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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cerro-Galvez, Elena
    CSIC, Spain.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Direct effects of organic pollutants on the growth and gene expression of the Baltic Sea model bacterium Rheinheimera sp. BAL3412019In: Microbial Biotechnology, ISSN 1751-7907, E-ISSN 1751-7915, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 892-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are critically toxic, bioaccumulative and globally widespread. Moreover, several OPs negatively influence aquatic wildlife. Although bacteria are major drivers of the ocean carbon cycle and the turnover of vital elements, there is limited knowledge of OP effects on heterotrophic bacterioplankton. We therefore investigated growth and gene expression responses of the Baltic Sea model bacterium Rheinheimera sp. BAL341 to environmentally relevant concentrations of distinct classes of OPs in 2-h incubation experiments. During exponential growth, exposure to a mix of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and organophosphate esters (denoted MIX) resulted in a significant decrease (between 9% and 18%) in bacterial abundance and production compared with controls. In contrast, combined exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acids and perfluorooctanoic acids (denoted PFAS) had no significant effect on growth. Nevertheless, MIX and PFAS exposures both induced significant shifts in gene expression profiles compared with controls in exponential growth. This involved several functional metabolism categories (e.g. stress response and fatty acids metabolism), some of which were pollutant-specific (e.g. phosphate acquisition and alkane-1 monooxygenase genes). In stationary phase, only two genes in the MIX treatment were significantly differentially expressed. The substantial direct influence of OPs on metabolism during bacterial growth suggests that widespread OPs could severely alter biogeochemical processes governed by bacterioplankton.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Teikari, Jonna E.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Moran, Mary Ann
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Different gene expression responses in two Baltic Sea heterotrophic model bacteria to dinoflagellate dissolved organic matterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton release massive amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the water column during recurring blooms in coastal waters and inland seas. The released DOM includes dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, in a complex mixture of both known and unknown compounds, and is a rich nutrient source for heterotrophic bacteria. The metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacteria during and after phytoplankton blooms can hence be expected to reflect the characteristics of the released DOM. With this in mind, we wanted to investigate if bacterioplankton could be used as “living sensors” of phytoplankton DOM quantity and quality, and to trace the flow of nutrients in the ecosystem. We used transcriptional activity from Baltic Sea bacterial isolates (Polaribacter sp. BAL334 (Flavobacteriia) and Brevundimonas sp. BAL450 (Alphaproteobacteria)) exposed to DOM derived from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in exponential and stationary growth phases respectively. We observed strong responses both in terms of physiology – bacterial abundance – and the expressed metabolic pathways – e.g. Membrane Transport, Fatty Acids, Lipids and Isoprenoids – of the populations in samples exposed to dinoflagellate DOM compared with controls. Particularly striking was the increased expression of Ton and Tol transport systems, commonly associated with uptake of complex molecules, in both isolates. Equally important were the differences in metabolic responses between the two isolates, caused by differences in gene repertoire between them, emphasizing the importance of separating the responses of different taxa in analyses of community sequence data. Differences in response to DOM sourced from exponentially and stationary growing dinoflagellates were less pronounced, although not absent, than differences between the bacterial isolates. This suggests that shifts in metabolism during the different phases of a phytoplankton bloom might be detectable in individual bacterial populations. To conclude, our work opened a door to the future use of bacterioplankton as living sensors of environmental status, particularly with respect to phytoplankton blooms.

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