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  • 1.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Bjertnæs, Magne A.
    Sweco, Norway.
    Bouillot, Jacques
    Eiffage, France.
    Brank, Boštjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    Moelven SE, Sweden.
    Flamand, Olivier
    CSTB, France.
    Garains, Fabien
    Arbonis, France.
    Gavrić, Igor
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Hahusseau, Ludwig
    Eiffage, France.
    Jalil, Alan
    CSTB, France.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE, Sweden.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Ao, Wai Kei
    Uni Exeter, UK.
    Kurent, Blaž
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Landel, Pierre
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Rise, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Malo, Kjell
    NTNU, Norway.
    Manthey, Manuel
    CSTB, France.
    Nåvik, Petter
    Sweco, Norway.
    Pavic, Alex
    Uni Exeter, UK.
    Perez, Fernando
    Smith&Wallwork, Switzerland.
    Rönnquist, Anders
    NTNU, Norway.
    Šušteršič, Iztok
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Tulebekova, Saule
    NTNU, Norway.
    Dynamic response of tall timber buildings under service load: results from the dynattb research program2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023): Timber for a Livable Future, 19-22 june, 2023,Oslo, Norway / [ed] Nyrud, A. Q. and Malo, K. A. et al., Curran Associates, Inc., 2023, p. 2907-2914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. vibration serviceability problem. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and measured to estimate their key dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading had been performed for the new and evolving construction technologies used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on site measurements on existing buildings excited by mass inertia shakers (forced vibration) and/or the wind loads (ambient vibration), for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features, coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the results of the project and the proposed Guidelines for design of TTBs in relation to their dynamic properties.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Landel, Pierre
    SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Tall timber buildings: a preliminary study of wind-induced vibrations of a 22-storey building2016In: Proceedings of the World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016): August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria / [ed] J. Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the interest in multi-storey timber buildings has increased and several medium-to-high-rise buildings with light-weight timber structures have been designed and built. Examples of such are the 8-storey building “Limnologen” in Växjö, Sweden, the 9-storey “Stadthouse” in London, UK and the 14-storey building “Treet” in Bergen, Norway. The structures are all light-weight and flexible timber structures which raise questions regarding wind induced vibrations. This paper will present a finite element-model of a 22 storey building with a glulam-CLT structure. The model will be used to study the effect of different structural properties such as damping, mass and stiffness on the peak acceleration and will be compared to the ISO 10137 vibration criteria for human comfort. The results show that it is crucial to take wind-induced vibrations into account in the design of tall timber buildings.

  • 3.
    Landel, Pierre
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE, Sweden.
    Wind-induced vibrations in tall timber buildings: Design standards, experimental and numerical modal analyses2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and densification of cities are two major global challenges. Inthe building and construction industry, there are great expectations that tall timberbuildings will constitute one of the most sustainable solutions. First, verticalurban growth is energy and resource-efficient. Second, forest-based productsstore carbon and have one of the highest mechanical strength to density ratios.If the structural substitution of concrete and steel with wood in high-rise buildingsawakens fears of fire safety issues, engineers and researchers are particularlyworried about the dynamic response of the trendy tall timber buildings.Indeed, due to the low density of wood, they are lighter, and for the same height,they might be more sensitive to wind-induced vibrations than traditional buildings.To satisfy people’s comfort on the top floors, the serviceability design oftall timber buildings must consider wind-induced vibrations carefully. Architectsand structural engineers need accurate and verified calculation methods,useful numerical models and good knowledge of the dynamical properties oftall timber buildings.

    Firstly, the research work presented hereby attempts to increase the understandingof the dynamical phenomena of wind-induced vibration in tall buildings andevaluate the accuracy of the semi-empirical models available to estimate alongwindaccelerations in buildings. Secondly, it aims at, experimentally and numerically,studying the impact of structural parameters – masses, stiffnesses anddamping – on the dynamics of timber structures. Finally, it suggests how talltimber buildings can be modeled to correctly predict modal properties and windinducedresponses.

