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  • 1.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    From Glass Dump to Phytoremediation Park2019In: ECOBALTICA- XVI International Youth Scientific and Environmental Forum of Baltic Region Countries, 7-9 October Gdansk, Poland, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining was introduced in research inSweden for more than three and a half decades ago. During recent years, thefocus has been on the glass dumps in the Kingdom of Crystal in southeasternSweden. Mapping of the dumps, test excavations, sieving and sorting of theglass masses, characterization, laboratory extraction of the metals in theglass was performed as well as measurements of radioactivity done. The pollutedsoil underneath the removed glass masses was treated by remediation. In one ofplaces at the kingdom of Glass a phytoremediation/tourist park was establishedin Orrefors including a summer glasswork for tourist activities.

  • 2.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Smålands glassworks: a review of the recently published studies2018In: LinnaeusEco-Tech 2018, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden: Abstract book / [ed] Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland, Kalmar: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 151-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The historical contamination of Smålands glass industry by hazardous concentrations of different trace elements (such as Pb, As, Zn, Cd and others) is a fact that has been approved by many researchers. These studies covered the situation of the glassworks contamination from different angles. However, the recommended solution by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is landfilling. Dumping these masses means, on the first hand, losing huge amounts of the Earth natural resources as wastes and, on the second hand, losing any future opportunity of recycling or reusing due to mixing these masses with other hazardous wastes generated by different sectors. In this paper, we are trying to review and highlight the results obtained by some of the already published studies in this field to identify the gap and challenges of recycling or reusing options.

  • 3.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ferrans, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ling, Gao
    Beihua University, People's Republic of China.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Phytoremediation as a promising method for the treatment of contaminated sediments2019In: Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dredging activities are necessary to maintain the navigation depth of harbors and channels. Additionally,dredging can prevent the loss of water bodies. A large amount of extracted sediments is produced around theworld. Removed material is widely disposed at open seas or landfills. Much of the dredged material is pollutedand is classified as unsuitable for open-sea disposal. In Sweden, many dredging activities are taking placenowadays like that in Oskarshamn harbor, Inre harbor Norrköping municipality and Malmfjärden bay inKalmar. In this review, the potential of phytoremediation as a treatment method is discussed with focus onsuggested methods for reusing the treated sediments. Recycling or reusing of dredged and treated sedimentswill preserve Earth natural resources as well as reduce diffusion of contaminants to the environment.

  • 4.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Circular Economy Perspectives in Managing Old Contaminated Glass Dumps2018In: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, November 19-21, 2018: Book of Abstracts, Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 149-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills and dumpsites have been the ultimate end of life sinks for various materials and products. As such, they are considered rich stocks of secondary raw materials for the circular economy. However, most of them are non-sanitary as they lack protective measures against environmental contamination. Over the years, the need to exploit the resource potential of landfills as well as to mitigate their contamination problems, among other factors, has led to the concept of landfill mining, resulting in a number of mainly pilot scale mining of landfills and dumps globally. In southeastern Sweden for instance, where there are over forty old, contaminated glass dumps, a number of remedial dumpsite excavations have been going on, with eventual landfilling of excavated materials in sanitary landfills. Hence, based on the Swedish situation, this study presents three scenarios about: contaminated materials in non-sanitary dumps as they currently stand; ongoing material excavations with subsequent landfilling; and material excavations coupled with materials recovery towards reduced landfilling. The third scenario is presented as more suitable from the circular economy perspective. The scenario is thus discussed in terms of technological implications of the process from identification of concealed valuable materials in dumps to their excavation, sorting, temporal storage, valorization and eventual resource recovery. In addition, legal implications as well as potential social, economic and environmental barriers against the scenario’s implementation are discussed. Finally, the study provides recommendations that would be useful in decision making surrounding the management of contaminated and non-sanitary dumpsites.

  • 5.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kihl, Anders
    Ragn Sells AB.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of Waste from Glassworks towards Resource Recovery - the Case of Madesjö Dumpsite2016In: Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21-23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden: Book of Abstracts, The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2016, p. 159-159Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Glasriket’ of Sweden’s Småland region is characterized by an array of landfillsand dumpsites of glass and other raw material wastes from old glassworks. Most ofthe dumpsites contain heavy metals with leaching capabilities to soil and groundwater. As these metals could be potential resources that could be recovered into theresource loop, the characterization of these wastes can provide necessary informationabout the resource recovery potential. The current investigation focuses on the firststages by quantifying the amounts of selected metals (Ba, Cr and Zn) in the glassdeposit at Madesjö dumpsite as a case. The dump was sampled at nine different pointsand two levels per point. The samples were subjected to X-ray Fluorescence scanning(XRF) and leaching tests with further analyses of metals using ICP. According to theinvestigation, the highest metal contents in the solid phase were observed in Zn(average of 4515 mg/kg) while the lowest were observed in Cr (average of 72 mg/kg).In the liquid phase, the average metal concentrations were observed to be 0.37 mg/kg,0.02 mg/kg and 0.23 mg/kg for Ba, Cr and Zn respectively. These, however, are not inreadily available form, and so further investigations need to be done in order to findcost-effective techniques for their extraction. On the other hand, further investigationsneed to be done to ascertain the leaching potential by altering such leachingparameters as contact time and liquid to solid ratio.

