) gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the times of its periastron passage are characterised, in particular, at the time of the HE gamma-ray flares reported to have occurred in 2011, 2014, and 2017. Short-term and average emission characteristics of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 are determined. Super-orbital variability is searched for in order to investigate possible cycle-to-cycle VHE flux changes due to different properties of the companion star's circumstellar disc and/or the conditions under which the HE gamma-ray flares develop. Methods. Spectra and light curves were derived from observations conducted with the H.E.S.S-II array in 2014 and 2017. Phase-folded light curves are compared with the results obtained in 2004, 2007, and 2011. Fermi-LAT observations from 2010/11, 2014, and 2017 are analysed. Results. A local double-peak profile with asymmetric peaks in the VHE light curve is measured, with a flux minimum at the time of periastron t(p) and two peaks coinciding with the times at which the neutron star crosses the companion's circumstellar disc (similar to t(p) 16 d). A high VHE gamma-ray flux is also observed at the times of the HE gamma-ray flares (similar to t(p) + 30 d) and at phases before the first disc crossing (similar to t(p) - 35 d). The spectral energy range now extends to below 200 GeV and up to similar to 45 TeV. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 displays periodic flux variability at VHE gamma-rays without clear signatures of super-orbital modulation in the time span covered by the monitoring of the source with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. This flux variability is most probably caused by the changing environmental conditions, particularly at times close to periastron passage at which the neutron star is thought to cross the circumstellar disc of the companion star twice. In contrast, the photon index remains unchanged within uncertainties for about 200 d around periastron. At HE gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 has now been detected also before and after periastron, close to the disc crossing times. Repetitive flares with distinct variability patterns are detected in this energy range. Such outbursts are not observed at VHEs, although a relatively high emission level is measured. The spectra obtained in both energy regimes displays a similar slope, although a common physical origin either in terms of a related particle population, emission mechanism, or emitter location is ruled out.

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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inste Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inste Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inste Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inste Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inste Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inste Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inste Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP,CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Univ Tokyo Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inste Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Madejski, G. M.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Nalewajko, K.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Madsen, K. K.
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Chiang, J.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Balokovic, M.
    Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Harvard Univ, Black Hole Initiat, 20 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Paneque, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Furniss, A. K.
    Calif State Univ East Bay, 25800 Carlos Bee Blvd, Hayward, CA 94542 USA..
    Hayashida, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Urry, C. M.
    Yale Univ, Yale Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Phys Dept, POB 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Ajello, M.
    Clemson Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Kinard Lab Phys, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Harrison, F. A.
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Giebels, B.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Stern, D.
    CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Forster, K.
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Giommi, P.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Perri, M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Puccetti, S.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Zoglauer, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Tagliaferri, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, Italy..
    Simultaneous observations of the blazar PKS 2155-304 from ultra-violet to TeV energies2020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 639, p. 1-13, article id A42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report the results of the first ever contemporaneous multi-wavelength observation campaign on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 involving Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, and H.E.S.S. The use of these instruments allows us to cover a broad energy range, which is important for disentangling the different radiative mechanisms. The source, observed from June 2013 to October 2013, was found in a low flux state with respect to previous observations but exhibited highly significant flux variability in the X-rays. The high-energy end of the synchrotron spectrum can be traced up to 40 keV without significant contamination by high-energy emission. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was used to reproduce the broadband flux of the source for all the observations presented here but failed for previous observations made in April 2013. A lepto-hadronic solution was then explored to explain these earlier observational results.

  • 10.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Inst Polytech Paris, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies,Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernlohr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bi, B.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    de Lavergne, M. de Bony
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buchele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Davies, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Tudes Nucl Aires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    DeWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, LuruperChaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, KarlLiebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eichhorn, F.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Einecke, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet
    Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Filipovic, M.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fontaine, G.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Tudes Nucl Aires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, KarlLiebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horbe, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, LuruperChaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, LuruperChaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Inst Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Konno, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Tudes Nucl Aires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchegiani, P.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Tudes Nucl Aires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Montanari, A.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Morris, P.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, K.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, D.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Scalici, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Sun, L.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, KarlLiebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, KarlLiebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Inst Adv Study, 5-1-5 Kashiwa Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, LuruperChaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Volk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wong, Yu W.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Acciari, V. A.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
    Ansoldi, S.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Engels, A. Arbet
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Asano, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Baack, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Germany.