    This research thesis confirms the concerns that timber buildings above 15-20stories are more sensitive to wind excitation than traditional buildings with concreteand steel structures, and solutions are proposed to mitigate this vibrationissue. Regarding the comparison of models from different standards to estimatewind-induced accelerations, the spread of the results is found to be very large.From vibration tests on a large glulam truss, the connection stiffnesses are foundto be valuable for predicting modal properties, and numerical reductions withsimple spring models yield fair results. Concerning the structural models of conceptualand real tall timber buildings, numerical case studies emphasize the importanceof accurately distributed masses and stiffnesses of structural elements,connections and non-structural building parts, and the need for accurate dampingvalues.

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  • 4.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Comparative study of wind-induced accelerations in tall timber buildings according to four methods2021In: WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering, Santiago, Chile, 9 - 12 August, World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The height and the market share of multi-story timber buildings are both rising. During the last two decades, the Architectural and Engineering Construction industry has developed new reliable solutions to provide strength, structural integrity, fire safety and robustness for timber structures used in the mid- and high-rise sectors.According to long-time survey and lab experiments, motion sickness and sopite syndrome are the main adverse effects on the occupants of a wind sensitive building. For tall timber buildings, wind-induced vibrations seem to be a new critical design aspect at much lower heights than for traditional steel-concrete buildings. To guarantee good comfort, the horizontal accelerations at the top of tall timber buildings must be limited. Two methods in the Eurocode for wind actions (EN1991-1-4), procedure 1 in Annex B (EC-B) and procedure 2 in Annex C (EC-C), provide formulas to estimate the along-wind accelerations. The Swedish code advises to follow a method specified in the National Annex to the Eurocode (EKS) and the American ASCE 7-2016 recommend another method.

    This study gives an overview on the background of the different methods for the evaluation of along-wind accelerations for buildings. Estimated accelerations of several tall timber buildings evaluated according to the different methods are compared and discussed. The scatter of the accelerations estimated with different codes is big and increases the design uncertainty of wind induced response at the top of tall timber buildings.

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  • 5.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. RISE, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Reduced and test-data correlated FE-models of a large timber truss with dowel-type connections aimed for dynamic analyses at serviceability level2022In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 260, article id 114208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of wood buildings in the skylines of cities forces structural dynamic and timber experts to team up to solve one of the new civil-engineering challenges, namely comfort at the higher levels, in light weight buildings, with respect to wind-induced vibrations. Large laminated timber structures with mechanical joints are exposed to turbulent horizontal excitation with most of the wind energy blowing around the lowest resonance frequencies of 50 to 150 m tall buildings. Good knowledge of the spatial distribution of mass, stiffness and damping is needed to predict and mitigate the sway in lighter, flexible buildings. This paper presents vibration tests and reductions of a detailed FE-model of a truss with dowel-type connections leading to models that will be useful for structural engineers. The models also enable further investigations about the parameters of the slotted-in steel plates and dowels connections governing the dynamical response of timber trusses.

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  • 6.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Validation of a structural model of a large timber truss with slotted-in steel plates and dowels2020In: EURODYN 2020, Proceedings of the XI International Conference on Structural Dynamics / [ed] M. Papadrakakis National Technical University of Athens, Greece M. Fragiadakis National Technical University of Athens, Greece C. Papadimitriou University of Thessaly, Greece, Institute of Structural Analysis and Antiseismic Research School of Civil Engineering National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) , 2020, Vol. II, p. 4349-4357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic response to time varying loads, e.g. wind loads or earthquakes, is inmany cases decisive when designing a tall timber building. The structural parameters governingthe dynamic behaviour are the mass, the damping and the stiffness. The last two parametersare not well-known at serviceability levels for timber structures in general and fortimber connections specifically. Results from forced vibration tests on single components andon a full-scale truss for an eight-storey residential building have been analyzed. In parallel,a detailed Finite Element (FE) model of a large Glulam truss with slotted-in steel plates anddowels connections has been developed and simulations have been made. The damping causedby the structural components, the embedment of fasteners and friction of mating surfaces ofcomponents in the selected connection types is quantified experimentally. The materials’ stiffnessvalues in the model were evaluated. The results from this study bring knowledge on thestructural dynamic properties of large timber structures with mechanical connections and willfacilitate the performance prediction of new tall timber buildings for better comfort at higherlevels in environmentally friendly expansions of our cities.