  • 6.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Methods for investigation of old glass waste dumpsites2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining: 5-6 February 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones & Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO) , 2018, p. 145-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An old glass dumpsite in southern Sweden was mapped and investigated to locate

    glass abundance zones (“hotspots”) and understand physicochemical parametres of

    the waste. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for mapping the site while a

    geophysical method of Electrical Resistivity was used for detecting glass hotspots in

    the dump. Test pits were excavated and samples taken, after which hand sorting,

    sieving and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning of the waste were used for

    physicochemical properties. Geophysical mapping was found to be a feasible nondestructive

    tool in locating glass hotspots. In terms of composition, glass was found

    to be the most abundant fraction at 90% average from all 4 sampling points. From

    particle size distribution, particles > 11.3 mm were more abundant (75% average)

    than particles < 11.3 mm. XRF scanning yielded As, Cd and Pb concentrations of 3,700

    mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 5,300 mg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to locate

    glass hotspots and excavate them carefully in readiness for metal extraction while

    avoiding the need for complicated sorting post-excavation.

  • 7.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physico-chemical Characterization of Fine Fraction Materials from a Swedish Glassworks Dumpsite2018In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos, Greece, June 13-16, 2018 / [ed] Dr. Konstantinos Moustakas, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste physico-chemical characteristics and the presence and availability of three metals (As, Cu and Pb) in a glassworks dumpsite were investigated to assess excavated waste handling and storage requirements pre-valorisation. Eight 2 m deep test pits (TPs) were excavated and sampled at 0.5 m depth intervals. The excavated waste was hand-sorted, followed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning, leaching and HNO3 digestion of the fine fraction (< 10 mm), and assessing results against Swedish EPA regulations. The waste composition was glass > inert > organic > “other” waste, whereas the total metal concentrations (XRF) were Pb > As > Cu. Pb (all TPs) and As (four TPs) were in hazardous levels whereas Cu was not. TDS (2856 ± 467 mg kg-1) and DOC (56.4 ± 21.8 mg kg-1) were lower than the inert, non-hazardous and hazardous waste storage thresholds, whereas F- (10.8 ± 2 mg kg-1) was higher than the inert waste storage threshold. Moisture content was 24.4 ± 11.4% while pH was 7.3 ± 0.8. Leached metal concentrations were Pb > As > Cu, with low metal leachability (0.02% - 0.2%), and the leached amounts were lower than the non-hazardous and hazardous waste storage thresholds, but higher than the inert waste storage thresholds. HNO3 digestion yielded As and Cu concentrations higher than the thresholds for sensitive and less sensitive land uses, and Pb concentrations higher than the non-hazardous waste storage threshold. Metal recovery was 49.3%, 44.2% and 17.9% for Cu, Pb and As respectively. Although the waste was hazardous in nature based on total metal concentrations and Pb concentrations from acid digestion, the leaching was not in hazardous levels due to strongly bound metals in the waste material.

  • 8.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physico-chemical characteristics of fine fraction materials from an old crystal glass dumpsite in Sweden2019In: Chemistry in ecology, ISSN 0275-7540, E-ISSN 1029-0370, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 877-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physico-chemical characteristics of waste, particularly fine fraction (FF), from an old crystal glass waste dump in Sweden were studied to assess recycling or disposal alternatives. Hand-sorting of the waste indicated glass content of 44.1% while sieving established the FF as a more soil-like mix of glass and other materials constituting 33.3% of all excavated waste. The FF was around neutral pH with 24.4% moisture content, low values of Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Organic Carbon and fluorides, but hazardous concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. While the FF leached metals in low concentrations at neutral pH, it leached considerably during digestion with nitric acid, implying leaching risks at low pH. Thus, the waste requires safe storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ storage cells to avoid environmental contamination as metal recovery and other recycling strategies for the glass waste are being developed. The study could fill the information gap regarding preservation of potential resources in the on-going, fast-paced excavation and re-landfilling of heavy metal contaminated materials in the region.

  • 9.
    Mutafela, Richard N.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mantero, Juan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;University of Seville, Spain.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thomas, Rimon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holm, Elis
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Radiometrical and physico-chemical characterisation of contaminated glass waste from a glass dump in Sweden2020In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 241, p. 1-10, article id 124964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around former glass factories in south eastern Sweden, there are dozens of dumps whose radioactivity and physico-chemical properties were not investigated previously. Thus, radiometric and physico-chemical characteristics of waste at Madesjö glass dump were studied to evaluate pre-recycling storage requirements and potential radiological and environmental risks. The material was sieved, hand-sorted, leached and scanned with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). External dose rates and activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials from 238U, 232Th series and 40K were also measured coupled with a radiological risk assessment. Results showed that the waste was 95% glass and dominated by fine fractions (< 11.3 mm) at 43.6%. The fine fraction had pH 7.8, 2.6% moisture content, 123 mg kg-1 Total Dissolved Solids, 37.2 mg kg-1 Dissolved Organic Carbon and 10.5 mg kg-1 fluorides. Compared with Swedish EPA guidelines, the elements As, Cd, Pb and Zn were in hazardous concentrations while Pb leached more than the limits for inert and non-hazardous wastes. With 40K activity concentration up to 3000 Bq kg-1, enhanced external dose rates of 40K were established (0.20 mSv h-1) although no radiological risk was found since both External Hazard Index (Hex) and Gamma Index (Iγ) were < 1. The glass dump needs remediation and storage of the waste materials under a safe hazardous waste class ‘Bank Account’ storage cell as a secondary resource for potential future recycling.

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