    Babic, A.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatia;Univ Split, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FER, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Baquero, A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis CBPF, 22290-180 URCA, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst & EMFTEL Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
    Bednarek, W.
    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Informat, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Bellizzi, L.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Berti, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
    Besenrieder, J.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Bhattacharyya, W.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bigongiari, C.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Blanch, O.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Busetto, G.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Carosi, R.
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Ceribella, G.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICCUB, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chai, Y.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Chilingarian, A.
    AAlikhanyan Natl Lab, Armenian Consortium ICRANet Armenia NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Cikota, S.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Colak, S. M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Colin, U.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Colombo, E.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst & EMFTEL Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    Ctr Invest Energ Medioambientales & Tecnol, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Covino, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    D'Amico, G.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    D'Elia, V
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Da Vela, P.
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Dazzi, F.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Delfino, M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;Port Informacio Cient PIC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Delgado, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;Port Informacio Cient PIC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Depaoli, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
    Di Venere, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
    Espineira, E. Do Souto
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Donini, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ramazani, V. Fallah
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Turku 90014, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Fattorini, A.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ferrara, G.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Foffano, L.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fonseca, M. , V
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    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis & CERES IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Fruck, C.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Fukami, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gasparyan, S.
    AAlikhanyan Natl Lab, Armenian Consortium ICRANet Armenia NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis & CERES IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Giglietto, N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
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    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Informat, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Godinovic, N.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Green, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Hahn, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Heckmann, L.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Herrera, J.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hoang, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst & EMFTEL Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Hrupec, D.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Hutten, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Inada, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Inoue, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Ishio, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Iwamura, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
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    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
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    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Turku 90014, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland..
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    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst & EMFTEL Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain..
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    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
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    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy..
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    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis CBPF, 22290-180 URCA, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
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    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis & CERES IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1 AF Bidhannagar,Salt Lake,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Makariev, M.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Mallamaci, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Maneva, G.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Manganaro, M.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatia.
    Mannheim, K.
    Univ Wurzburg, Germany.
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    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, Italy.
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    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Spain.
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    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    HESS and MAGIC observations of a sudden cessation of a very-high-energy gamma-ray flare in PKS 1510-089 in May 20162021In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 648, article id A23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1510-089 is known for its complex multiwavelength behaviour and it is one of only a few FSRQs detected in very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma rays. The VHE gamma -ray observations with H.E.S.S. and MAGIC in late May and early June 2016 resulted in the detection of an unprecedented flare, which revealed, for the first time, VHE gamma -ray intranight variability for this source. While a common variability timescale of 1.5 h has been found, there is a significant deviation near the end of the flare, with a timescale of similar to 20 min marking the cessation of the event. The peak flux is nearly two orders of magnitude above the low-level emission. For the first time, a curvature was detected in the VHE gamma -ray spectrum of PKS 1510-089, which can be fully explained by the absorption on the part of the extragalactic background light. Optical R-band observations with ATOM revealed a counterpart of the gamma -ray flare, even though the detailed flux evolution differs from the VHE gamma -ray light curve. Interestingly, a steep flux decrease was observed at the same time as the cessation of the VHE gamma -ray flare. In the high-energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) gamma -ray band, only a moderate flux increase was observed with Fermi-LAT, while the HE gamma -ray spectrum significantly hardens up to a photon index of 1.6. A search for broad-line region (BLR) absorption features in the gamma -ray spectrum indicates that the emission region is located outside of the BLR. Radio very-long-baseline interferometry observations reveal a fast-moving knot interacting with a standing jet feature around the time of the flare. As the standing feature is located similar to 50 pc from the black hole, the emission region of the flare may have been located at a significant distance from the black hole. If this is indeed a true correlation, the VHE gamma rays must have been produced far down in the jet, where turbulent plasma crosses a standing shock.