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  • 7.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE, Sweden.
    Dynamical properties of a large glulam truss for a tall timber building2018In: Presented at the 2018 World Conference on Timber Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea, August 20-23, 2018, 2018, article id S747Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a tall timber building, the accelerations due to wind loads are in many cases decisive. The parameters governing the dynamic behaviour of the building are the structure’s stiffness, damping and mass together with the loads. The first two parameters are not well-known during the serviceability limit state of timber structures generally and of timber connections specifically.

    In this study, dynamical properties of a large glulam truss, a part of the vertical and horizontal structural system in a residential six-storey timber building, are estimated from measurements made in the manufacturing plant. The timber members of the truss are joined with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. Forced vibrational test data are used to extract the dynamical properties. Finite element (FE) models, supported by the experimental results, were developed and simulations, to study the influence of the connection stiffnesses on the total behaviour, were performed. The vibration test results of measurements made on separate structural parts give valuable input to model timber structures and better possibilities to simulate the dynamic behaviour of tall timber buildings as well as the load distribution in wooden structures in the serviceability limit state.

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  • 8.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Advanced Materials.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Test-analyses comparisons of a stabilizing glulam truss for a tall building2019In: Book of abstracts: CompWood June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden: International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Machanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structure, Linnaeus University , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    Timrac, Sweden.
    Tall Timber Buildings Subjected to Wind Loads: Full Scale Experimental Dynamics2023In: Forum Wood Building Nordic 2023, 28-29 September, Växjö, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. a vibration serviceability problem. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on-site measurements on timber buildings, for identification of the structural system, with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal was to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the project. 

     

    The paper also presents measurements using forced vibration conducted on the seven-storey timber building Eken in Mariestad in Sweden. The main objective is to estimate the building’s dynamic properties from test data. The eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and their scalings are useful to calibrate numerical models. However, the most important outcomes are the estimates of the modal damping values. The test data shows that the modal damping is roughly equal to 2% of the critical viscous ones for the eigenmodes extracted.

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  • 10.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Landel, Pierre
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE, Sweden.
    Forced response measurements on a seven storey timberbuilding in Sweden2023In: World Conferenceon TimberEngineering WCTE 2023: Timber for a Livable Future, 19-22 june, 2023,Oslo, Norway / [ed] Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore Omtre, Curran Associates, Inc., 2023, p. 2877-2884Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forced vibration tests have been conducted on the seven-storey timber building Eken in Mariestad inSweden. The main objective is to estimate the building’s dynamic properties from test data. The eigenfrequencies, modeshapes and their scaling are useful to calibrate numerical models. However, the most important outcomes are the estimatesof the modal damping values. The reason is that the damping impacts the acceleration, and thus the serviceability of thebuilding, and at the same time, it is very hard to model damping. So, during the design phase, one must rely on previoustest data (of which very few exist for taller timber buildings) or rule of thumbs. It is therefore important to gain knowledgeabout the damping for timber buildings in order to enable good designs of future and taller timber buildings. The test datashows that the modal damping is roughly equal to 2% of the critical viscous ones for the eigenmodes extracted. The testcampaign on Eken is made as a part of the project Dyna-TTB in which vibrational tests have been performed on eighthigh-rise timber buildings, in Europe, of which Eken is one.

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    FORCED RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS ON A SEVEN STOREY TIMBER BUILDING IN SWEDEN
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