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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Universe & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Physik & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Olivera-Nieto, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronom, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Panny, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Peron, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronom, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reichherzer, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Scalici, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Universe & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronom, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 10005, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Physik & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Physik & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    CNRS, Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France.;Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Volk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Watson, J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Universe & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zargaryan, D.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Observ Paris, Lab Universe & Theories,CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    An extreme particle accelerator in the Galactic plane: HESS J1826-1302020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 644, p. 1-8, article id A112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unidentified very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) gamma -ray source, HESS J1826-130, was discovered with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in the Galactic plane. The analysis of 215 h of HESS data has revealed a steady gamma -ray flux from HESS J1826-130, which appears extended with a half-width of 0.21 degrees +/- 0.02 (stat)degrees stat degrees +/- 0.05 (sys)degrees sys degrees . The source spectrum is best fit with either a power-law function with a spectral index Gamma = 1.78 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and an exponential cut-off at 15.2 (+5.5)(-3.2) -3.2+5.5 TeV, or a broken power-law with Gamma (1) = 1.96 +/- 0.06(stat) +/- 0.20(sys), Gamma (2) = 3.59 +/- 0.69(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) for energies below and above E-br = 11.2 +/- 2.7 TeV, respectively. The VHE flux from HESS J1826-130 is contaminated by the extended emission of the bright, nearby pulsar wind nebula, HESS J1825-137, particularly at the low end of the energy spectrum. Leptonic scenarios for the origin of HESS J1826-130 VHE emission related to PSR J1826-1256 are confronted by our spectral and morphological analysis. In a hadronic framework, taking into account the properties of dense gas regions surrounding HESS J1826-130, the source spectrum would imply an astrophysical object capable of accelerating the parent particle population up to greater than or similar to 200 TeV. Our results are also discussed in a multiwavelength context, accounting for both the presence of nearby supernova remnants, molecular clouds, and counterparts detected in radio, X-rays, and TeV energies.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland.;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl 4 Weltraum & Astrophys, Bochum, Germany..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe Kavli IPMU, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
    Priyana Noel, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl 4 Weltraum & Astrophys, Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe Kavli IPMU, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe Kavli IPMU, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Resolving the Crab pulsar wind nebula at teraelectronvolt energies2020In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An angular extension at gamma-ray energies of 52 arcseconds is detected for the Crab nebula, revealing the emission region of the highest-energy gamma rays; simulations of the electromagnetic emission provide a non-trivial test of our understanding of particle acceleration in the Crab nebula. The Crab nebula is one of the most-studied cosmic particle accelerators, shining brightly across the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to very-high-energy gamma rays(1,2). It is known from observations in the radio to gamma-ray part of the spectrum that the nebula is powered by a pulsar, which converts most of its rotational energy losses into a highly relativistic outflow. This outflow powers a pulsar wind nebula, a region of up to ten light-years across, filled with relativistic electrons and positrons. These particles emit synchrotron photons in the ambient magnetic field and produce very-high-energy gamma rays by Compton up-scattering of ambient low-energy photons. Although the synchrotron morphology of the nebula is well established, it has not been known from which region the very-high-energy gamma rays are emitted(3-8). Here we report that the Crab nebula has an angular extension at gamma-ray energies of 52 arcseconds (assuming a Gaussian source width), much larger than at X-ray energies. This result closes a gap in the multi-wavelength coverage of the nebula, revealing the emission region of the highest-energy gamma rays. These gamma rays enable us to probe a previously inaccessible electron and positron energy range. We find that simulations of the electromagnetic emission reproduce our measurement, providing a non-trivial test of our understanding of particle acceleration in the Crab nebula.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia;North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Poland.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, France.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France;Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Germany.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Poland.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
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    Univ Witwatersrand, South Africa.
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    Univ Tubingen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Salzmann, H.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS,LAPP, France.
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schaefer, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Schwanke, U.
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Shapopi, J. N. S.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Spackman, H.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Spencer, S.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Sun, L.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Germany;Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Steinmassl, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, France.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Germany.
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris, CNRS, France.
    Thorpe-Morgan, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Thiersen, J. H. E.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Tomankova, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Tsuji, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    van Rensburg, C.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, South Africa.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Viana, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Poland;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Germany.
    Wong, Yu Wun
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Yassin, H.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Yusafzai, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Zargaryan, D.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris, Univ PSL, France.
    Zhu, S. J.
    DESY, Germany.
    Zmija, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Zouari, S.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Search for Dark Matter Annihilation Signals from Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects with HESS2021In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 918, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmological N-body simulations show that Milky Way-sized galaxies harbor a population of unmerged dark matter (DM) subhalos. These subhalos could shine in gamma-rays and eventually be detected in gamma-ray surveys as unidentified sources. We performed a thorough selection among unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope Objects (UFOs) to identify them as possible tera-electron-volt-scale DM subhalo candidates. We search for very-high-energy (E greater than or similar to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emissions using H.E.S.S. observations toward four selected UFOs. Since no significant very-high-energy gamma-ray emission is detected in any data set of the four observed UFOs or in the combined UFO data set, strong constraints are derived on the product of the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section sigma v by the J factor for the DM models. The 95% confidence level observed upper limits derived from combined H.E.S.S. observations reach sigma vJ values of 3.7 x 10(-5) and 8.1 x 10(-6) GeV(2 )cm(-2 )s(-1) in the W (+) W (-) and tau (+) tau (-) channels, respectively, for a 1 TeV DM mass. Focusing on thermal weakly interacting massive particles, the H.E.S.S. constraints restrict the J factors to lie in the range 6.1 x 10(19)-2.0 x 10(21) GeV(2 )cm(-5) and the masses to lie between 0.2 and 6 TeV in the W (+) W (-) channel. For the tau (+) tau (-) channel, the J factors lie in the range 7.0 x 10(19)-7.1 x 10(20) GeV(2 )cm(-5) and the masses lie between 0.2 and 0.5 TeV. Assuming model-dependent predictions from cosmological N-body simulations on the J-factor distribution for Milky Way-sized galaxies, the DM models with masses >0.3 TeV for the UFO emissions can be ruled out at high confidence level.

  • 14.
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguener, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Maxted, N. , I
    Upper limits on very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae observed with HESS2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 626, p. 1-11, article id A57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young core-collapse supernovae with dense-wind progenitors may be able to accelerate cosmic-ray hadrons beyond the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum, and this may result in measurable gamma-ray emission. We searched for gamma-ray emission from ten super- novae observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) within a year of the supernova event. Nine supernovae were observed serendipitously in the H.E.S.S. data collected between December 2003 and December 2014, with exposure times ranging from 1.4 to 53 h. In addition we observed SN 2016adj as a target of opportunity in February 2016 for 13 h. No significant gamma-ray emission has been detected for any of the objects, and upper limits on the >1 TeV gamma-ray flux of the order of similar to 10(-13) cm(-)(2)s(-1) are established, corresponding to upper limits on the luminosities in the range similar to 2 x 10(39) to similar to 1 x 10(42) erg s(-1). These values are used to place model-dependent constraints on the mass-loss rates of the progenitor stars, implying upper limits between similar to 2 x 10(-5) and similar to 2 x 10(-3) M-circle dot yr(-1) under reasonable assumptions on the particle acceleration parameters.

  • 15.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    dewilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kruger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowel, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sushch, I
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    The starburst galaxy NGC 253 revisited by HESS and Fermi-LAT2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 617, article id A73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. NGC 253 is one of only two starburst galaxies found to emit gamma-rays from hundreds of MeV to multi-TeV energies. Accurate measurements of the very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; E > 60 MeV) spectra are crucial to study the underlying particle accelerators, probe the dominant emission mechanism(s) and to study cosmic-ray interaction and transport. Aims. The measurement of the VHE gamma-ray emission of NGC 253 published in 2012 by H.E.S.S. was limited by large systematic uncertainties. Here, the most up to date measurement of the gamma-ray spectrum of NGC 253 is investigated in both HE and VHE gamma-rays. Assuming a hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission, the measurement uncertainties are propagated into the interpretation of the accelerated particle population. Methods. The data of H.E.S.S. observations are reanalysed using an updated calibration and analysis chain. The improved Fermi-LAT analysis employs more than 8 yr of data processed using pass 8. The cosmic-ray particle population is evaluated from the combined HE-VHE gamma-ray spectrum using NAIMA in the optically thin case. Results. The VHE gamma-ray energy spectrum is best fit by a power-law distribution with a flux normalisation of (1.34 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.27(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 at 1 TeV - about 40% above, but compatible with the value obtained in Abramowski et al. (2012). The spectral index Gamma = 2.39 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.25(sys) is slightly softer than but consistent with the previous measurement within systematic errors. In the Fermi energy range an integral flux of F(E > 60 MeV) = (1.56 +/- 0.28(stat) +/- 0.15(sys)) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) is obtained. At energies above similar to 3 GeV the HE spectrum is consistent with a power-law ranging into the VHE part of the spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. with an overall spectral index Gamma = 2.22 +/- 0.06(stat). Conclusions. Two scenarios for the starburst nucleus are tested, in which the gas in the starburst nucleus acts as either a thin or a thick target for hadronic cosmic rays accelerated by the individual sources in the nucleus. In these two models, the level to which NGC 253 acts as a calorimeter is estimated to a range of f(cal) = 0.1 to 1 while accounting for the measurement uncertainties. The presented spectrum is likely to remain the most accurate measurements until the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) has collected a substantial set of data towards NGC 253.

  • 16.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O. 'C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kruger, R. R.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9100 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitche, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baglzramian Ave, Yerevan 240019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9100 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Ave Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    VHE gamma-ray discovery and multiwavelength study of the blazar 1ES 2322-4092019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 482, no 3, p. 3011-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hotspot at a position compatible with the BL. Lac object 1ES 2322-409 was serendipitously detected with H.E.S.S. during observations performed in 2004 and 2006 on the blazar PKS 2316-423. Additional data on 1ES 2322-409 were taken in 2011 and 2012, leading to a total live-time of 22.3 h. Point-like very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission is detected from a source centred on the IFS 2322-409 position, with an excess of 116.7 events at a significance of 6.0 sigma. The average VHE gamma-ray spectrum is well described with a power law with a photon index Gamma = 3.40 +/- 0.66(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and an integral flux Phi(E > 200 GeV) = (3.11 +/- 0.71(stat) 0.62(sys)) x 10(-2)cm(-2)s(-1), which corresponds to 1.1 per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 200 GeV. Multiwavelength data obtained with Fermi LAT, Swift XRT and UVOT, RXTE PCA, ATOM, and additional data from WISE, GROND, and Catalina are also used to characterize the broad-band non-thermal emission of lES 2322-409. The multiwavelength behaviour indicates day-scale variability. Swift UVOT and XRT data show strong variability at longer scales. A spectral energy distribution (SED) is built from contemporaneous observations obtained around a high state identified in Swift data. A modelling of the SED is performed with a stationary homogeneous one-zone synchrotronself-Compton leptonic model. The redshift of the source being unknown, two plausible values were tested for the modelling. A systematic scan of the model parameters space is performed, resulting in a well-constrained combination of values providing a good description of the broad-band behaviour of 1ES 2322-409.

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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Arrieta, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl IV Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Univ Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl IV Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kruger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl IV Weltraum & Astrophys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Univ Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-14476 Erlangen, Germany..
    van